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Old January 10th, 2012, 01:14 AM   #1841
AlekseyVT
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In 2011 were began reconstruction works at the track walls of the stations "Tekhnologichesky Institut - 2", "Frunzenskaya", "Vyborgskaya", "Proletarskaya" and "Sennaya Ploshchad".

"Frunzenskaya" station ("Mikhail Frunze"; Line 2; opened on April 29, 1961) before renovation works, which were started in December 2010:

Битцевский панк

The station during renovation. The asphalt at the side platforms was replaced with granite:

USSR Man

The station during renovation. The ceramic tile will be replaced with marble:

mYm

"Tekhnologichesky Institut - 2" ("Institute of Technology - 2"; Line 2; opened on April 29, 1961) before renovation works, which were started in February 2011:

Битцевский панк

The station during renovation. The ceramic tile will be replaced with marble:

Nomernoy
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Old January 10th, 2012, 01:15 AM   #1842
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Station "Vyborgskaya" ("Vyborg"; Line 1; opened on April 22, 1975) before renovation works:

Битцевский панк

In August 2011 was started renovation of track walls:

USSR Man

Station "Proletarskaya" ("Proletarian"; Line 3; opened on July 10, 1981) before renovation works:

Битцевский панк

In November 2011 was started renovation of track walls:

Shudder

Station "Sennaya Ploshchad" ("Hay Square"; Line 2; opened on July 1, 1963) before renovation works:

Битцевский панк

In December 2011 was started renovation of track walls:

METRO-USSR
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Old January 10th, 2012, 01:16 AM   #1843
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Station "Moskovskie Vorota" ("Moscow Gate"; Line 2; opened on April 29, 1961) before renovation works:

Битцевский панк

In October 2011 at the side platforms was started replacement of asphalt surface with granite:

Urban


Битцевский панк
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Old January 10th, 2012, 01:16 AM   #1844
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Since June 1, 2010 till March 31, 2011 there was made replacement of the escalators and waterproofing works in the escalator tunnel of the station "Ploshchad Aleksandra Nevskogo-1" ("Alexander Nevsky Square-1"; Line 3; opened on November 3, 1967). The vestibule of this station was also renovated:

George Shuklin

Vestibule before renovation:

Битцевский панк

April 9, 2010:

karhu

March 31, 2011. Reopening of the vestibule:

Metroschemes


nau-spb


nau-spb


Metroschemes


Metroschemes

Among the other events of the last year are:
1) installation of the New Information Space (indices and Info/SOS columns) at the stations;
2) modernization of the rolling stock;
3) replacement and reconstruction of the old turnstiles;
4) etc.
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Old January 10th, 2012, 01:17 AM   #1845
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FURTHER DEVELOPMENT - 2012:

In 2010-2011 were opened only "ghost" stations in the existing Metro tunnels. In 2012 planned extension of the Metro network. In the second half of this year Line 5 planned to be extend on 3.3 km south with two stations - "Bukharestskaya" ("Bucharest") and "Mezhdunarodnaya" ("International"). The vestibules of both stations will be built into ground levels of the future trade stores.


Urbanrail

"BUKHARESTSKAYA":

"Bukharestskaya" ("Bucharest") is a future station on the Frunzensko-Primorskaya Line 5 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located at the intersection of the Bucharest street and Salov street, in the Volkovskoe Okrug, Frunzensky District.

The station is named for Bucharest street, which located nearby, although this name was disputable. The project name of the station was "Ulitsa Salova" ("Salov street"). In the end of March 2009 Valentina Matviyenko, who was Governor of St. Petersburg, supported the proposal to rename this station into "Metrostroyevskaya" ("Metro building"), because it was planned to open this station in the year of 70-anniversary of "Metrobuilding" company in St. Petersburg (2011). However, this idea was not realized.

In Soviet times, according to project of 1991, they planned to make "Bukharestskaya" station single-vaulted. But in 2007 it was decided to built this station according to the pylon type due to economical reasons. In 2004 there were also plans to built ground-level Metro segment south of "Volkovskaya" station. Stations "Bukharestskaya" and "Mezhdunarodnaya" planned to be ground-level, but this idea was not realized. Instead of this, they decided to return to the "traditional" deep-level methods of Metro constructions. In 1990s was built first tunnel between "Volkovskaya" and "Bukharestskaya" stations. In March 2010 was built second tunnel between these stations and began construction of the escalator tunnel. In November 2010 was finished construction of escalator tunnel

The station will be built with one exit. According to the local tradition of last time, vestibule of this station will be located into ground level of the future trade store "Continent". This trade store (total square - 74700 sq.m.) will be built by Adamant Holding. In particular, there will be auto parking (capacity - 640 cars) into the building of trade store.

The leader project of the "Bukharestskaya" station is architect Dmitry Boytsov. "Bukharestskaya" will be deep-level (depth - 62 meters) three-vaulted station of pylon type. There will be used national Romanian motives in the decoration of station - in the image of squat white stone walls and in the rhythm of the decorative plafond of the fixtures at the ceiling. The pylons will be faced with marble, the floor will be paved with granite. There will be mosaic inserts at the border of pylon walls and ceiling. In the end of central hall will be decorative mosaic smalt panel with the image of Romanian homestead (artist - Alexander Bystrov).


Link


Link


Link


tkspb

December 11, 2011:

Инженер


Инженер


Инженер


metro


metro


metro


Link

January 2012:

Link


Link
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Old January 10th, 2012, 01:20 AM   #1846
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"MEZHDUNARODNAYA":

"Mezhdunarodnaya" ("International") is a future southern terminus station on the Frunzensko-Primorskaya Line 5 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located at the intersection of the Bucharest street and Béla Kun street, in the Municipal Okrug #72, Frunzensky District.

The station got its name due to location in the area, where many streets were named in the honour of foreign cities and public figures of Eastern Central Europe and Finland (like Bucharest street, Béla Kun street, Prague street, Sofia street, Budapest street, Belgrade street, Turku street, Internationalists Park, etc). The project name of the station was "Ulitsa Bely Kuna" ("Béla Kun street").

The construction of this station was started in late-1980s. In 1990s was built first tunnel between "Volkovskaya" and "Mezhdunarodnaya" stations. The construction of escalator tunnel was started in December 2008 and was finished in December 2009. On October 3, 2010 was finished construction of the second tunnel.

The station will be built with one exit. According to the local tradition of last time, vestibule of this station will be located into ground level of the future trade store "Mezhdunarodny" ("International"). This trade store (total square - 46400 sq.m.) will be built by Adamant Holding. In particular, there will be auto parking (capacity - 328 cars) into the building of trade store.

The project leader of the "Mezhdunarodnaya" station is architect Nikolay Romashkin-Timanov. "Mezhdunarodnaya" will be deep-level (depth - 63 meters) three-vaulted station of column-wall type. The main theme of decoration is a Russian avant-garde and its influence on world culture. The arches and walls of the central hall will be faced with polyshed white marble, the columns - with brass, the track walls - with grey granite, while the floor will be paved with granite. In the end of central hall will be decorative mosaic smalt panel with the image of the famous Monument to the Third International, better known as the Tatlin's Tower.


tkspb


tkspb

December 19, 2011:

Инженер


Инженер


Инженер


metro


metro


metro

November 8, 2011:

Ignat Chernyaev


tankizt
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Old January 10th, 2012, 01:24 AM   #1847
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FURTHER DEVELOPMENT - 2013-2014:

However, after 2012 the pace of the extension of Metro network will be greatly decreased. Currently there is no going construction of the other Metro stations. The funding of Metro building is not enough (about 0.2-0.3 mln. USD). It's mean that the opening of the next stations can be postponed for few years. In 2013-2014 there will be only opening of the vestibules of the existing stations.


Urbanrail

"SPASSKAYA":

In 2013 planned to be open own vestibule of the station "Spasskaya" ("Saviour"; Line 4). This station was opened on March 7, 2009. It's part of the first in St. Petersburg three-way transfer station that also includes "Sennaya Ploshchad" (Line 2; opened on July 1, 1963) and "Sadovaya" (Line 5; opened on December 30, 1991) stations. The station does not have a ground-level vestibule or a connecting escalator. Passengers have to transfer to one of the connected station in order to exit to the city. After the opening of the own vestibule of the "Sretensky Boulevard" station in Moscow on May 31, 2011, "Spasskaya" remained only Russian Metro station with this singularity.

Station "Spasskaya" (2009):

Igor Vanin


Igor Vanin

Future exit to the city:

Igor Vanin


Igor Vanin

The construction of the vestibule and escalator tunnel began in February 2011 and planned to be finished in the first half of 2013:

karhu

December 13, 2011:



USSR Man
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Old January 10th, 2012, 01:25 AM   #1848
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"SPORTIVNAYA":

In 2014 there is planned to be open second exit of the station "Sportivnaya" ("Sportive"; Line 5; opened on September 15, 1997).

"Sportivnaya" is a station on the Line 5 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. The station was designed by Alexander Konstantinov, Alexander Bystrov and Andrey Larionov. It opened on September 15, 1997 as part of the Line 4. The station is located in close proximity to the Petrovskiy Stadium, the home stadium of the city's home team FC Zenit, and "Yubileyny" Sports Palace. "Sportivnaya" closes during and immediately after the team's home games, mostly due to apprehension over riot damage. The station is also located within walking distance of Peter and Paul Fortress.

"Sportivnaya" is Russia's first double-decked station with cross-platform transfer. The floors are connected by two staircases. The lower floor serves the southbound trains while the upper floor serves the northbound ones. The station was intended to provide transfer to Ring Line trains as soon as the said line opens.

The upper floor is linked to the station's only exit, which leads to south-eastern side of Petrogradsky Island. The lower floor will eventually house an entrance to a transfer corridor which would link the station to the exit on the north-eastern side of Vasilevsky Island. That exit is planned to be built. During its construction, will be built undeground tunnel under the Small Neva River. This tunnel will connect two vestibules. For the first time in Russian Metros, there will be used moving walkways for the linking of two vestibules.


metro


Михаил


metro

"Sportivnaya", upper tier:

Wikipedia

"Sportivnaya", lower tier:

osservatore-adriano
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Old January 10th, 2012, 01:27 AM   #1849
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FURTHER DEVELOPMENT - 2015 AND LATER:

After 2014, they plan to implement following projects:

1) first stage of the construction of new Krasnoselskaya-Kalininskaya Line 6 with six stations and Metro depot.


The Line 6 will be built through centre between south-western part of the city (Krasnoselsky District) and its north-eastern part (Kalininsky District). It will be located almost parallel to the Line 1, but will be have two interchange stations to this line. As result, passenger traffic at Line 1 should to be greatly decreased.

The first stage of the construction of Line 6 will be include six stations and Metro depot. Its design is complete, construction planned be started in October-November 2012.


Click to enlarge

I) "Obvodny Kanal - 2" ("Bypass Canal - 2") is a future station on the Krasnoselskaya-Kalininskaya Line 6 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. Its vestibule will be located at the embankment of Bypass Canal, near the Bus Terminal, in the Volkovskoe Okrug, Frunzensky District. It will be have interchange to the station "Obvodny Kanal" ("Bypass Canal"; opened on December 30, 2010) of Line 5.

The project leader of "Obvodny Kanal - 2" station is architect Pavel Malmalayev. "Obvodny Kanal - 2" will be deep-level three-vaulted station of column-wall type. It will be decorated in High-tech style. The pavilion will symbolize the escalator tunnel. This station will be located almost parallel to the existing "Obvodny Kanal" station of Line 5. The interchange between these station will be built via bridge over track ways.


Link


Link


Link


Link


Link


Link

II) "Borovaya" ("Pinewood") is a future station on the Krasnoselskaya-Kalininskaya Line 6 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located near the Pinewood street and "Pinewood" rail station, on the border of the Volkovskoe Okrug, Frunzensky District and Moskovskaya Zastava Okrug, Moskovsky District. The station will be built with two exits. Its first vestibule will be located near the rail station, its second vestibule - at the intersection of Ligovsky Avenue and Tosin street.

The architects of "Borovaya" station are Alexander Potekhin and Nikolay Romashkin-Timanov. "Borovaya" will be deep-level three-vaulted station of pylon type.


Link

III) "Chernigovskaya" ("Chernihiv") is a future station on the Krasnoselskaya-Kalininskaya Line 6 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. Its vestibule will be located near the Chernihiv street, in the Moskovskaya Zastava Okrug, Moskovsky District. It will be built with interchange to the station "Moskovskie Vorota" ("Moscow Gate"; opened on April 29, 1961) of Line 2.

The project leader of "Chernigovskaya" station is architect Dmitry Boytsov. "Chernigovskaya" will be deep-level three-vaulted station of pylon type.


Link

IV) "Bronevaya" is a future station on the Krasnoselskaya-Kalininskaya Line 6 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located near the rail station "Bronevaya", in the Novoizmaylovskoe Okrug, Moskovsky District.

The project leader of "Bronevaya" station is architect Dmitry Boytsov. "Bronevaya" will be deep-level three-vaulted station of column type.


Link


Link

V) "Putilovskaya" ("Nikolay Putilov") is a future station on the Krasnoselskaya-Kalininskaya Line 6 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. Its vestibule will be located near the Kirov Plant (which was known as Putilov Plant till 1934), in the Avtovo Okrug, Kirovsky District. It will be built with interchange to the station "Kirovsky Zavod" ("Kirov Plant"; opened on November 15, 1955) of Line 1.

The project leader of "Putilovskaya" station is architect Nikolay Romashkin-Timanov. "Putilovskaya" will be deep-level three-vaulted station of column-wall type.


Link

VI) "Yugo-Zapadnaya" ("South-Western") is a future southwestern terminus station on the Krasnoselskaya-Kalininskaya Line 6 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located at the intersection of Marshal Zhukov Avenue and Marshal Kazakov street, in the South-Western Municipal Okrug, Krasnoselsky District.

The project leader of "Yugo-Zapadnaya" station is architect Nikolay Romashkin-Timanov. "Yugo-Zapadnaya" will be deep-level three-vaulted station of pylon type.

VII) Metro depot "Krasnoselskoe".


Link
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Old January 10th, 2012, 01:29 AM   #1850
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2) southern extension of Line 5 with three stations - "Prospekt Slavy", "Dunayskaya" and "Shushary". Its designing at the final stage, construction should to be started in January-February 2013:


Click to enlarge

I) "Prospekt Slavy" ("Glory Avenue") is a future station on the Line 5 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. Its first vestibule will be located at the intersection of Glory Avenue and Bucharest street, in the Municipal Okrug #72, Frunzensky District. The location of the second vestibule is still not defined. "Prospekt Slavy" will be deep-level (60-65 meters) three-vaulted station of pylon type.


Link

II) "Dunayskaya" ("Danube") is a future station on the Line 5 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. Its vestibule will be located at the intersection of Danube Avenue and Bucharest street, in the Balkansky Okrug, Frunzensky District. "Dunayskaya" will be shallow (15-20 meters) single-vaulted station with two side platforms.


Link

III) "Shushary" is a future southern terminus station on the Line 5 of the Saint Petersburg Metro. It will be located in the Shushary industrial zone of the Shushary Okrug, Pushkinsky District. "Shushary" will be ground-level roofed station with two side platforms.

IV) Metro depot "Yuzhnoe" ("Southern").


Link

3) northwestern extension of Line 4 with the station "Teatralnaya" ("Theatre") near Mariinsky Theatre and later - with the "Bolshoy Prospekt" ("Greater Avenue"), "Shkiperskaya" ("Skipper") and "Morskoy Fasad" ("Marine Facade") stations on the Vasilevsky Island;
4) northern extension of Line 3 with stations "Novokrestovskaya", "Ulitsa Savushkina" ("Savushkin street"), "Yakhtennaya" ("Yacht") and "Zoopark" ("Zoo");
5) northern extension of Line 5 with station "Shuvalovsky Prospekt" ("Shuvalov Avenue") and interchange to the "Zoopark" ("Zoo") station of Line 2;
6) southeastern extension of Line 4 with station "Kudrovo".


Click to enlarge
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Old January 10th, 2012, 02:11 AM   #1851
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Any plans for renovating Pionerskaya? It seems they got rid of the bathroom tiles on the wall in recent years, but I don't know if the latest track wall material is much better.
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Old January 10th, 2012, 04:17 AM   #1852
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36) October 22, 1912 - Vladivostok:

In late-1912, 20 years after opening of the first tram network in Russian Empire, tram system was finally opened in the Asian part of country.

Vladivostok is Russia's largest port city on the Pacific Ocean and the administrative center of Primorsky Kray (Maritime Province). It is situated at the head of the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea. It is the home port of the Russian Pacific Fleet.

Early history

The history of Vladivostok can roughly be divided into the history of the territory where Vladivostok is located and into the history of the city per se. The territory on which modern Vladivostok is located had been part of many nations, such as the Mohe, Bohai Kingdom, Jīn Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, and various other Chinese dynasties. On Chinese maps of Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) it is called Yongmingcheng (literally "city of eternal light"). During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) it was visited by Chinese expeditions, and a relic of that time — a Chongning stela — is displayed in the local museum. The acquisition of Siberia by the Russian state and the subsequent Russian expansion to the Far East, brought the Russians into direct contact with the Chinese Qing Empire. The Nerchinsk Treaty of 1689 demarcating the borders of the two states gave all lands lying south of the Stanovoy Mountains, including Maritime Province, to the Qing Empire. The Pacific coast near Vladivostok was settled mainly by the Chinese and Manchus during the Imperial Chinese Qing dynasty period. Later on, as the Manchus banned Han Chinese from most of Manchuria including the Vladivostok area — it was only visited by "shēnzéi" (lit. either ginseng or sea cucumber thieves) who illegally entered the area seeking ginseng or sea cucumbers (ambiguous since both terms use the Chinese "shēn"). From this comes the current Chinese name for the city, meaning "Sea Cucumber Cliffs". A French whaler which is believed to have visited the Golden Horn Bay around 1852 discovered several huts of Chinese or Manchu fishermen.

However, with the weakening of the Qing Empire in the second half of the 19th century, Russia began its expansion into the area. In 1858 the towns of Khabarovsk and Blagoveshchensk were founded. On May 28, 1858, Russian Count Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, signed the Aigun Treaty with China, followed by the Beijing Treaty two years later (November 14, 1860). Qing China, which had just lost the Second Opium War against Great Britain and French Empire (1856-1860), was unable to defend the region. As a result of the two treaties the Sino-Russian border shifted south to the Amur and Ussuri Rivers; granting Russia full control of entire Maritime Province and the island of Sakhalin.

The naval outpost was founded in 1859 by Count Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, who named it on the model of Vladikavkaz, a Russian fortress in the Caucasus. In the summer of 1859 he visited the peninsula and the bay, which was somewhat similar to the Bay of the Golden Horn in Istanbul (Turkey), aboard the steam corvette "America". The peninsula was named Muravyov-Amursky in his honor, and the bay was named the Golden Horn Bay. The name Vladivostok loosely translates from Russian as "Overlord of the East", a name similar to Vladikavkaz which means "Overlord of the Caucasus".

On July 2, 1860 the military supply ship "Manchur", under the command of Captain-Lieutenant Alexey Shefner, called at the Golden Horn Bay to found an outpost called Vladivostok. Warrant officer Nikolay Komarov with 28 soldiers and two non-commissioned officers under his command were brought from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur by ship to construct the first buildings of the future city. They pitched a camp, selecting a place from where the entrance to the Golden Horn Bay was always visible. In 1862, under the leadership of Lieutenant Yevgeny Burachyok, the outpost of Vladivostok officially became a port. To encourage foreign trade, a Free Port status, or a Free Trade Status for imported goods, was established. On May 28, 1863 was born first child in Vladivostok (Yelena Podorozhkina). In 1864, the Command of the Southern Harbours was moved to Vladivostok from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. A year later a Shipbuilding Yard was established in Vladivostok and the first settlers from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur began arriving. Foreigners started visiting Vladivostok. In 1871 it was decided that the Naval Port, Military Governor's Residence, and the main base of the Siberian Military Flotilla were to be moved from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur to Vladivostok. The same year the Danish "Great Northern Telegraph Company" connected Vladivostok to Nagasaki and Shanghai by means of underwater International cable.

Vladivostok's first street was America street, which was named to commemorate the above-mentioned corvette "America" in 1871. Two years later it was renamed Svetlana street, in honor of the frigate "Svetlana", on which the Grand Duke Alexey Alexandrovich of Russia visited Vladivostok. At that time it consisted of a part of today's Svetlana street, from the Amur Bay to house #85. Its other parts were then considered as separate streets and had the names of 1st Port street, Afanasyev street, Crew street, etc. In 1878, 40% of over 4000 residents of Vladivostok were foreigners. This was reflected in the names of the young city streets, such as Korean street, Beijing street, Chinese street, etc. Their present names are Border street, Admiral Fokin street, and Ocean Avenue.

In 1879 the Russian Volunteer Fleet, with the help of the government, organized regular trips between Odessa, St. Petersburg, and Vladivostok. On May 10, 1880 Vladivostok was officially proclaimed a city, and a separate administrative unit, independent from Maritime Province. At that time the city population totalled 7300 people, which is twice as many as in 1878. The municipal coat of arms, representing the Siberian tiger, was adopted by Russian Emperor Alexander III on March 28, 1883. Three hotels operated in Vladivostok at that time, including "Moscow", "Vladivostok", and "Hotel de Louvre". In 1883, the Resettlement Administration was established in Vladivostok, and the steamships of the Russian Volunteer Fleet began a mass transport of peasants from European Russia to the Far East, where active settling had recently begun. Vladivostok became the main shipping center. This resulted in a greater increase in the city's significance. In 1888 the residence of the Governor of Maritime Province was moved from Khabarovsk to Vladivostok. In 1889 Vladivostok was proclaimed a Fortress, and two torpedo-boats, brought disassembled from the Black Sea, were launched.

In the 1880s, the cultural life in Vladivostok became more active, and a music school at the Siberian Fleet Depot was opened. In 1883, the first newspaper ("Vladivostok") began circulation. In 1884, the Society of the Amur Territory Study, headed by Fyodor Busse, was established. In 1887, the public Reading-Hall was opened in Vladivostok and the professional theater performed in Vladivostok for the first time. The city began to acquire modern amenities. The trees were planted along the main streets and 120 kerosene streetlamps were installed on the city streets. By the end of 1880s Vladivostok had approximately 600 wooden and more than 50 stone houses, some of them were two- and three-story buildings. The main urban buildings were grouped in the area of today's central square and the Sailors' Suburb — a territory from the Obyasneniya River as far as Haidamak tram stop. These figures are not large for a city which was about 30 years old. But considering the fact that it is located 10.000 km from the major cultural centers of the Russian Empire and that it took three to four months for the mail to arrive from those places, one can admire the persistence and stubbornness of the first settlers.

For communication between the central historical regions in the European part of Russian Empire and new territories in the Far East, state authorities began realization of the other great project - the same large as the country itself. Full-time construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway began in 1891 and was put into execution and overseen by Sergei Witte, who was then Finance Minister. On May 31, 1891, the future Russian Emperor Nicholas II personally opened and blessed the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway during his stop at Vladivostok, after visiting Japan at the end of his journey around the world. In 1893 regular traffic from Vladivostok to settlement of Nikolskoye (now Ussuriysk city) by rail began. In 1897 was opened railway Vladivostok-Khabarovsk. On July 14, 1903 was launched railway between Moscow and Vladivostok.

With the opening of the rail bridge across Amur River north of the Chinese border on October 18, 1916, there was a continuous railway from Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) to Vladivostok that remains to this day the world's longest railway line. The Trans-Siberian Railway is often associated with the main transcontinental Russian line that connects hundreds of large and small cities of the European and Asian parts of Russia. This is the longest railway in the world, and has been very important for the development of many remote Russian outlying districts. At 9288 kilometres (5772 miles), spanning a record seven time zones and taking eight days to complete the journey, it is the third-longest single continuous service in the world, after the Moscow–Pyongyang (10267 km, 6380 miles) and the Kyiv–Vladivostok (11085 km, 6888 miles) services, both of which also follow the Trans-Siberian for much of their routes.

In the 1890s, the shipping lines Kobe–Nagasaki–Vladivostok and Shanghai–Nagasaki–Vladivostok were opened. The population of Vladivostok was 28.9 thousands people in 1897 and 43.6 thousands people in 1906. In 1897, a new Commercial Port was opened in Vladivostok. In 1899, the first Far Eastern higher educational institution — the Oriental Institute — was established. Today it houses the main building of the Far Eastern State Technical University (FESTU). The city's economy was given a boost in 1903, with the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which connected Vladivostok to Moscow and Europe. From 1899 through 1909 four theaters were opened in Vladivostok. They were the Pacific Ocean Theater, the Public Theater (which followed the creative methods of Moscow Artistic Theater), the Golden Horn Theater and the Pushkin Theater (where the guest performance by Vera Kommisarzhevskaya, a famous Russian actress, took place). In 1912 "The Theater and Music" Newspaper was first published.

During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905 a Japanese squadron of warships attacked the city with over a hundred shots. The Vladivostok Cruiser Group participated in the war, blocking the approaches to the besieged Port-Arthur. During the first Russian Revolution of 1905-1907 the city was involved in the conflict. In the beginning of 1906 it was even governed by the rebelling military units. In the period between the two Russian Revolutions (1907–1917) were constructed Rail Terminal of Russian architecture of the 17th century style, the city power station, two girls' schools, the School of Commerce, and "Versailles" Hotel. In 1909, for example, the port was visited by a total of 795 steamships, including 477 foreign ships. There were approximately 3000 shops and stores in Vladivostok. In 1913, the local publishing houses issued 61 different books in Russian and foreign languages.

1910s, general view of Vladivostok:

etoretro

1910s, Commercial Quay:

etoretro

1910s, Admiral Quay:

etoretro
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Old January 10th, 2012, 04:19 AM   #1853
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Electric tram network

The first attempt of organisation of urban transport in Vladivostok was been made in 1885. Geologist Wittenburg organized operation of omnibus, which was driven by two horses. The cost of trip was 15 kopecks or 0.15 rubles. However, the forces of the two horses were not enough for the work on hilly terrain of Vladivostok. The using of third horse was unprofitable, and this kind of transport was cancelled.

The first urban power station in Vladivostok was put into operation in early-1880s in "Mine Town" district. Its capacity was only few kW, it was used for illumination of the warehouses of mines and other military equipment. Two other power station were built by trading house "Kunst & Albers" (1893) and firm "Churin and Co" (1897). These power stations were used for illumination of the own trade stores. Its capacity was also few kW, that was very low for such city as Vladivostok.

In the end of 19th century development of Vladivostok was slowed because Russian government paid main attention on development of more southern ports such as Port-Arthur and Dalny. During this period, city authorities were not able to find money for construction of power station for electric lighting, installation of telephone lines and electric tram network. However, after fall of Port-Arthur and defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, temps of Vladivostok's development began to increase.

In October 1901 trading house "Crompton & Schwabe" proposed to the city authorities to built power station on the rights of concession for 35-years period. City Council decided to built power station near Nameless Battery at Prison street (now Western street) and tram depot at Meadow street. According to original proposals, they planned to use two-cars trams: motor tramcars - for European passengers and trailers for Asians. For determination of the cost and more correct variant of construction, were made inquiries in Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinoslav (now Dnipropetrovsk), Sebastopol, Yelisavetgrad (now Kirovohrad), Warsaw, Perm, Riga, Kiyiv and Hakodate. As result, power station in Perm was taken as example and tram systems in St. Petersburg and Yekaterinoslav were taken for comparison of cost. Tram enterprises were profitable. For this reason, city authorities decided not to sign the concession contract or to sign it for short period. On April 4, 1906 City Council took decision to build electrical installations, power station, electric lighting and tram network on the own money.

On October 4, 1906 it was decided to sell cottage plots between Sedanka and Ocean rail stations for replenishment of city funds for construction of tram. On October 28, 1907 in the City Council received a common statement of the trading house "Kunst & Albers", "Universal Сompany of Electricity" and the community of "Siemens-Schuckertwerke" plants (Berlin) about formation of a financial group for the construction of electric lighting and tram system. The planned cost of construction was 646.195 rubles. The solemn ceremony of laying of tramline was held on July 11, 1908 at Svetlana street, near the Square of Gennady Nevelskoy. According to old tradition, in this place was dug small pit, in which were thrown few coins. After this, they put the brass plate with the inscription about beginning of laying into pit, and filled it with concrete.

Before beginning of works, till August 29, 1908 Svetlana street was paved with cobblestones on all its length. The rails were laid into pavement. The first section of tramline from Meadow street to Pond street (now Peter the Great street) was built in 1908. However, in August 1908 financial group refused from construction due to disagreement with conditions, and City Council was forced to find other companies for this purpose. Construction of tram network was postponed due to lack of money. Finally, in the beginning of 1911 it was declared that for construction will be taken credit from Russo-Chinese Bank. On October 30, 1910 technical committee informed City Council about beginning of studying of project for construction of power station, which was made by engineer S. Tokarzhevsky. On March 1, 1911 this project was approved. The planned capacity of station was 1.35 MW. City Council declared contest for construction of power station, which was won by "Universal Сompany of Electricity", which proposed to built this station for more lower cost.

On January 15, 1911 entrepreneur H. Zimmermann and military engineer A. Gromadzsky proposed own project for construction of tram network. Their project was approved on April 10, 1911. The contract was signed on June 9, 1911. According to this contract, city authorities had rights to purchase tram enterprise for 150.000 rubles since 5 years after opening of tram network. The capital of tram enterprise was 540.000 rubles. The power station was launched on March 2, 1912. The cost of its construction was about 564.000 rubles: the loans from Russo-Chinese Bank - 140.700 rubles; the loans from "Universal Сompany of Electricity" - 343.364 rubles; the own city funds - 80.000 rubles.

The owners of Vladivostok tram was Belgian "First Russian East-Siberian tram company", which was established for managment of Vladivostok tram. The first tramline (1 meter wide) was built from Rail Terminal to the Meadow street; along the Svetlana street - the main magistral of the city. This two-track line was opened on October 22, 1912, at 3:00pm. The first tram driver was Vilensky, the first controller was Krivenko. The passengers of first tramcar were city authorities and their wifes. The first tram depot was located at Meadow street. The first route was same: Vladivostok Rail Terminal - Aleut street - Svetlana street - Meadow street. Its length was 5.5 km.

It was first electric tramline in the Asian part of Russian Empire (to the east of Ural Region). Vladivostok Tram was also one of the two electric tram systems, which were opened in the Asian part of Russian Empire before the October Revolution (the second was opened few months later in Toshkent, Uzbekistan, Central Asia). It was the only one electric tram system in the Asian part of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic prior to 1929, when was opened tram system in Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg).

During first day, tram operation was free for passengers. The regular tram operation began since November 9, 1912. Originally there were 5 wooden biaxial tramcars, which were manufactured in Belgium. By November 1912, in Vladivostok arrived five more tramcars from Germany. Four more tramcars were delivered in 1914. All tramcars were divided into two classes, its capacity was 40 persons (24 seats and 16 standing). The first-class was for rich people, second-class - for poor people (and, mostly, for Koreans and Chinese). Travel prices were depended from the distance of journey and were no cheap. For comparsion, travel prices at the trip within tram section from Meadow street to the Maltsev street (now Captain Shefner street) were 6 kopecks or 0.06 rubles (first-class) and 5 kopecks or 0.05 rubles (second-class). The travel prices for the trip from Meadow street to the Poltava street (now Lazo street) were 12 and 10 kopecks, travel prices by whole route were 20 and 15 kopecks respectively. The average monthly salary of workers was 38 rubles, so workers and other poor people preferred walking.

In 1915-1917 was built 3.1-km second two-track tramline - from Rail Terminal to the cargo rail station "1st River"; along the Chinese street (now Ocean Avenue). The second route was the same: Vladivostok Rail Terminal - Aleut street - Svetlana street - Chinese street (now Ocean Avenue) - Ocean Avenue - 1st River. The second tram depot was built in the end of this line. The total length of tram network increased till 8.6 km, there were 14 tramcars.

By 1917 Vladivostok had become a scientific, cultural, and industrial center, the largest in the Far East and Eastern Siberia. Many newspapers and magazines were published, and the first theater buildings of stone were constructed in the city. After the October Revolution of 1917 a new stage of life began in Vladivostok, as it did in the rest of the country.

Following the Russian October Revolution of 1917, the new Bolshevik government signed a separate peace with Germany. The collapse of the Russian front presented a tremendous problem to the Entente powers, since not only did it allow Germany to shift troops and war material from its eastern front to the west, but it also made it possible for Germany to secure the huge stockpiles of supplies that had been accumulating at Murmansk, Arkhangelsk and Vladivostok. In addition, the 50.000 man Czechoslovak Legion, fighting on the side of the Allies, was now trapped behind enemy-lines, and was attempting to fight its way out through the east to Vladivostok along the Bolshevik-held Trans-Siberian Railway. Faced with these concerns, Great Britain and France decided to militarily intervene in the Russian Civil War against the Bolshevik government.

They had three objectives that they hoped to achieve:
1) prevent the Allied war material stockpiles in Russia from falling into German or Bolshevik hands;
2) rescue the Czechoslovak Legion and return it to the European front;
3) resurrect the Eastern Front by installing a White Russian backed government.

The Japanese were initially asked by the French in 1917, to intervene in Russia but declined the request. However, the army general staff later came to view the Tsarist collapse as an opportunity to free Japan from any future threat from Russia by detaching Siberia and forming an independent buffer state. The Japanese government in the beginning refused to undertake such an expedition and it was not until the following year that events were set in motion that led to a change in this policy.

On December 31, 1917 Japanese, British, and American cruisers entered the Golden Horn Bay. In April 1918, the Japanese firm "Isido" was attacked in Vladivostok. After this incident the Japanese and British Commands landed their troops under the pretext of protecting their citizens. The Entente soon expanded the goals of their Siberian Intervention and sent many more troops. Canada sent 4000 troops, with headquarters in the Pushkin Theatre and barracks at Second River and Stoat Bay. The supporters of the Bolsheviks conducted a partisan struggle in the city. From 1916 through 1918 the population of Vladivostok increased from 97.6 to 130.2 thousands people, as a result of the opponents of the new regime settling in the port city while retreating to the East together with the White Army. Among them were many Russian cultural workers.

The joint Allied intervention began in August 1918. The Japanese entered through Vladivostok and points along the Manchurian border with more than 70.000 Japanese troops being involved. The deployment of a large force for a rescue expedition made the Allies wary of Japanese intentions. On September 5, the Japanese linked up with the vanguard of the Czechoslovak Legion. A few days later the British, Italian and French contingents joined the Czechoslovaks in an effort to re-establish the east Front beyond the Urals; as a result the European allies trekked westwards. The Japanese, with their own objectives in mind, refused to proceed west of Lake Baikal and stayed behind. The Americans, suspicious of Japanese intentions, also stayed behind to keep an eye on the Japanese. By November, the Japanese occupied all ports and major towns in the Russian Maritime Provinces and in Siberia east of the city of Chita.

With the end of the war in Europe the allies decided to support the anti-Bolshevik White forces and effectively intervene in the Russian Civil War. Allied army support was given to Admiral Alexander Kolchak's White government at Omsk while the Japanese continued to support Kolchak's rivals in Grigory Semyonov and Ivan Kalmykov. In the Summer of 1919, the White regime in Siberia collapsed, after the capture and execution of Admiral Kolchak by the Red Army. In June 1920, the Americans, British and the remaining allied coalition partners withdrew from Vladivostok. The evacuation of the Czechoslovak Legion was also carried out in the same year. However, the Japanese decided to stay, primarily due to fears of the spread of communism so close to Japan, and the Japanese controlled Korea and Manchuria. The Japanese were forced to sign the Gongota Agreement of 1920 in order to evacuate their troops peacefully from Transbaikal. It meant an unavoidable end to Grigory Semyonov's regime in October 1920.

The Japanese army provided military support to the Japanese-backed Provisional Priamur Government based in Vladivostok against the Moscow-backed Far Eastern Republic. The continued Japanese presence concerned the United States, which suspected that Japan had territorial designs on Siberia and the Russian Far East. Subjected to intense diplomatic pressure by the United States and Great Britain, and facing increasing domestic opposition due to the economic and human cost, the administration of Prime Minister Kato Tomosaburo withdrew the Japanese forces in October 1922.

1910s. General view of Vladivostok:

etoretro

1910s. Monument to Russian navigator Gennady Nevelskoy (1813-1876):

etoretro

1910s, Svetlana street near monument to Gennady Nevelskoy:

etoretro

July 11, 1908. Solemn laying of tramline near monument to Gennady Nevelskoy in Vladivostok:

sbchf
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Old January 10th, 2012, 04:20 AM   #1854
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Central power station at Prison street (now Western street) in Vladivostok:

primts

Tram driver Vigursky and controller Krivenko, who ruled first tramcar in Vladivostok:

sbchf

1914, Map of Vladivostok:
Red line - first tramline (Rail Terminal - Meadow street; along the Svetlana street);
Green line - future second tramline (Rail Terminal - 1st River; along the Chinese street and Ocean Avenue):

Link
CLICKABLE
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Old January 10th, 2012, 04:21 AM   #1855
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1918, Vladivostok Rail Terminal - the terminus station of Trans-Siberian Railway. It was decorated in same style as Yaroslavl Rail Terminal in Moscow, where Trans-Siberian Railway begins:

link

1910s, Rail Terminal Square:

Олег Сывороткин

1910s, crossing of Svetlana street and Chinese street (now Ocean Avenue):

Владивостокский борец за трамвай

1910s, Chinese street (now Ocean Avenue):

Олег Сывороткин
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Old January 10th, 2012, 04:21 AM   #1856
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1918. Chinese street (now Ocean Avenue):

Link

1918. Chinese street (now Ocean Avenue). Published in United States for American soldiers:

Schlangenbad

1918, Chinese street (now Ocean Avenue):

statehistory
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Old January 10th, 2012, 04:22 AM   #1857
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1910s, crossing of Svetlana street and Aleut street:

ymtram.

1910s, Svetlana street:

Стасюк

1910s, Svetlana street. The building of Siberian Military Flotilla:

sbchf

1910s, Svetlana street:

DANIIL

1919-1920, Meadow street:

Владивостокский борец за трамвай
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Old January 10th, 2012, 04:23 AM   #1858
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1910s, State Bank at Svetlana street:

etoretro

1910s, Svetlana street near Peter the Great street:

sbchf

1910s, tram route №1 at Svetlana street:

DANIIL

1900s, Svetlana street:

etoretro

1900s, crossing of Svetlana street and Missionary street (now Lazo street):

etoretro

1910s, Svetlana street:

etoretro
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Old January 10th, 2012, 04:23 AM   #1859
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1910s, Svetlana street:

Олег Сывороткин

1910s, Svetlana street:

ymtram.

1910s, Svetlana street:

statehistory

1918, Svetlana street:

statehistory

1918, Svetlana street:

link

1918, Bolshevik Parade outside of Rail Terminal:

etoretro

1918, Bolshevik manifestation:

link
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Old January 10th, 2012, 04:25 AM   #1860
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The arrival of Entente troops - good episode from the Soviet movie "Intervention" (1968, director - Gennady Poloka):


"The landing of the Japanese army - Welcomed by every nation at Vladivostok" (sic) - A 1919 Japanese propaganda poster depicting the occupation of Vladivostok by Japan. Note the Russian flag is in a French pattern:

Wikipedia

1918, general view of Vladivostok:

statehistory

1918, American ship in Vladivostok:

statehistory

1918. Fragment of the big photo of Allied troops in Vladivostok:

statehistory

1918, banket of Allies:

statehistory
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