daily menu » rate the banner | guess the city | one on oneforums map | privacy policy | DMCA | news magazine | posting guidelines

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > Infrastructure and Mobility Forums > Railways

Railways (Inter)national commuter and freight trains



Global Announcement

As a general reminder, please respect others and respect copyrights. Go here to familiarize yourself with our posting policy.


Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old May 11th, 2012, 06:06 PM   #301
Sopomon
Hideous and malformed
 
Sopomon's Avatar
 
Join Date: Oct 2010
Posts: 870
Likes (Received): 153

Quote:
Originally Posted by k.k.jetcar View Post
One thing is they are trying to be as discreet as they can, apparently they are trying to have as little government meddling as possible, likely both to shield it from attacks from anti-rail conservatives and tea party types, and to prevent involvement of union and special interests who would demand onerous (to the bottom line) conditions (i.e. buy America regulations, minority contractor quotas, gold plating to benefit politically connected contractors, etc.). As far as avoiding extensive government involvement, Texas certainly would be one of the better places to attempt such a venture. JR Central likely learned much from the Florida debacle, and decided that the American penchant for political football infrastructure spending and myopic short term thinking was too much of a bother.

Thanks for that!
In that case, I really hope that as it is private sector funded, they are left to do as they please, and through Japanese Shinkansen building standards, they can also bypass those useless FRA regulations.
And yes, lets hope the Buy America and Union crowds don't ruin this proposal too.
__________________
And he kicked so many rosebushes at her that eventually, Sasuke turned into a log.
Sopomon no está en línea   Reply With Quote

Sponsored Links
Old May 12th, 2012, 01:55 AM   #302
trainrover
:-x
 
trainrover's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2006
Posts: 5,787
Likes (Received): 738

Is there a version of this video in English?

Quote:
Originally Posted by neuromancer View Post
__________________
.
hee hee
.
trainrover no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 12th, 2012, 08:24 AM   #303
k.k.jetcar
Registered User
 
k.k.jetcar's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2008
Location: Sapporo
Posts: 1,811
Likes (Received): 452


Here is a summary I made posted on another forum:

summary
Based on the 700 series, with a top speed of 270km/h. Introduced in 2005 to JR West service this is the T5 trainset.

No. 7 car:
Basically a regular car no different from revenue cars, this is used for staff meetings as well as training sessions. There is a flat panel screen which displays the view from the cab.

No. 6 car:
Contains the "high pressure room". Directs current from the catenary via the pantograph to measuring/analysis instruments.

No. 5 car:
Contains the observation bubble for pantograph/catenary inspection at speed, also a break room. Backup batteries to preserve data in case of power outage on the railway line.
*at 4:34- fiber optic cables to transfer data through the train

No. 4 car:
The floor is higher on this car to house the track measuring equipment. These are connected with the bogies to measure curvature, distortion(slack?), and elevation deviations. How are these measurements done at high speed? Using lasers. The lasers are calibrated at a certain base point, and the deviations from this point is recorded. The data is collected and displayed on monitors. Data is then sent to a central Shinkansen information facility and any necessary track maintenance is then scheduled if required.
k.k.jetcar no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 12th, 2012, 08:34 PM   #304
trainrover
:-x
 
trainrover's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2006
Posts: 5,787
Likes (Received): 738

Thank you, although I was hoping some narration in English, explaining what's being filmed.

Does the following picture indeed reveal part of the first series of Dr. Yellow, 921-1, because the third bullet (point) here mentions some sleeping car having been converted:



Clickable...
__________________
.
hee hee
.
trainrover no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 14th, 2012, 02:22 PM   #305
k.k.jetcar
Registered User
 
k.k.jetcar's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2008
Location: Sapporo
Posts: 1,811
Likes (Received): 452

Quote:
Thank you, although I was hoping some narration in English, explaining what's being filmed.

Does the following picture indeed reveal part of the first series of Dr. Yellow, 921-1, because the third bullet (point) here mentions some sleeping car having been converted
Yes, the conversion was from a maronefu 29 type, which was a heavyweight design with clerestory roof and 3 axle bogies. I assume it was only a portion of the underframe that was utilized, with a new carbody and specialized bogies fitted. The vehicle was towed by a diesel locomotive, the 911 type:
http://js3vxw.cocolog-nifty.com/phot...9000__0017.jpg
k.k.jetcar no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 15th, 2012, 08:26 AM   #306
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Shin-Kurobe Station simulations

Some rudimentary simulations of this new station on the Hokuriku Shinkansen extension. Compact and efficient.

They officially broke ground on this station yesterday (2012.05.13), which will be followed soon by Toyama Prefecture’s two other stations on the Shinkansen extension at Toyama Station and Shin-Takaoka Station. Platform length is 300 m (12 cars), another hint (together with the platform extensions at Nagano Station) that we are looking at longer trains as part of the extension. This particular station will cost approx. ¥2 billion, with work on the two-story steel structure taking place FY2012, followed by interior finishing in FY2013.

Video 1: Overview of Shin-Kurobe Station



Video 2: Exiting from the Shinkansen platforms to the bus and taxi area



Video 3: Touring around the transit plaza at the east exit of the new station



Video 4: Transferring from Shinkansen to the Toyama Chihō Railroad



Video 5: Moving from the west-side parking lot to the station



Video 6: A look at the transit plaza / rotary, with sheltered waiting area

__________________
San Francisco
Japan 2013; Japan 2011
: Tōkyō I, II, III (Kamakura), IV (Yokohama), V; Ōsaka I (+Kyōto +Kōbe), II (Kyōto), III (Nara); Hiroshima; Fukuoka; Nagasaki; Kita-Kyushu + Shimonoseki; Nikkō
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 15th, 2012, 08:27 AM   #307
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Interior design of Hokuriku Shinkansen’s Kanazawa Station finalized
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/ish...OYT8T01131.htm

Quote:
 2014年度末の開業を予定している北陸新幹線金沢駅の内装デザインが11日、決まった。金沢市の「駅舎デザイン等検討懇話会」(会長=水野一郎・金沢工業大副学長)で、駅舎を施工する独立行政法人「鉄道・運輸機構」大阪支社が、石川の伝統工芸品を活用した案を提示し、了承された。

 鉄道・運輸機構が提示した案では、新幹線プラットホームの柱上部に金箔(きんぱく)をあしらったり、中2階コンコース待合室の内壁に、能登ヒバや九谷焼のレリーフを埋め込んだりするなど、石川の伝統工芸品や地元産材を多く活用。「石川らしさ、金沢らしさが感じられる駅舎」という市の要望を取り入れたデザインを示した。

 ただ、提示された案では、伝統工芸品は本物ではなく、模造品を使用するとしており、委員からは「本物を使うべき」という意見が出された。

 鉄道・運輸機構は「予算やほかの駅との公平性の観点から模造品とした。地元が提供してくれるならば、本物を使える」としており、今後、市は県や業界団体などとも協議し、伝統工芸品の提供を検討していく。

柱の上部に金箔ふうの塗装パネルをあしらったプラットホーム


新幹線の改札口。ガラス製の柱には和紙を挟み込む
An interior design scheme for the Hokuriku Shinkansen station at Kanazawa Station was finalized on 2012.05.11, making use of Ishikawa Prefecture’s traditional crafts, including “gold-leaf” decorative elements at the top of the columns supporting the station roof. The walls of the waiting room inside the second-floor concourse will feature wooden paneling (hiba cypress from the Noto region, nonetheless), with small display cases inside for local crafts such as Kutani porcelain, a style popular in southern Ishikawa Prefecture. Columns and walls will feature glass paneling displaying washi (Japanese paper) and gold leaf.
__________________
San Francisco
Japan 2013; Japan 2011
: Tōkyō I, II, III (Kamakura), IV (Yokohama), V; Ōsaka I (+Kyōto +Kōbe), II (Kyōto), III (Nara); Hiroshima; Fukuoka; Nagasaki; Kita-Kyushu + Shimonoseki; Nikkō
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 17th, 2012, 08:43 AM   #308
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

A bit gruesome...

300 series



E1 series

__________________
San Francisco
Japan 2013; Japan 2011
: Tōkyō I, II, III (Kamakura), IV (Yokohama), V; Ōsaka I (+Kyōto +Kōbe), II (Kyōto), III (Nara); Hiroshima; Fukuoka; Nagasaki; Kita-Kyushu + Shimonoseki; Nikkō
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 17th, 2012, 03:20 PM   #309
Silver Swordsman
Registered User
 
Join Date: Nov 2011
Posts: 371
Likes (Received): 101

^ I think I just died a little inside.
__________________
My Virtual-Model Railroad: High Speed Rail in RCT3
Project Anniversary: Click Here
Silver Swordsman no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 20th, 2012, 06:24 AM   #310
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Japanese firms may be in good position to win Indonesia HSR contract
http://www.asahi.com/business/topics...205180270.html

Quote:
 経済成長と同時に新興国の高速鉄道建設が各地で計画されているが、インドネシアでも高速鉄道建設の機運が高まりつつある。

 インドネシアでは交通インフラの余裕がなくなってきており、空港・空路の能力をすでに大きく超えている。鉄道建設は航空輸送から鉄道輸送への分散を図る目的もある。

 複数の路線計画が存在するが、最大の案件は人口の集中する首都ジャカルタと東ジャワ州の州都スラバヤを結ぶ北部を走る高速鉄道。現在、特急で10時間かかる同区間の所要時間を3時間以下に短縮させる。

 日本政府などが行った現地調査によれば総延長685キロ、総事業費約2.1兆円という大規模なものになるという。現地紙の報道によれば、政府は2022年の運行開始に意欲を燃やしている。ジャワ島だけで人口は日本を超える1.2億人。需要は相当に高く、日本の新幹線輸出にも期待がかかる。

 日本は、18年開業を目指す総工費5千億円とされるジャカルタ―バンドン間144キロの計画に深く関与しており、「本命」と言えるジャカルタ―スラバヤ間の受注にも優位にあると見てよい。日本の鉄道技術は各地への積極的な輸出を狙うが、インドネシアは有力な採用候補となっている。

 無論、巨額の建設費など課題は多いが、インドネシアにおける鉄道インフラの整備は待ったなし。受注すれば日本経済にとっても好材料で、メディアをにぎわすことになりそうだ。
This is for a proposed high-speed line between Jakarta and Surabaya along the northern portion of Java. Currently, trains take 10 hours to make this trip, but the new line would reduce this to under 3 hours. A study by the Japanese government called for a 685 km line, with a total project cost of ¥2.1 trillion. The Indonesian government hopes to open the line by 2022. Japan is also deeply involved in the 144 km Jakarta ‒ Bandung line scheduled to open in 2018 (total construction cost of ¥500 billion), which likely puts it in a good position to win the Jakarta ‒ Surabaya line.
__________________
San Francisco
Japan 2013; Japan 2011
: Tōkyō I, II, III (Kamakura), IV (Yokohama), V; Ōsaka I (+Kyōto +Kōbe), II (Kyōto), III (Nara); Hiroshima; Fukuoka; Nagasaki; Kita-Kyushu + Shimonoseki; Nikkō
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 24th, 2012, 09:28 AM   #311
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Japanese government markets Shinkansen for Malaysia – Singapore HSR
http://www.nikkei.com/news/category/...3E2E2E2;av=ALL

Quote:
 政府はマレーシアとシンガポールが進める高速鉄道の構想について、日本の新幹線技術を採用するよう両国政府に打診した。車両から運行管理まで含むパッケージでの事業計画も検討する。政府は日本企業を後押しするために今年度中に採算の見通しなどを独自に調べる方針。アジア経済の発展を日本の成長に取り込んでいく政府の戦略に沿って官民が連携する。

 野田内閣の意向を踏まえて民主党の仙谷由人政調会長代行が5月上旬に両国を訪れ、マレーシアのナジブ首相、シンガポールのゴー・チョクトン前首相らに伝えた。

 構想によると、高速鉄道は約400キロあるクアラルンプール―シンガポールの両首都間を約1時間半で結ぶ。従来のマレー鉄道では約7時間かかる。クアラルンプール首都圏の人口は700万人強、シンガポールは500万人強で、東南アジア経済の大動脈となる。実現は早くても2020年ごろの見通しだ。

 1時間弱で両都市を結ぶ格安航空と時間、価格の両面で競合するが、搭乗手続きや都心から都心への正味の所要時間を考えれば十分な需要が見込めるという。マレー半島を縦断して両国を訪れる観光への期待もある。

 すでにドイツのシーメンスやカナダのボンバルディアなどの車両メーカーが参入に意欲を示しているという。

 政府は東日本旅客鉄道(JR東日本)や東海旅客鉄道(JR東海)などが受注する場合、国際協力銀行の融資などで支援を検討する。国土交通省は近く採算を調べる企業を公募し、年度内に調査を終える予定だ。

 日本は成長戦略の一環として新幹線の輸出を目指すが競争は厳しい。

 ベトナム政府は首都ハノイと南部のホーチミンを結ぶ南北高速鉄道に日本の新幹線を採用する方向だ。ただ、採算性の問題からベトナム議会が当初案を否決したため修正を検討し、着工は遅れる見通しだ。インドでは高速鉄道を検討する6路線のうち2路線の事前調査を日本勢が実施するが、残りの4路線の事前調査は欧米勢が落札した。
This is for the proposed 400 km route that would link Kuala Lumpur and Singapore in about 1.5 hrs. The Japanese government will perform its own independent feasibility analysis of the project this fiscal year to assist Japanese firms looking to participate, and will consider the possibility of providing financing through the Japan Bank for International Cooperation should JR Central or JR East win orders for the project.
__________________
San Francisco
Japan 2013; Japan 2011
: Tōkyō I, II, III (Kamakura), IV (Yokohama), V; Ōsaka I (+Kyōto +Kōbe), II (Kyōto), III (Nara); Hiroshima; Fukuoka; Nagasaki; Kita-Kyushu + Shimonoseki; Nikkō
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 24th, 2012, 07:41 PM   #312
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Kawasaki, Tōshiba to provide additional trains for Taiwan HSR
http://www.khi.co.jp/news/detail/20120524_1.html

Quote:
川崎重工業株式会社(以下「川崎重工」)と株式会社東芝 (以下「東芝」)は、台湾の台湾高速鉄路股份有限公司(以下「台湾高鉄」)から高速鉄道車両4編成48両を共同で受注しました。なお、契約は川崎重工と東芝の台湾現地法人のコンソーシアムが本日行います。

本契約では、プロジェクト全体の統括、車体および台車の設計、製造を川崎重工が行い、電気機器、空調、車上無線システムの設計、供給を東芝が行います。最初の編成の納入は2012年12月を予定しており、以降、2015年11月にかけて順次納入する予定です。また、本契約には最大4編成48両までのオプションがついています。

台湾高鉄は、2007年1月の営業運転開始以来、乗客数が増加しており、それに伴い列車本数を増発しています。さらに、2015年に開通を予定している台北駅~南港駅間(5.7キロ)の路線延長などに対応するため、本契約の車両を導入します。

川崎重工および東芝は、2000年12月に台湾高速鉄道機電システムプロジェクトを受注した「台湾新幹線株式会社」の日本連合メンバーとして、700T型車両360両の設計、供給を担当しました。700T型電車は、東海道・山陽新幹線で運行されている700系新幹線電車をベースに台湾高鉄向けに設計変更をしたもので、高速鉄道として日本で初めて海外輸出した車両となります。
今回の受注は、700T型電車と同型式の発注であり、開業以来の同型式電車の安定した運行実績及び信頼性が評価され、受注に至ったものです。

川崎重工および東芝は、台湾高鉄における供給実績をさらに積み重ねることで、それぞれの高速鉄道ビジネスのグローバル展開拡大につなげていきます。

今回受注した車両の概要
  1. 車種
    電動車9両、制御車2両、付随車1両
    普通車11両、ビジネスクラス1両、定員989人/編成
  2. 寸法
    先頭車:27m(長さ)×3.38m(幅)×3.65m(屋根高さ)
    中間車:25m(長さ)×3.38m(幅)×3.65m(屋根高さ)
  3. 車体材質
    アルミ合金
  4. 電気方式
    空中架線方式(交流25,000V、60Hz単相)
  5. 最高営業運転速度
    時速300キロメートル/時
This should be the add-on order we heard about a while ago, but we finally a few more details now… This is a small order for 48 cars (four 12-car trains) to be supplied by a Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Tōshiba, with an option for an additional four trains. Kawasaki will handle car body and bogie design and production, as well as project management, while Tōshiba will be responsible for designing and supplying the electrical equipment, AC, and on-board wireless systems. These cars are intended for the 5.7 km extension of the Taiwan HSR line from Taipei to Nangang, scheduled for 2015, plus the three other intermediate stations opening the same year.

Both Kawasaki and Tōshiba were part of the seven-firm Japanese consortium that won the ¥332 billion contract in 2000 to design and supply 360 cars for the line’s opening in 2007, and these will be the same 700T series design. The contract value has not been released, but is estimated at approx. ¥19 billion.
__________________
San Francisco
Japan 2013; Japan 2011
: Tōkyō I, II, III (Kamakura), IV (Yokohama), V; Ōsaka I (+Kyōto +Kōbe), II (Kyōto), III (Nara); Hiroshima; Fukuoka; Nagasaki; Kita-Kyushu + Shimonoseki; Nikkō
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 24th, 2012, 06:46 AM   #313
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Tōhoku Shinkansen celebrates 30th anniversary

On 2012.06.23, the Tōhoku Shinkansen—together with the first trains on the line, the 200 series—celebrated its 30th anniversary.

Asahi Shimbun video report.
Morioka looked like a circus...



Special JR East anniversary CM.
Love the transition at the end from old to new...

__________________
San Francisco
Japan 2013; Japan 2011
: Tōkyō I, II, III (Kamakura), IV (Yokohama), V; Ōsaka I (+Kyōto +Kōbe), II (Kyōto), III (Nara); Hiroshima; Fukuoka; Nagasaki; Kita-Kyushu + Shimonoseki; Nikkō
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old June 30th, 2012, 10:48 PM   #314
ukiyo
スーパーモデレーターSuper Moderator
 
ukiyo's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2008
Location: 大阪府 Ōsaka
Posts: 7,240
Likes (Received): 10695

Shinkansen to get 3 new sections
Quote:
The government approved construction of three new sections of track on Friday as part of a plan to extend Shinkansen services.

Transport minister Yuichiro Hata approved the construction after he and his deputies concluded that all prerequisites for the projects have been fulfilled.

Construction costs are expected to be about 3.04 trillion yen.

"The Shinkansen is key for a sustainable and vibrant nation," the minister said.

The extensions will link Sapporo with Shinhakodate on the northern Hokkaido Line, Kanazawa with Tsuruga on the northwestern Hokuriku Line, and Isahaya with Nagasaki on the southern Kyushu Line.

1 trillion yen of the cost will be covered by fees charged to Japan Railway group companies for the use of tracks and other facilities on existing Shinkansen lines. The rest will be financed by the central and municipal governments.

The new routes will open in fiscal 2022 on the Kyushu Line, fiscal 2025 on the Hokuriku Line and fiscal 2035 on the Hokkaido Line.

Construction of lines usually takes about 10 years. However, the government drew up the plans with the aim of reducing annual costs.

Once the new routes are open, it will take five hours and one minute between Tokyo and Sapporo, three hours and eight minutes between Tokyo and Tsuruga, and one hour and 20 minutes between Hakata and Nagasaki.

Trains capable of running on different rail gauges will be introduced on the Hokuriku and Kyushu lines.

http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/T120629006237.htm
__________________
🌸My Pictures: Tokyo, Tokyo 2, Kobe, Kamakura, Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, Himeji, Atlanta, China
🌸Japan Forum 日本フォーラム please stop by!
🌸浮世🌸
ukiyo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 1st, 2012, 08:28 AM   #315
Hegemonic
Registered User
 
Hegemonic's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2010
Posts: 936
Likes (Received): 366

How many additional kilometres of track will this be?
Hegemonic no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 1st, 2012, 08:34 AM   #316
gramercy
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2008
Posts: 4,823
Likes (Received): 799

shin-hakodate - sapporo: 211 km
kanazawa - tsuruga: 121 km
isahaya - nagasaki: 21 km
353 km
gramercy no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 1st, 2012, 09:36 AM   #317
Hegemonic
Registered User
 
Hegemonic's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2010
Posts: 936
Likes (Received): 366

Quote:
Originally Posted by gramercy View Post
shin-hakodate - sapporo: 211 km
kanazawa - tsuruga: 121 km
isahaya - nagasaki: 21 km
353 km
Very nice, thank you.
Hegemonic no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 1st, 2012, 08:57 PM   #318
ukiyo
スーパーモデレーターSuper Moderator
 
ukiyo's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2008
Location: 大阪府 Ōsaka
Posts: 7,240
Likes (Received): 10695

Quote:
Originally Posted by Hegemonic View Post
How many additional kilometres of track will this be?
Yep 353 km...there was already 422.6 km u/c before this so as of 2012 there is now 775.6 km of shinkansen u/c.
__________________
🌸My Pictures: Tokyo, Tokyo 2, Kobe, Kamakura, Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, Himeji, Atlanta, China
🌸Japan Forum 日本フォーラム please stop by!
🌸浮世🌸
ukiyo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 1st, 2012, 08:59 PM   #319
gramercy
BANNED
 
Join Date: Dec 2008
Posts: 4,823
Likes (Received): 799

with a target date 23 years away you can hardly call it "u/c", they are taking their sweet time..
gramercy no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 2nd, 2012, 12:19 PM   #320
ukiyo
スーパーモデレーターSuper Moderator
 
ukiyo's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2008
Location: 大阪府 Ōsaka
Posts: 7,240
Likes (Received): 10695

Under construction simply means "process of construction is taking place"..so the lines are "under construction"..regardless of how long they will take. Also certain sections will open as they progress.
__________________
🌸My Pictures: Tokyo, Tokyo 2, Kobe, Kamakura, Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, Himeji, Atlanta, China
🌸Japan Forum 日本フォーラム please stop by!
🌸浮世🌸
ukiyo no está en línea   Reply With Quote


Reply

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Related topics on SkyscraperCity


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 12:25 AM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.11 Beta 4
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, vBulletin Solutions Inc.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

vBulletin Optimisation provided by vB Optimise (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us | privacy policy | DMCA policy

tech management by Sysprosium