daily menu » rate the banner | guess the city | one on oneforums map | privacy policy | DMCA | news magazine | posting guidelines

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > Infrastructure and Mobility Forums > Railways

Railways (Inter)national commuter and freight trains



Global Announcement

As a general reminder, please respect others and respect copyrights. Go here to familiarize yourself with our posting policy.


Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old March 15th, 2011, 07:56 AM   #661
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

This seems like such trivial news at this point, but anyways…

JR East surveyed damage to the Tōhoku Shinkansen (Tōkyō to Shin-Aomori):
  • Catenary severed at ~200 locations
  • Catenary masts bent at ~250 locations
  • Columns supporting aerial structures damaged at ~90 locations
  • Track damaged at ~20 locations
  • Ceilings fell at 5 stations including Sendai
  • Bridge girder displacement at 2 locations
  • No aerial structure or tunnel collapses
This presumably includes the minor damage discovered on the section up to Nasu‒Shiobara which has already been repaired.

http://www.asahi.com/special/10005/TKY201103140522.html
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote

Sponsored Links
Old March 15th, 2011, 10:42 AM   #662
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Found this on YouTube...

TBS news report (2011.03.14) inside JR Sendai Station.
Some damage, but the building seems to have held up comparatively well otherwise and there were no reported injuries as a result of the earthquake.

quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 15th, 2011, 01:51 PM   #663
Nephasto
Enlightened user
 
Nephasto's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2004
Location: Porto
Posts: 5,802
Likes (Received): 71

Quote:
Originally Posted by k.k.jetcar View Post

Yes, some may be able to run at 260km/h, but others which have to share tunnel space with freights will be restricted.
Restricted to which speed? 200km/h? 150km/h?
Do you know at what speed current trains travel through the tunnel?
__________________
Long live rail freight!!
Nephasto no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 15th, 2011, 02:48 PM   #664
riles28
train
 
Join Date: Jul 2008
Posts: 2,161
Likes (Received): 38




Damage of quake in some local lines



Passenger are forced to disembark the 217 train because of the quake and tsunami.

Last edited by riles28; March 15th, 2011 at 02:54 PM.
riles28 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 15th, 2011, 03:17 PM   #665
riles28
train
 
Join Date: Jul 2008
Posts: 2,161
Likes (Received): 38




I'm just curios now on what happen to the right of way like in this picture and also the depot yard of all shinkansen like in the picture where the E6 is parked.
riles28 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 08:53 AM   #666
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Quote:
Originally Posted by riles28 View Post
I'm just curios now on what happen to the right of way like in this picture and also the depot yard of all shinkansen like in the picture where the E6 is parked.
Shinkansen General Rolling Stock Center in Rifu Town (north of Sendai) is probably OK in terms of flooding... Other parts of Rifu suffered damage I believe, but the Shinkansen yard is further inland. There's probably just some damage to catenary and tracks, and maybe some of the buildings.
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 08:54 AM   #667
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Quote:
Originally Posted by Nephasto View Post
Restricted to which speed?
140 km/h
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 08:55 AM   #668
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Looks like aftershocks and new earthquakes are still affecting rail-based transport…

A M6 earthquake in eastern Shizuoka at 22:31 on March 15 caused a minor power outage on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen between Shinagawa and Hamamatsu, but power was restored at 22:50. Service on some sections was restored shortly thereafter, but restoration of service along the full length of the line came at 24:52. For passengers who missed the last train as a result of the disruption, JR Central opened up trains at Tōkyō and Nagoya as lodging for the night.

TBS news report (2011.02.16):



With more explosions at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, it appears that a handful of people, mostly families with children, are choosing to leave Tōkyō for the time being and head to western Japan. JR Central reported that a few outbound Tōkaidō Shinkansen trains were over 100% of capacity, a rarity on a regular weekday schedule. FYI, they are already operating a regular schedule and are not curtailing service as a result of the blackouts, etc.
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 09:12 AM   #669
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Final segment of Kyūshū Shinkansen’s Kagoshima route opens: Part 1

While festivities and special events were cancelled in light of the earthquake and tsunami that ravaged the Kantō and Tōhoku regions, the last section of the Kyūshū Shinkansen’s Kagoshima route, between Hakata and Shin-Yatsushiro, opened for service on 2011.03.12 as originally planned. In addition, new through-service between the San’yō and Kyūshū Shinkansen debuted on the Sakura and Mizuho trains, making travel both within Kyūshū and between Kyūshū and the Chūgoku or Kansai regions much easier by train. The mood was less celebratory and more solemn, but here’s a few videos for now to recap the second major Shinkansen event of this year.

Mizuho 600, the first direct-service train to Kagoshima Chūō, departs Shin-Ōsaka (2011.03.12).
Loving all the full-color LCD / LED signage.


Source: karibajct on YouTube

Mizuho 600, the first direct-service train to Shin-Ōsaka, departs Kagoshima Chūō (2011.03.12):


Source: ayokoi on YouTube

Unit S2 arriving at Shin-Kōbe, on Sakura 543 bound for Kagoshima Chūō (2011.03.12):


Source: pikarail on YouTube

Some clips of trains passing the new stations along the line (Shin-Tamana, Shin-Ōmuta, Chikugo Funagoya, Kurume, and Shin-Tosu).
I’m really digging the new N700 units… Makes the JR Central units look bland by comparison.


Source: earlgreyv3 on YouTube

According to JR Kyūshū, ridership on the Kumamoto – Hakata section of the line was approx. 64,000 for the first three days of service, a 21% year-over-year increase when limited express trains served this route. Ridership on the Kumamoto – Kagoshima Chūō section was approx. 40,000, a 61% year-over-year increase. So far, seats have been filled to 52% of capacity on Mizuho and Sakura trains running direct-service to / from Shin-Ōsaka and 30% on Sakura and Tsubame trains running only within Kyūshū. However, this is likely due to tsunami warnings that disrupted zairaisen service and the events on Friday and over the weekend that dampened people’s desires to go anywhere.

More to come later, eventually…
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 09:13 AM   #670
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Relay Tsubame service ends

With the opening of the full length of the Kyūshū Shinkansen on 2011.03.12, the Relay Tsubame limited express that was the “missing link” in the Kyūshū Shinkansen between Hakata and Shin-Yatsushiro ended service on 2011.03.11.

The service began on 2004.03.13 in conjunction with the opening of the first section of the Kagoshima route of the Kyūshū Shinkansen between Shin-Yatsushiro and Kagoshima Chūō and, excepting the mini-Shinkansen, was Japan’s first cross-platform transfer between Shinkansen and zairaisen (traditionally, the two have been segregated in terms of station design). The uncanny dark grey 787 series trains used on the Relay Tsubame are still being used on other services including the Ariake, Kaiō, and Kirameki, and starting 2011.03.12, saw their debut in regular service on many other JR Kyūshū limited expresses including the Kamome, Nichirin, Hyūga, and Kirishima, replacing the 485 series units on these services.

The last Relay Tsubame departure and arrival at Shin-Yatsushiro Station (2011.03.11):


Source: RYOUTA69 on YouTube

Railfan tribute to the service:


Source: STEAMLOCOMOTIVEFAN on YouTube

The cross-platform transfer at Shin-Yatsushiro:


Source: ayokoi on YouTube
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 09:14 AM   #671
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

JR Kyūshū 485 series units retire from regular service

With the opening of the full length of the Kyūshū Shinkansen on 2011.03.12, there was some major fleet reshuffling, including the removal of JR Kyūshū’s colorful 485 series trains from regular service on 2011.03.11. However, on 2011.03.12, the 485 series continued to operate on at least a few runs… The earthquake and subsequent tsunami delayed Shinkansen services on the Tōkaidō / San’yō Shinkansen on 2011.03.11, which likely subsequently delayed the transfer of 787 series units from the Relay Tsubame to replace these runs.

An impressive railfan PV compilation on JR Kyūshū’s 485 series trains:
Source: chibizu2004 on YouTube

Vol. 9 “Crossing the Mountain Pass”



Vol. 10. “Time Limit”
There’s quite a few paint scheme variations on these units.



The rest are here:

Vol. 1 “Red Express” pt. 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eP_4Ip-QqpA&hd=1
Vol. 2 “Kirishima & Hyūga”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDUV30N6U1c&hd=1
Vol. 3 “Kirishima Express”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6AF8yWSj-g&hd=1
Vol. 4 “JNR colors” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=&5wROjtZzQaU&hd=1
Vol. 5 “Last Year 2010”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2OyZ_XMef_A&hd=1
Vol. 6 “Kirishima & Kirishima”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xqOD46a0Gnk&hd=1
Vol. 7 “Red Express” pt. 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mPBR-guFReE&hd=1
Vol. 8 “Kirishima Express” pt. 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkeaBxikWsk&hd=1

In other news out of Kyūshū in the latest schedule revisions, the Dream Nichirin—JR Kyūshū’s only overnight train service following the termination of the Fuji / Hayabusa in March 2009 and JR’s only seat-only (no berths) overnight train service—was discontinued. The Dream Nichirin was not only an overnight service between Fukuoka (Hakata), Kita-Kyūshū (Kokura), Ōita, and Miyazaki, but also served as the first and last services of the day on the Hakata – Kokura – Ōita route and Nobeoka – Miyazaki (Minami-Miyazaki, Miyazaki Airport) routes.
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 09:17 AM   #672
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Raichō service ends

Service on the Raichō (“Ptarmigan”; lit. “thunderbird”) limited express linking the Kansai and Hokuriku regions, a steadfast name among passengers for almost half a century, ended on 2011.03.11. The service began in 1964 (same year as the Tōkaidō Shinkansen), and in its first incarnation connected Ōsaka and Toyama via Maibara in 4 hours, 45 minutes. During its heyday in 1988, the service featured 20 roundtrips a day, carrying 8,000,000 passengers annually.

Starting with the introduction of the similar Thunderbird services in 1997, Raichō trains, sporting the characteristic cream and wine red paint scheme of the Japanese National Railways (JNR), saw their role gradually diminish until there was only one roundtrip a day starting March 2010. With lots of empty seats on weekday trips, JR West announced in December 2010 that it would discontinue the Raichō. The service will be consolidated under the Thunderbird name operating on the same route, operated with 681 and 683 series units, but the Raichō name will disappear.

The last run was Raichō 33, departing Ōsaka at 17:12 and arriving at Kanazawa at 20:20. There were fans gathered at stations up and down the JR Kyōto Line (Tōkaidō Line), Kosei Line, and Hokuriku Main Line to catch a final glimpse.

asahi.com video of the last train departing Kanazawa after completing the final regular revenue service Raichō run. The special festivities at Kanazawa to celebrate the retirement of the Raichō name were cancelled following news of the earthquake and tsunami.



The Raichō, cruising through snow country on the Hokuriku Main Line:
Source: hellokt21 on YouTube





Window view on a 489 series between Kanazawa and Ōsaka. This isn’t the exact train nor the exact service as the Raichō, but travels along the same route.
Source: syaso on YouTube

Part 1: Kanazawa to Komatsu http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H4ktZ8l7MCA&hd=1
Part 2: Komatsu to Kaga Onsen http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=67vAtRgZToY&hd=1
Part 3: Kaga Onsen to Awara Onsen http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OmxKj_7xvio&hd=1
Part 4: Awara Onsen to Fukui http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_MUWUwQc7PE&hd=1
Part 5: Fukui to Sabae http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lHhv4kg5fgo&hd=1
Part 6: Sakae to Takefu http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0o44y_EDuPw&hd=1
Part 7: Takefu to Tsuruga http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e7Ayir0Pb44&hd=1
Part 8: Tsuruga to Kyōto http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HqQ_qutnGwQ&hd=1
Part 9: Kyōto to Shin-Ōsaka http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EvCGGgKspbM&hd=1
Part 10: Shin-Ōsaka to Ōsaka http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mXP6CEicWEI&hd=1
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 09:18 AM   #673
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

JR West 287 series enters service: Part 1

As part of JR West’s service changes on 2011.03.12, the new 287 series EMUs debuted in revenue service on the Kita-Kinki Big X network limited expresses including the Kinosaki and the new Kōnotori (formerly the Kita-Kinki). The first batch contains seven 4-car units and six 3-car units (46 cars total), replacing aging 183 series trains. JR West later announced that there would be another batch of six 6-car trains and five 3-car trains (51 cars total) for the Kuroshio. Special events originally planned for the new units were cancelled after the earthquake and tsunami in northeastern Japan.

Hashidate 3 / Maizuru 3 departs JR Kyōto Station in 4+3 configuration, bound for Ama-no-Hashidate / Higashi-Maizuru (2011.03.12).


Source: JRwestkannsai on YouTube

Passing by a new 189 series DMU at Yōka Station on the San’in Main Line (2011.03.12).


Source: karibajct on YouTube

Window view inside Kōnotori 8 from Ōsaka to Shin-Ōsaka (2011.03.12).


Source: airportITM on YouTube

Test train in 4+3 configuration uncouples at Ayabe Station on the San’in Main Line (2011.03.06).
These new units aren’t mind-blowing, for sure, but I’m really liking them.


Source: nimo5 on YouTube
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 09:19 AM   #674
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

JR West 287 series enters service: Part 2

Picture set:
Source: http://blogs.yahoo.co.jp/mcoo2005moka/

















quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 09:25 AM   #675
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Fukui Station elevation

I posted about the work for the Hokuriku Shinkansen viaduct at Fukui Station a few days ago, but now let’s take a tour at the newly-elevated zairaisen station and tracks.

The ground-level zairaisen tracks and station were replaced with an elevated five-track station. In total, approx. 3.3 km of the JR Hokuriku Line and approx. 2.7 km of the Echizen Railway (local private railway) will be elevated at the cost of ¥58.3 billion. The JR zairaisen part of the elevated station opened on 2005.04.18.
Source: http://saitoshika.blog119.fc2.com/



Underneath the elevated tracks on the south side, opposite the station faregates, is Prism Fukui, a large station retail zone with restaurants, souvenir shops, and a drugstore.



From Prism Fukui, looking at the station concourse and ticketing area. Overhead is an information board / advertising disply using plasma screen units.



Mezzanine level after passing through the faregates.



Platform level. Station is completely covered by a canopy to protect against snow.



“Breadloaf” 419 series waiting at the platform.



Kanazawa and Sapporo Stations both feature large, continuous canopies, but this one seems to be noticeably brighter.



These new skylights help natural light penetrate down onto the platforms. This is a new design created after complete-canopy designs left the platform areas slightly too dim at Kanazawa and Sapporo Stations even during midday.



The station is officially five tracks, but it’s really more like a four-track station + two island platforms and a half-bay platform shown here for the Etsumi-Hoku Line (Kuzuryū Line).



Thunderbird limited express stopped at the platform. The Thunderbird connects Fukui to Kyōto and Ōsaka.



Overall, an impressive station for a comparatively small city.
quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 09:27 AM   #676
quashlo
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jun 2008
Posts: 14,835
Likes (Received): 3215

Toyama Station elevation construction update

A recent (2011.02) update on the ongoing construction at Toyama Station to elevate the zairaisen tracks and build new tracks for the Hokuriku Shinkansen, scheduled to open in 2014. Approx. 1.8 km of the JR Hokuriku Line / Takayama Line and 1.0 km of the Toyama Chihō Railroad (local private railway) will be elevated. Total cost of the project (excl. Shinkansen tracks) is ¥25 billion.
Source: http://saitoshika.blog119.fc2.com/

All the tracks, platforms, and other station facilities are new and temporary construction. The original ground level tracks and platforms have already been removed to allow for construction of the new elevated station.



Beautiful shot with the Hida Mountains in the background. The tracks bow out quite a bit for the construction site.





Preparing to set up another crawler crane?
Also some rebar cages for columns.



Looking in the opposite direction, west towards Kanazawa.



Zoom-in on the Jinzū River crossing. The Shinkansen bridge being constructed on the left will be another extradosed bridge like the Nagano Shinkansen’s Yashiro Bridge and the new Sannai-Maruyama Bridge on the Shin-Aomori extension of the Tōhoku Shinkansen.

quashlo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 01:00 PM   #677
Nephasto
Enlightened user
 
Nephasto's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2004
Location: Porto
Posts: 5,802
Likes (Received): 71

Quote:
Originally Posted by quashlo View Post
140 km/h
That's really low.
I was expecting something more like 200km/h.
In Europe high speed trains cross with freight trains cross at 200km/h or more.

Quote:
Originally Posted by quashlo View Post
Final segment of Kyūshū Shinkansen’s Kagoshima route opens: Part 1

While festivities and special events were cancelled in light of the earthquake and tsunami that ravaged the Kantō and Tōhoku regions, the last section of the Kyūshū Shinkansen’s Kagoshima route, between Hakata and Shin-Yatsushiro, opened for service on 2011.03.12 as originally planned. In addition, new through-service between the San’yō and Kyūshū Shinkansen debuted on the Sakura and Mizuho trains, making travel both within Kyūshū and between Kyūshū and the Chūgoku or Kansai regions much easier by train. The mood was less celebratory and more solemn, but here’s a few videos for now to recap the second major Shinkansen event of this year.

Mizuho 600, the first direct-service train to Kagoshima Chūō, departs Shin-Ōsaka (2011.03.12).
Loving all the full-color LCD / LED signage.


Source: karibajct on YouTube

Mizuho 600, the first direct-service train to Shin-Ōsaka, departs Kagoshima Chūō (2011.03.12):


Source: ayokoi on YouTube

Unit S2 arriving at Shin-Kōbe, on Sakura 543 bound for Kagoshima Chūō (2011.03.12):


Source: pikarail on YouTube

Some clips of trains passing the new stations along the line (Shin-Tamana, Shin-Ōmuta, Chikugo Funagoya, Kurume, and Shin-Tosu).
I’m really digging the new N700 units… Makes the JR Central units look bland by comparison.


Source: earlgreyv3 on YouTube

According to JR Kyūshū, ridership on the Kumamoto – Hakata section of the line was approx. 64,000 for the first three days of service, a 21% year-over-year increase when limited express trains served this route. Ridership on the Kumamoto – Kagoshima Chūō section was approx. 40,000, a 61% year-over-year increase. So far, seats have been filled to 52% of capacity on Mizuho and Sakura trains running direct-service to / from Shin-Ōsaka and 30% on Sakura and Tsubame trains running only within Kyūshū. However, this is likely due to tsunami warnings that disrupted zairaisen service and the events on Friday and over the weekend that dampened people’s desires to go anywhere.

More to come later, eventually…
It appears that in this new shinkansen extension station have only 2 tracks, with no passing tracks in the middle (not served by platforms).
What they use to enable trains to pass fast is platform doors, which prevents passengers from approaching the lines.
__________________
Long live rail freight!!
Nephasto no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 01:39 PM   #678
Coccodrillo
Moderator
 
Join Date: Sep 2005
Location: Switzerland
Posts: 7,199
Likes (Received): 766

Quote:
Originally Posted by Nephasto View Post
That's really low.
I was expecting something more like 200km/h.
In Europe high speed trains cross with freight trains cross at 200km/h or more.
In European tunnels with a lenght similar to the Seikan (the Channel tunnel and the Gotthard base tunnel) all passengers trains are limited to 160 km/h to increase capacity for freight (in the Gotthard base tunnel one passenger train per hour may run at 200 km/h, but it is not sure and the other trains would not exceed 160).
__________________
1.6.2016: Basistunnel!

für Güter die Bahn ~ pour vos marchandises le rail ~ chi dice merci dice ferrovia
Coccodrillo no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 02:16 PM   #679
Nephasto
Enlightened user
 
Nephasto's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2004
Location: Porto
Posts: 5,802
Likes (Received): 71

Ok, but I was under the impression that this speed reduction was due to aerodynamical problems when trains crossed, not to allow greater capacity for freight trains.

Is the problem capacity or other problem?
__________________
Long live rail freight!!
Nephasto no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 16th, 2011, 07:15 PM   #680
Coccodrillo
Moderator
 
Join Date: Sep 2005
Location: Switzerland
Posts: 7,199
Likes (Received): 766

It's for both reasons, capacity and aerodynamic problems. These two european tunnels have two single track tubes, while the Seikan has one double track tube (beside other service/rescue tunnels), so european trains don't cross each other. But running in a tunnel create problems with pressure, and is more expensive (the Channel tunnel has regularly spaced small tunnels conencting the two tubes to equilibrate/relief pressure).

The Seikan tunnel however have much less traffic: 5 million tonnes and 2 million passengers (for Wikipedia), versus around 17 and 4 respectivelay for the existing Gotthard railway (realistic predictions for the new tunnel are around 20-30 for freight and 6-8 for passengers), while the Channel tunnel has many shuttle trains for road vehicles running in it (giving on average 8-10 trains per hour per direction of all types, passengers, freight and shuttles). So capacity may not be the main reason of speed limits throught the Seikan tunnel.
__________________
1.6.2016: Basistunnel!

für Güter die Bahn ~ pour vos marchandises le rail ~ chi dice merci dice ferrovia
Coccodrillo no está en línea   Reply With Quote


Reply

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Related topics on SkyscraperCity


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 09:34 AM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.11 Beta 4
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, vBulletin Solutions Inc.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

vBulletin Optimisation provided by vB Optimise (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us | privacy policy | DMCA policy

tech management by Sysprosium