daily menu » rate the banner | guess the city | one on oneforums map | privacy policy | DMCA | news magazine | posting guidelines

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > Infrastructure and Mobility Forums > Highways & Autobahns

Highways & Autobahns All about automobility



Global Announcement

As a general reminder, please respect others and respect copyrights. Go here to familiarize yourself with our posting policy.


Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old February 13th, 2017, 04:27 PM   #35581
winnipeg
Registered User
 
winnipeg's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2014
Location: Arad
Posts: 664
Likes (Received): 206

Quote:
Originally Posted by Suburbanist View Post
The police could simply use thermal scanners (which are rather cheap these days) while driving around neighborhoods, and do the same on any cold winter night without snow.
But to get what? Push people to buy weed from well organised criminals networks instead of growing their own?

For me the whole "weed-fighting" is a non sens the best example is France where everything linked to weed is totaly illegal but we are still the first European country in term of consumption, and you can find weed everywhere some places are even considered as a "drive", you come with your car ans you get the weed in few seconds...
winnipeg no está en línea   Reply With Quote

Sponsored Links
Old February 13th, 2017, 04:34 PM   #35582
GROBIN
Conducteur infatigable
 
GROBIN's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2011
Location: Francilien délocalisé, issu de la diversité
Posts: 712
Likes (Received): 1607

Quote:
Originally Posted by ChrisZwolle View Post
Snow is the police's best friend to locate illegal cannabis growing. They are the only houses with no snow on it

Usually these people grow cannabis on a larger scale, consuming a large amount of illegally tapped electricity.

Last year I had a ceiling leakage and the police came immediately because it is often a sign of illegal cannabis growing in the apartment above (there was none though).

This is also the best way to know whether your roof is well insulated, which doesn't seem to be the case here
I wonder how does real estate insulation look like in the Netherlands? Is it as bad as in France or the UK?
__________________
Everyone smiles in the same language.
Self-called tolerant people tend to be tolerant only with people with similar opinions & call others "retards".


Been Drove Rode my bike Lived:
A AND AUS B BIH BY CZ D E EST ET F FIN GB H HR I IL L LT LV MAL MC PL RI SGP SK SLO T TN USA UA YV

"Richtgeschwindigkeit" should be the default system in all EU motorways & expressways & lane indiscipline should be harshly fought! Down with radars on motorways!
GROBIN no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 04:39 PM   #35583
ChrisZwolle
Road user
 
ChrisZwolle's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2006
Location: Zwolle
Posts: 43,607
Likes (Received): 19391

It strongly depends on the age of the building. Recent buildings are very well insulated (to the point that indoor air quality becomes poor due to lack of ventilation & fresh air), while older buildings are poorly insulated. I remember a 1950s house where you could just look through the roof tiles in the attic. The inside of the windows even ice over in winter.
ChrisZwolle está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 04:56 PM   #35584
Suburbanist
on the road
 
Suburbanist's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: the rain capital of Europe
Posts: 27,534
Likes (Received): 21241

Quote:
Originally Posted by winnipeg View Post
But to get what? Push people to buy weed from well organised criminals networks instead of growing their own?

For me the whole "weed-fighting" is a non sens the best example is France where everything linked to weed is totaly illegal but we are still the first European country in term of consumption, and you can find weed everywhere some places are even considered as a "drive", you come with your car ans you get the weed in few seconds...
I am in favor of legalization of most drugs including all softer ones (marijuana, ecstasy, LSD etc). I am think they are products best avoided like tobacco or sugary soda.

This being said, it is very dangerous to have homemade greenhouses growing weed with illegal power supply. It is an enormous fire hazard. For that reason these operations should be prosecuted by police. It is like storing liquid fuel or fireworks in your row house.
__________________
YIMBY - Yes, in my backyard!
Suburbanist está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 05:00 PM   #35585
GROBIN
Conducteur infatigable
 
GROBIN's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2011
Location: Francilien délocalisé, issu de la diversité
Posts: 712
Likes (Received): 1607


In France new buildings are also very well insulated. Before they allow people to live in there, they make the "blowing door" (in French "porte soufflante"). If too much air escapes the building, it must be corrected ASAP and the client doesn't have to pay.
But buildings up to 2010 are usually very badly insulated, if at all.

Here in Lithuania, they've started insulating old buildings very late comparing to Central Europe (PL, CZ, SK, H ...). Nevertheless, from my experience, the worst commieblocks are not the ones from the Khrushchov times but the ones from the end of the 1980s in terms of insulation!
__________________
Everyone smiles in the same language.
Self-called tolerant people tend to be tolerant only with people with similar opinions & call others "retards".


Been Drove Rode my bike Lived:
A AND AUS B BIH BY CZ D E EST ET F FIN GB H HR I IL L LT LV MAL MC PL RI SGP SK SLO T TN USA UA YV

"Richtgeschwindigkeit" should be the default system in all EU motorways & expressways & lane indiscipline should be harshly fought! Down with radars on motorways!
GROBIN no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 07:57 PM   #35586
ChrisZwolle
Road user
 
ChrisZwolle's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2006
Location: Zwolle
Posts: 43,607
Likes (Received): 19391

Quote:
Originally Posted by GROBIN View Post
3 identical OUB's for 3 different countries' tolls: ViaToll (Poland), BelToll (Belarus), Télépéage (France). Good luck in finding any differences!
I believe the future is in sticker transponders. They do not require batteries. This SunPass in Florida can be purchased for $ 4.99 but I've also seen toll road agencies handing them out for free.

ChrisZwolle está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 08:31 PM   #35587
italystf
Registered User
 
Join Date: Aug 2011
Posts: 6,457
Likes (Received): 2185

Quote:
Originally Posted by winnipeg View Post
But to get what? Push people to buy weed from well organised criminals networks instead of growing their own?

For me the whole "weed-fighting" is a non sens the best example is France where everything linked to weed is totaly illegal but we are still the first European country in term of consumption, and you can find weed everywhere some places are even considered as a "drive", you come with your car ans you get the weed in few seconds...
People who grow dozen of plants at home with heating/lighting facilities working with stolen electricity are suppliers of well organised criminals networks. Those who grow their own weed at home have one or two plants at most.
__________________
“The transponder’s personalised signal would be picked up when the car passed through an intersection, and then relayed to a central computer which would calculate the charge according to the intersection and the time of day and add it to the car’s bill” - Nobel Economics Prize winner William Vickrey, proposing a system of electronic tolling for the Washington metropolitan area, 1959
In real life, electronic toll collection was first introduced in Bergen, Norway in 1986, and well into the 21th century many countries still struggle to implement it.
italystf no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 08:59 PM   #35588
Kpc21
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2008
Location: Łódź
Posts: 18,377
Likes (Received): 6779

Talking about the car insurances.

Poland. Opel Corsa B from 1993. 1200 ccm. Only the obligatory insurance (for the cases when I damage someone's car in an accident).

The insurance for the following year, paid 2 weeks ago, cost 588 zł (140 euro).
For the previous year, it was 370 zł (85 euro).

The car insurance prices in Poland have risen very much within the last year. In my case - 60% increase.

The insurance companies claim that it's because there was no price rise for a very long time.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Tenjac View Post
- luxury tax (paid for cars less than 10 years old) 250 kn
Wow. Our government wants to introduce extra taxes on old cars and you have a totally opposite situation

The reason is environment protection and air pollution. Our air is the worst in the EU, and this is supposed to be a way of fighting with this problem. Even though, the main reason for that is that coal is still dominant in heating here. And there is also many people using things they shouldn't use for that as a fuel for heating.

But the topic, unnoticed by most people in the past, became very popular this year (the air pollution goes extreme this winter because there is almost no wind) and it's likely the government will finally do something with it. There are already cities and regions planning to ban using coal for heating.

How is it with the heating systems in your countries (I am especially talking about countries having "proper" winters with temperatures below 0 degrees or, at least, below 10 degrees)? When someone lives in a single-family house, which fuel is the most popular? Coal, oil, LPG gas/natural gas? How many small towns and suburbs have natural gas networks?
Kpc21 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 09:32 PM   #35589
Suburbanist
on the road
 
Suburbanist's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2009
Location: the rain capital of Europe
Posts: 27,534
Likes (Received): 21241

Quote:
Originally Posted by Kpc21 View Post
How is it with the heating systems in your countries (I am especially talking about countries having "proper" winters with temperatures below 0 degrees or, at least, below 10 degrees)? When someone lives in a single-family house, which fuel is the most popular? Coal, oil, LPG gas/natural gas? How many small towns and suburbs have natural gas networks?
Gas is the most common heating fuel in the Netherlands. Most Dutch single-detached houses are connected to the gas networks, there are pipelines all over the country.

There are long-term plans to change heating to electricity or district heating, as gas reserves in the North Sea dwindle (they are expected to be commercially exhausted at prevailing prices by 2055 give or take). New houses are no longer obliged to be connected to the gas networks.

District heating is an interesting solution when there is a thermal power plant nearby, especially in a country that relies on heating for roughly 4/5 of the year. Laying steam pipes is expensive, nonetheless.

An important point to consider is that newer Dutch buildings are very well insulated. They could be even better, if not for indoor air quality issues. My flat (completed in 2009) probably uses 80% less energy for heating than similar flats in the area built before the latest standards. This past year I did not use any heating (other than couple days with heavy windstorms that cooled the building) from early April until mid October, and internal temperature never went below 20 oC. However, I live alone and don't have many visitors, if I did, I'd have to turn the air pump flow higher or the air becomes stifled.
__________________
YIMBY - Yes, in my backyard!
Suburbanist está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 09:58 PM   #35590
ChrisZwolle
Road user
 
ChrisZwolle's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2006
Location: Zwolle
Posts: 43,607
Likes (Received): 19391

Dutch natural gas is mostly extracted from the Slochteren gas field in Groningen province, not primarily from the North Sea. It contained 2700 billion cubic meters of natural gas. It is getting depleted and earthquake issues have caused a considerable reduction of extraction of natural gas.

The Slochteren gas field has produced € 211 billion in tax revenues over a period of 50 years. That is 80% of all natural gas revenue in the Netherlands.
ChrisZwolle está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 10:21 PM   #35591
Kpc21
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2008
Location: Łódź
Posts: 18,377
Likes (Received): 6779

There are devices available that allow recuperating heat from the air leaving the house through a ventilation system. A requirement for that is to have mechanical ventilation, but I think, it's a standard in modern houses.

Here, in Poland, older houses are usually not insulated well, but many new ones are also built as almost-passives.

In Poland, district heating is popular in big cities, although usually only the downtowns and big residential areas with apartment blocks have access to it. Although in Łódź, it's not so good with that in the downtown. There are still some tenement houses having even no running water and sewer, not to mention central heating. So people use this type of stoves in rooms:



which are for coal, of course. There is not many such houses, but there are still some remaining - even with no toilet inside the building.

But when they are renovated, they are usually either connected to the district heating, or to the gas network and central heating is installed.

Actually, in one tenement house, I have once seen quite an unusual heating system. The gas pipes deliver gas to each room, where there are gas heaters below the windowsills instead of standard central heating radiators.

According to this presentation: http://gazoprojekt.pl/p/gazyfikacja_gmin.pdf - the percentage of "gasified" municipalities (having gas networks) in the regions looks as follows:



So it will be approximately 50%. In Poland it must be much more difficult than in the Netherlands, because the country is much less urbanized, and unlike for example in Germany, the villages are not tightly built-up and condensed in small areas, but a single village in the countryside can span many kilometers along a single road.

Anyway, even if someone has access to the gas network, many people decide for coal. On the Internet, I meet contradictory opinions about which heating system is cheaper. Gas seems to be slightly more expensive, but it is much less problematic in usage. In coal, even if you have a modern central heating stove, where you just insert the coal to a big container and then it automatically doses it and controls the burning process, there is still much dirty work with refilling the coal, removing the ash and cleaning the stove and the chimney periodically. But if someone has an old, poorly isolated house, the extra cost in case of gas may be anyway high.

Around 10-20 years ago, also oil began to gain popularity, but when truck drivers started to use heating oil instead of car oil ("diesel" fuel) as a fuel for their trucks (it is very similar and it turned out, a diesel engine can use it without much problem), because it was much cheaper, even though using it for cars is illegal (as there is an extra tax for the oil for cars), the prices went up.

Electric heating is not popular - it is used mostly in tenement houses without central heating, where the stoves in rooms couldn't be used any more because of bad condition of chimneys. Companies, especially offices, often use air conditioning systems for heating (although they must be special air conditioning systems, capable of heating even in the temperatures of -10 deg. C and less). In the detached houses, heat pumps and solar heating systems are slowly gaining popularity, especially thanks to state subsidizing, but the investment prices are anyway so high that not so many people decide for them.

Or, in a detached house having no access to the gas network, you can use LPG gas, but you must either invest much money in the pressure vessel for the gas (then, the gas prices are comparable with natural gas), or rent the vessel from a company which will deliver the gas based on a long-term contract (but then, the gas prices are high).

And the problem with natural gas in Poland is that it comes from Russia - and we have own coal mines. So using coal is much better for political reasons. With gas, we are dependent on a country with which we have not so good relations. And extraction of our coal is quite expensive, which makes it not so easy to export it - even on the local market, Czech and Russian coal is gaining popularity. So it seems to be the best idea to sell it within the country. Not to mention that the coal miners are a meaningful lobby in our country.

Not a long time ago, shale gas was also found in Poland, and since Americans have recently invented an affordable technology of extracting it, we had some hopes with it. But it seems that the extraction of our shale gas is not so feasible economically anyway, at least now. Maybe it will change in the future.

Last edited by Kpc21; February 13th, 2017 at 10:29 PM.
Kpc21 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 10:26 PM   #35592
ChrisZwolle
Road user
 
ChrisZwolle's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2006
Location: Zwolle
Posts: 43,607
Likes (Received): 19391

Coal / oil / wood stoves are pretty bad for air quality, particularly during the winter when there is inversion which traps all pollutants near the ground.

They say that 2 hours of burning a wood stove emits the same amount of particles as driving 1000 kilometers.

The Dutch gas network is relatively clean, but gas reserves are being depleted and there is less political will to extract gas at the previous rates due to the earthquake concerns in Groningen province. They started building new subdivisions without gas supply in recent years.
__________________

my clinched highways / travel mapping • highway photography @ Flickr and Youtube

Kpc21 liked this post
ChrisZwolle está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 10:31 PM   #35593
Kpc21
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2008
Location: Łódź
Posts: 18,377
Likes (Received): 6779

So what do they use there? Just electric heating, or some modern technologies, like heat pumps?
Kpc21 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 10:33 PM   #35594
Attus
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jul 2010
Location: Rheinbach
Posts: 2,766
Likes (Received): 1039

In Hungary gas network was rapidly built in the 90's, many houses are connected to it, approx. 2/3 of heating is based on gas. In large house residential areas built in the 60's-90's (often called as commie blocks here, this name is in Hungary absolutely unknown) have district heating. The rest is based on convential heating fuels, oil, coal, and, especially in villages, wood.
As a consequence in cold and depressed days mountain villages may have havier smog than Budapest.

I grew up in a small town near to Budapest. When I was a little child we had coal, later (early 80's) on we changed to oil. In the 90's our house, too, was connected to gas network.
Attus no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 10:42 PM   #35595
ChrisZwolle
Road user
 
ChrisZwolle's Avatar
 
Join Date: May 2006
Location: Zwolle
Posts: 43,607
Likes (Received): 19391

Quote:
Originally Posted by Kpc21 View Post
So what do they use there? Just electric heating, or some modern technologies, like heat pumps?
The most common non-gas heating is geothermal / heat pumps. But a complete shift from natural gas to other heating options is estimated to cost € 200 billion between 2020 and 2040.

Most people are in favor of an energy shift to renewables, but not so much with the cost. Today over half of the electricity bill is composed of taxes and that will only increase. At some point it's not even worth getting energy saving appliances because it hardly makes a dent on the overall utility bill.

I've shifted to LED for most of my lights in the house. But they are more expensive, a single LED bulb cost like € 7/8 and it takes some time to earn the investment back through electricity savings.

The biggest bang was when I replaced the triple halogen light spot at the ceiling with LED. The lights are on most of the time when I'm home due to the lack of direct sunlight through the windows, so they consumed quite a bit of electricity.
__________________

my clinched highways / travel mapping • highway photography @ Flickr and Youtube

Kpc21 liked this post
ChrisZwolle está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 10:51 PM   #35596
Kpc21
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2008
Location: Łódź
Posts: 18,377
Likes (Received): 6779

Quote:
Originally Posted by Attus View Post
In large house residential areas built in the 60's-90's (often called as commie blocks here, this name is in Hungary absolutely unknown)
In Poland, we call them just blocks or "living blocks" (where "living" is like German "wohnen", not like German "leben"). German has a better, literate equivalent: Wohnblock.

They are present in West Germany too, so I believe it's nothing very specific for the former Eastern Bloc - but we have much more of them, they are often much taller (in cities, you meet such blocks with over 10 floors) and we developed specific technologies of building them (from prefabricated concrete elements), I don't think Westeners have ever used, or, at least, not on a large scale.

In towns without district heating, they usually have a separate building with quite a tall chimney for a boiler room, from which the heat is distributed to the whole area of those "commie blocks".

Look, for example, here: https://goo.gl/maps/qGYyo4fM5qD2

For those blocks, there are, actually, two boiler room buildings:
- https://goo.gl/maps/nR7nGsv8E4w (in this one, just accidentaly, they also sell gas cylinders to use with gas cookers - since there is no gas network here)
- https://goo.gl/maps/1MNs9nTNypA2 (you can see a fresh coal delivery)

By the way, for the Polish "commie blocks", it's typical that they have extra thermal insulation (installed, usually, between 2000 and 2010) and they are colorfully painted.

Quote:
I grew up in a small town near to Budapest. When I was a little child we had coal, later (early 80's) on we changed to oil. In the 90's our house, too, was connected to gas network.
I also live in a small town and we still have coal. The state gas company has had plans to extend the gas network to our town for years, but they have never realized them. But it seems, currently a private company with Italian capital (Sime), which is also building gas network, is interested in "gasifying" our town and it will probably happen in the next few years. So we will finally have natural gas.

Quote:
Originally Posted by ChrisZwolle View Post
I've shifted to LED for most of my lights in the house. But they are more expensive, a single LED bulb cost like € 7/8 and it takes some time to earn the investment back through electricity savings.

The biggest bang was when I replaced the triple halogen light spot at the ceiling with LED. The lights are on most of the time when I'm home due to the lack of direct sunlight through the windows, so they consumed quite a bit of electricity.
In case of the lighting, not everyone notices that the energy which is "wasted" by a traditional light bulb is actually emitted as heat, so in winter you don't waste anything Except for the money for your electricity bill, as you could obtain the same amount of heat in a cheaper (although not necessarily more ecological) way.

Interestingly, from the moment when the sale of traditional light bulbs got forbidden in the EU, there is still no problem with buying them in Poland. They are just labelled that they are only for professional use and they shouldn't be used for home lighting - and marked as "vibration-resistant".

But when I was in Germany the previous year and I wanted to buy a traditional light bulb, it was more difficult. I found it, finally, in a Woolworth store, but it was... imported from Poland.

Last edited by Kpc21; February 13th, 2017 at 10:58 PM.
Kpc21 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 11:53 PM   #35597
x-type
con los terroristas
 
x-type's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2005
Location: Bjelovar [HR]
Posts: 13,471
Likes (Received): 3438

Quote:
Originally Posted by ChrisZwolle View Post
I believe the future is in sticker transponders. They do not require batteries. This SunPass in Florida can be purchased for $ 4.99 but I've also seen toll road agencies handing them out for free.

http://i.imgur.com/TVhlaRl.jpg
is that thing also present in Turkey, as one of their two types of contactless toll devices?
i was already wondering how such type is implemented so poorly because usual toll devices look so outdated. i am also wondering how much would our thieves charge it (i have recently bought new toll device because battery ran out at old one, and paid it 16€, what is non sense for Chinese plasitc toy from e-bay; of course batteries are not replacable)
__________________
Svaki dan sanjam autobahn...
x-type no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 13th, 2017, 11:59 PM   #35598
italystf
Registered User
 
Join Date: Aug 2011
Posts: 6,457
Likes (Received): 2185

Quote:
Originally Posted by Kpc21 View Post
In Poland, we call them just blocks or "living blocks" (where "living" is like German "wohnen", not like German "leben"). German has a better, literate equivalent: Wohnblock.

They are present in West Germany too, so I believe it's nothing very specific for the former Eastern Bloc - but we have much more of them, they are often much taller (in cities, you meet such blocks with over 10 floors) and we developed specific technologies of building them (from prefabricated concrete elements), I don't think Westeners have ever used, or, at least, not on a large scale.

In towns without district heating, they usually have a separate building with quite a tall chimney for a boiler room, from which the heat is distributed to the whole area of those "commie blocks".

Look, for example, here: https://goo.gl/maps/qGYyo4fM5qD2

For those blocks, there are, actually, two boiler room buildings:
- https://goo.gl/maps/nR7nGsv8E4w (in this one, just accidentaly, they also sell gas cylinders to use with gas cookers - since there is no gas network here)
- https://goo.gl/maps/1MNs9nTNypA2 (you can see a fresh coal delivery)

By the way, for the Polish "commie blocks", it's typical that they have extra thermal insulation (installed, usually, between 2000 and 2010) and they are colorfully painted.


I also live in a small town and we still have coal. The state gas company has had plans to extend the gas network to our town for years, but they have never realized them. But it seems, currently a private company with Italian capital (Sime), which is also building gas network, is interested in "gasifying" our town and it will probably happen in the next few years. So we will finally have natural gas.


In case of the lighting, not everyone notices that the energy which is "wasted" by a traditional light bulb is actually emitted as heat, so in winter you don't waste anything Except for the money for your electricity bill, as you could obtain the same amount of heat in a cheaper (although not necessarily more ecological) way.

Interestingly, from the moment when the sale of traditional light bulbs got forbidden in the EU, there is still no problem with buying them in Poland. They are just labelled that they are only for professional use and they shouldn't be used for home lighting - and marked as "vibration-resistant".

But when I was in Germany the previous year and I wanted to buy a traditional light bulb, it was more difficult. I found it, finally, in a Woolworth store, but it was... imported from Poland.
The term commieblock was invented in some SSC subforum around 2005.

As for incandescent light bulbs, until 2018, they are still allowed to sell the most modern ones, that have a small halogen bulb inside the big glass bulb, instead of the old tungsten filament, that was used until around 2010. They are slighty more energy-efficient than the old incandescent bulbs, but nothing compared to CFLs or, even better, LEDs.
I wonder if one day we'll ban CFLs too, in favour of LEDs, that are more efficient, long-lasting and do not contain the toxic mercury.
__________________
“The transponder’s personalised signal would be picked up when the car passed through an intersection, and then relayed to a central computer which would calculate the charge according to the intersection and the time of day and add it to the car’s bill” - Nobel Economics Prize winner William Vickrey, proposing a system of electronic tolling for the Washington metropolitan area, 1959
In real life, electronic toll collection was first introduced in Bergen, Norway in 1986, and well into the 21th century many countries still struggle to implement it.
italystf no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 14th, 2017, 12:17 AM   #35599
Kpc21
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2008
Location: Łódź
Posts: 18,377
Likes (Received): 6779

Well, they contain other toxic substances, maybe not dangerous for human in direct contact, but dangerous for the environment anyway.

With the LEDs, the problem is that they provide very narrow, "focused" beam of light, which is not really natural for human.

And LED-based street lighting may be actually dangerous. While sodium lamps (or, still met in some places, mercury lamps), used in street lighting up to now, provide dispersed light, which is emitted in all directions and lightens also the neighborhood of the road, so that you can see, for example, a potential robber or another criminal, in case of LEDs, the neighbourhood is dark, so it's possible for him to hide.

And while sodium lights lightening the carriageway provided also enough light for the sidewalk, in case of LEDs, it's necessary to install additional lamps for the sidewalk.

I believe, the LED lighting technology is already quite well developed, but I am anyway a fan of incandescent light bulbs. They light is just "most natural". Maybe it doesn't work like sun (whose light comes from thermonuclear reactions), it comes from a heated up object, this is the way the human lighting worked since human learnt how to use fire.

Maybe the key why it is so, why the bulb light is "more natural" than the light from LED or fluorescent, is the spectrum...

Although... it seems that not:



I thought the spectrum of LED will consist of narrow bands since LEDs emit lights of specific frequencies, related, if I remember well from the studies, to the band gap of the semiconductor - but it seems, its spectrum is quite similar to the incandescent light, maybe it misses only the highest, almost-UV frequencies. And UV is not good for human anyway... Definitely not more than we get from the sun.


About the street lighting - I have noticed that Germans often used fluorescent lamps for street lighting - which is absolutely not present in Poland. We usually have sodium lamps (well recognizable because they give yellow light), there are some remnants of mercury lamps (with "deadly white", slightly greenish light) and LEDs start to appear.

Last edited by Kpc21; February 14th, 2017 at 12:23 AM.
Kpc21 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old February 14th, 2017, 12:42 AM   #35600
Surel
Registered User
 
Join Date: May 2010
Posts: 2,702
Likes (Received): 2155

As of 2011 around 38 % of households in Czechia were centrally heated (district heated as you say), 38 % relied on gas, the rest were coal/wood/electricity/other.

Last edited by Surel; February 14th, 2017 at 12:53 AM.
Surel no está en línea   Reply With Quote


Reply

Tags
highways, motorways

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Related topics on SkyscraperCity


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 02:22 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.11 Beta 4
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, vBulletin Solutions Inc.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

vBulletin Optimisation provided by vB Optimise (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us | privacy policy | DMCA policy

tech management by Sysprosium