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Old December 19th, 2017, 02:35 PM   #37681
MattiG
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Junkie View Post
.
Julian calendar was 11 minutes late per month so Gregorian calendar was invented in the 1500's in Rome.... .
The drift was 10 day is in the 16th century when it was invented. The protestant areas did not adopt the new calendar before the 18th century, when the drift was 12 days. During the 20th and 21th century, it is 13 days, and increases three days for every 400 years.

(Sweden tried to adopt the new calendar in 1700 in a controversial way, and reverted in 1712 by having two leap days, February 29th and 30th. The final adoption took place in 1753.)

The length of the tropical, "real", year between the spring equinoxes is 365.2422 days. Both the Julian and Gregorian calendars aim to match that length: The length of the Julian year is 365.2500 days in average over a period of 100 years. There is no big difference to the Gregorian one: 365.2425 days over 400 years. The accuracy of the Jewish calendar falls in between those: It is a lunisolar calendar having seven leap months within the period of 19 years. The average length is 365.2468 days.

The error of about 0.0003 days per year will lead to a drift of one day every 3300+ years for the Gregorian calendar. Not a big trouble today. The date January 1st, 5350 will be November 24th, 5349 in the Julian Calendar.

Anyway, the winter solstice occurs on this Thursday, at 16:28 UTC.

Last edited by MattiG; December 19th, 2017 at 02:58 PM.
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Old December 19th, 2017, 03:02 PM   #37682
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Originally Posted by Junkie View Post
As I said previously not only in Greece but also in Bulgaria they celebrate Christmas on 25th December but they are Orthodox.
This is because of political interests.

Romania also celebrates on 25.12.
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Old December 19th, 2017, 04:03 PM   #37683
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Russia only adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1918, right?
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Old December 19th, 2017, 04:11 PM   #37684
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Russia only adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1918, right?
Yes. That's why the October Revolution is celebrated in November :-)
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Old December 19th, 2017, 04:13 PM   #37685
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Orthodox churches of Constantinople, Albania, Alexandria, Antioch, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Poland, and Romania adopted Revised Julian calendar, developed by Serbian mathematician Milutin Milanković in 1923. Ironically, calendar wasn't adopted by Serbian church.
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Old December 19th, 2017, 05:59 PM   #37686
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The Armenian church celebrates Christmas on Jan 6th which is when all churches used to celebrate it before changing to a pagan holiday in order to make it more inclusive to heathens. Thus now most celebrate it on Dec 25th/Jan 7th.
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Old December 19th, 2017, 06:19 PM   #37687
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Quote:
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Russia only adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1918, right?
This is different, all of our countries have adopted it because of political reasons and we want to celebrate New Year on 31. December

But the Orthodox churches have not adopted and they will most probably never adopt it.
Russia is the biggest Orthodox and Julian calendar or revised Julian is used there same as in my country and all eastern european..... Also in the Orthodox Balkan traditionally or paganly there is a New Year on 13th January.
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Old December 20th, 2017, 12:28 AM   #37688
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An aid for Polish policemen from the communist times to help communicating in foreign languages:

(click to magnify)







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Old December 20th, 2017, 02:13 AM   #37689
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I like how the English version is so much more eloquent than the French
"blow into this balloon" vs. "the reagent has changed colour"
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Old December 20th, 2017, 03:41 AM   #37690
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You compare different sentences In French it's also "il a change' du jaune ou vert".

The difference is the name of the tool used by them to verify the alcohol content in the blown-out air:
- "probierz" in Polish (this is not use any more for the modern breathalyzers, but seemingly it was for those early ones with a balloon),
- "apparatus" in English (so a very general word),
- "le ballon" in French (the common name of this measurement procedure in Polish was also "blowing the balloon"),
- "der Probierer" in German (so equivalent to the Polish "probierz"),
- "krityeriy" in Russian (it must have something to do with the word "criterion").

And the indicator, the thing that changes the color:
- "wskaźnik" in Polish (literally indicator),
- "the reagent" in English,
- "il" ("it") referring to "le ballon" in French,
- "pokazatyel" in Russian (it must mean something like "shower", or, as you normally say in English, "indicator", from the word which is "pokazywać" - "to show", "to indicate" in Polish, in Russian there must be a slight difference in the word).

Some photos of such a balloon breathalyzer (unfortunately, without the balloon) are here: http://blmotors.blog.pl/tag/alkomat/

But there are also some photos of complete sets:



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Old December 20th, 2017, 07:21 AM   #37691
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I find it interesting that most countries that used to be part of British Empire like India and Singapore call their controlled-access divided highways expressways instead of motorways. I wonder why.
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Old December 20th, 2017, 10:18 AM   #37692
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Kpc21 View Post
An aid for Polish policemen from the communist times to help communicating in foreign languages:

Poor German!

Ich wünsche Ihnen gute Reise --> Ich wünsche Ihnen eine gute Reise.
Wir machen eine Nüchterkeitskontrolle --> Alkoholkontrolle / Nüchternheitskontrolle
Bitte Ihre Dokumente zur Kontrolle
um eine Blutkontrolle zur Untersuchung des Alkoholinhalts zu machen
etc.
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Which new motorways are currently under construction?
Which new motorways will be opened next?

See 'New motorway projects' thread

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Old December 20th, 2017, 11:25 AM   #37693
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Quote:
Originally Posted by LtBk View Post
I find it interesting that most countries that used to be part of British Empire like India and Singapore call their controlled-access divided highways expressways instead of motorways. I wonder why.
The usage of the term 'motorway' is relatively limited. Only a small number of countries outside of the UK and Ireland use that term consistently. Australia uses motorway, expressway, freeway and highway interchangeably. Interestingly, India uses the term expressway while Pakistan uses the term motorway. Iran seems to use the term freeway in English publications, maybe it is a pre-1979 adoption of U.S. terminology.

In Europe the term 'motorway' is sometimes adopted for English usage, though more often you'll see the more generic term 'highway', in a sense that people think 'highway' exclusively means a controlled-access highway (freeway/motorway) and not other types of major highways. You even see 'highway' and 'non-highway' being used by some users on Skyscrapercity.
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Old December 20th, 2017, 12:28 PM   #37694
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Well 'highway' is what is uses in American movies/series so we adapted to that.

In Flanders people Also use highway for motorway, but even in the native language we have 3 works, autosnelweg, autoweg and expressweg and people use them wrongly. This is Also because definitions in Belgium are sketchy. Sometimes a non Standard road is labelled as autosnelweg while a full Standard road is only labelled as autoweg or expressweg.
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Old December 20th, 2017, 12:31 PM   #37695
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I've frequently seen Dutch subtitles using 'snelweg' when the term highway is used in a movie, even though the road in question is clearly not a controlled-access highway (i.e. not a freeway, motorway). Dutch TV has been subtitled since forever so people became used to that.
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Old December 20th, 2017, 12:49 PM   #37696
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I avoid using the term highway, because it does not have a clear meaning. In Slovakia, this is used by English beginners only.

Generally motorway and expressway are the terms used for controlled-access roads, while the latter one has more loosen standards.

There is also the parkway I have seen to be used for some motorways in the USA, but as a person preferring the British English I avoid that term as well.

Btw. I have recently started to learn German. Sweet English.

The best word I have come across so far: der Eisenbahnverkehrsorganisierung. I heard that such word-linking is very recent in the German language.
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Old December 20th, 2017, 12:57 PM   #37697
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highway could be used for 'cesta' I suppose. But Slovak people may think you mean a diaľnica.

There are state highways and U.S. Highways, which form the U.S. road system. The vast majority of these highways are not freeways / motorways.

The term 'freeway' is often associated as a non-toll road (free to drive on). So the term freeway is generally not used for toll roads, even though they are designed as freeways.
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Old December 20th, 2017, 02:58 PM   #37698
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Quote:
Originally Posted by volodaaaa View Post
There is also the parkway I have seen to be used for some motorways in the USA, but as a person preferring the British English I avoid that term as well.
Americans drive on parkways and park on driveways.

Quote:
The best word I have come across so far: der Eisenbahnverkehrsorganisierung. I heard that such word-linking is very recent in the German language.
The same technique is in use in Finnish, too. We often make fun of those:

An official name of a household electricity meter is "kolmivaihekilowattituntimittari". There are six words combined: kolmi-vaihe-kilo-watti-tunti-mittari. A three-phase kilowatt-hour meter.

A humorous extension is "kaksitariffikolmivaihevaihtovirtakilowattituntimittariasentajakoulutus". A dual-tariff three-phase alternating current kilowatt-hour meter technician training.
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Old December 20th, 2017, 03:09 PM   #37699
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ChrisZwolle View Post
The usage of the term 'motorway' is relatively limited. Only a small number of countries outside of the UK and Ireland use that term consistently. Australia uses motorway, expressway, freeway and highway interchangeably. Interestingly, India uses the term expressway while Pakistan uses the term motorway. Iran seems to use the term freeway in English publications, maybe it is a pre-1979 adoption of U.S. terminology.

In Europe the term 'motorway' is sometimes adopted for English usage, though more often you'll see the more generic term 'highway', in a sense that people think 'highway' exclusively means a controlled-access highway (freeway/motorway) and not other types of major highways. You even see 'highway' and 'non-highway' being used by some users on Skyscrapercity.
The Finnish word "moottoritie" translates literally to "motorway".

For some reason, the Ministry of Transport does not categorize all technically eligible dual-carriage roads as motorways. Sometimes, there are political reasons to that.

The 1+1 or 2+1 roads signed by E, 6 ("Road for motor vehicles" according to the Vienna Convention) are called "moottoriliikennetie", "motor traffic way". No new such roads will be built, and some of the remaining ones have been upgraded to motorways.
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Old December 20th, 2017, 03:37 PM   #37700
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Quote:
Originally Posted by volodaaaa View Post
Eisenbahnverkehrsorganisierung
"Organisierung" is not a German word but "Organisation". However, I think you talk about the Eisenbahn-Verkehrsordnung.
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Which new motorways are currently under construction?
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See 'New motorway projects' thread

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