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Old January 1st, 2018, 07:32 PM   #37901
riiga
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But is it common/obligatory in Sweden to do so?
Yes, a roundabout is considered a oneway road, so exiting it is the same as turning right, and when turning you must indicate. Most people do, but I've never heard of anyone getting a fine for forgetting it. The fine is only 50 €, compared to 200-300 € for ignoring stop signs/running a red light/speeding, etc.
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Old January 2nd, 2018, 04:55 PM   #37902
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Impact of fireworks on air quality at a measuring station in The Hague:

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Old January 2nd, 2018, 06:37 PM   #37903
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I've looked at the motorway length for some countries in Europe and Spain, France and Germany are very close to each other if you count the expressways too.

Spain: 15,506 km
France: 15,476 km
Germany: 15,396 km

This includes 2414 km of expressways in Germany and 3809 km of expressways in France.

I can't say with any certainty that the expressway figures for Germany and France are 100% accurate. They are based on older assessments + openings since. Calculations like that could be off by a few tens of kilometers, but they paint a general picture. But that general picture may not be sufficient considering France and Spain are only 40 kilometers apart in total motorway/expressway length.
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Old January 2nd, 2018, 07:23 PM   #37904
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Although it is a good assessment, you have to take into acount also the size of the country, the population as well as the amount of transit trafic (which Germany has a a lot, but Spain not so much).

Nevertheless, all these 3 countries have a substantially good road network. Some improvements are still needed, but all major routes are well covered.
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Old January 2nd, 2018, 10:14 PM   #37905
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Impact of fireworks on air quality at a measuring station in The Hague:

I didn't know they are so polluting. Usually most anti-fireworks arguments are "they can injure people" and "they can be harmful to animals, especially dogs". The air quality issue isn't often considered.
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In real life, electronic toll collection was first introduced in Bergen, Norway in 1986, and well into the 21th century many countries still struggle to implement it.
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Old January 2nd, 2018, 10:21 PM   #37906
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But the air quality quickly returned to the normal state, when the fireworks stopped exploding.
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Old January 2nd, 2018, 10:35 PM   #37907
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Yes, thanks to the windy weather.

About 10 years ago there was a New Year's with stagnant air and some fog which developed into ridiculously dense fog after midnight due to the fireworks. They even had to close down motorways because you coulnd't see more than 3 meters.

I was driving across town. It was pretty weird, the fog was so dense that you could see only one lane marking at a time. I proceeded with 15 km/h on a major arterial, you could not see the traffic light unless you were directly underneath it. It was bizarre. It took me an hour to drive 10 km even though there was almost no traffic.
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Old January 3rd, 2018, 02:10 PM   #37908
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A windstorm is affecting the Netherlands, most storm surge barriers are activated.

This is the Ramspol storm surge barrier. It's an inflatable barrier.

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Old January 3rd, 2018, 03:04 PM   #37909
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Motorway length of Europe

I calculated the total length of the European motorway network. 1893 kilometers of new motorway opened to traffic in 2017, so by 2020, Europe could reach 100,000 kilometers of motorway.

Motorway is defined as motorway + expressways with motorway characteristics. In some cases, expressways are not clearly defined.

The list includes four lane expressways, for example the voie express in France, Autobahnähnliche Straße in Germany, four-lane Schnellstraße in Austria, superstrada in Italy and four lane expressways in Hungary.

This list excludes expressways that have only a single carriageway. It also excludes class GP roads in Poland, non-motorway four lane roads in Belgium, autowegen in the Netherlands and motortrafikkveier in Norway.

Some countries do not have reliable data, for example European Turkey only includes the otoyol, not other four lane roads, even if they have interchanges. Russia and Belarus are also a judgement call and data may be incomplete. UK dual carriageways is also a bit of a judgement call. Dual carriageways with roundabouts are not included. Hybrid dual carriageways may or may not be included.

The mileage is chiefly based on 2016 data + openings in 2017. This method may be slightly inaccurate. UK dual carriageway is based on a 2013 assessment + openings from MichiH's list.


Europe motorway length by European Roads, on Flickr
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Old January 4th, 2018, 12:13 AM   #37910
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So ex-Yugoslavia has roughly as many kilometers of motorway as Poland or UK...not bad, considering how much easier it is to build through
more or less flat terrain.

Quote:
Croatia - 1275
Serbia - 928
Slovenia - 612
Bosnia & Herz. -192
Montenegro - 0
Macedonia - 247

Total: 3,252
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Old January 4th, 2018, 12:39 AM   #37911
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I moved into a new house, they use a wood stove for heating (ideally) but I think I will stick with electric heaters. I don't know how to operate a fireplace, and I worry it would make the air too dirty. If I decided to use it I will buy a carbon monoxide alarm first.

Electricity is dirty cheap in Norway. 68% cheaper than in the Netherlands.
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Old January 4th, 2018, 01:35 AM   #37912
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The most crucial thing in order not to get poisoned with carbon monoxide while using a solid fuel stove is to have a clean chimney. Have it checked and cleaned every year and you are, basically, safe.

How to use a fireplace - well, it's just a thing to learn.

In Poland, heating with electricity is just too expensive for most households. It makes sense only in modern passive or almost passive houses.

Or as a heat pump - it's also a form of electric heating. Then, the heating can be of the price comparable with coal, but, unfortunately, the investment costs are still very high.
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Old January 4th, 2018, 11:32 AM   #37913
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Quote:
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The most crucial thing in order not to get poisoned with carbon monoxide while using a solid fuel stove is to have a clean chimney. Have it checked and cleaned every year and you are, basically, safe.
No, you are not. Uh.

Shutting the chimney valve before all the flames have gone is quite a sure way to die, regardless if the chimney is clean or not.

The cleaning basically prevents the material stuck onto the inner surface of the chimney from catching fire. Catching fire could damage the chimney itself, and burn down the house.

The technique of putting and managing the fire depends substantially on the case: Is the fireplace for heating or decoration, are there valves in the chimneys or not, do the valves have safety holes for carbon monoxide, is there a fan on top of the chimney or not, etc. Anyway, the carbon monoxide alarm is a good purchase.
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Old January 4th, 2018, 12:09 PM   #37914
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Don't forget that gas is not less dangerous, I'd say even more. Closing the chimney valve doesn't make too much sense, so it is usually open. On the other side, gas boiler + bathroom makes often bad combination.
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Old January 4th, 2018, 12:13 PM   #37915
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We are having an arguement in the Bulgarian section about where the next bridge between Romania and Bulgaria should be. So, I was wondering, what is the cpacity of a 2x1 bridge like the Ruse-Giurgu one. Let's say there's no border (we join Schengen), at what kind of traffic level should the authorities consider a new bridge as a must.
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Old January 4th, 2018, 12:22 PM   #37916
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Quote:
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We are having an arguement in the Bulgarian section about where the next bridge between Romania and Bulgaria should be. So, I was wondering, what is the cpacity of a 2x1 bridge like the Ruse-Giurgu one. Let's say there's no border (we join Schengen), at what kind of traffic level should the authorities consider a new bridge as a must.
If I remember correctly, a one lane per direction road can withstand a traffic up to 16.000 standard vehicles per day (standard vehicles means that a lorry counts for 4 or 5 small cars). Beeing a bridge (narrower, no overtaking etc.), the capacity might be even lower.
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Old January 4th, 2018, 01:52 PM   #37917
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Just another cliche question to bring something up: what is the name and etymology of the name of your neighbourhood?

For example I live in locality called Patrónka which is literally Patroness. But it is quite tricky, because the word is a homonym and this particular means archaic colloquial name for a shell factory (patrón = archaic translation for a shell) located nearby during the interwar period. Previously the location was called West, Westend or Westende. It could monitor the city development because now it is more the inner city than a west part.

A traffic sign on a motorway

But the whole locality is called the Mill Vale (Slovak: Mlynská dolina, German: Mühlthal) because of an formerly important river (or creek) and a set of approximately 15 watermills. Sadly, only few buildings were preserved and only one is in operation (but as a tourist attraction). The intersection leading to my neighbourhood is named after this:

A traffic sign

In the city the river now runs underground. But on the upper stream within the forests contributes to a nice leisure time area.
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Old January 4th, 2018, 02:35 PM   #37918
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My hometown's name, (Logroño, Spain) is supposed to be derived from "illo gronnio" which apparently means "the ford".


BTW, temperatures are going around here these days. Yesterday we had 17.6 / 11.8 ºC. For comparison, on the 1st of July 2017 (the coldest day in both July and August 2017) we had a maximum of 17.8 and a minimum of 12.1.
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Old January 4th, 2018, 02:55 PM   #37919
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No, you are not. Uh.

Shutting the chimney valve before all the flames have gone is quite a sure way to die, regardless if the chimney is clean or not.
Generally, the fumes must have the possibility to escape through the chimney. If they have, they will do it. At least when you have the fire. Starting it always produces some smoke that not necessarily wants to go to the chimney as it doesn't have proper draft yet before it gets hot.

There is also one other important thing - delivering enough air for the process of burning. The room with the stove must be well ventilated and this must be natural, not mechanical ventilation.
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Old January 4th, 2018, 03:50 PM   #37920
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Just another cliche question to bring something up: what is the name and etymology of the name of your neighbourhood?
Primorski, which means "by the sea". Here's the rest of the neighbourhoods in the city:
Odesos - that's the ancient name of the city. Covers the city centre.
Asparuhovo - named after Aparuh, who established The First Bulgarian Empire. There is a remnant of a defensive structure from his time in the neighbourhood.
Mladost - Youth. Yep, that's a name from the commie times.
Vladislav Varnenchik - Władysław Warneńczyk, Władysław of Varna. Named after Władysław III Jagiełło, King of Poland, who fought and died in a battle against the Ottoman Empire near Varna in 1444.
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