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Old April 7th, 2010, 04:24 AM   #681
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Desalination of sea ice feasible for mass production: Chinese scientists
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DALIAN, Liaoning, April 6 (PNA/Xinhua) -- Sea ice seen as a disaster in northeast China's Bohai Bay has been eyed as an important alternative freshwater source by Chinese scientists, as their latest research shows China's desalination technology is feasible for mass production.

"The salinity of desalinated sea ice can reach 150 mg/L, when 5 tons of sea ice is treated per hour through our lab equipment. The result is on a par with salt levels in many of China's rivers," said Chen Weibin, one of the researchers of the sea ice desalination program based in Dalian City, northeast China's Liaoning Province.

Chen is also head of the Marine Environmental Dynamics Lab under the China Marine Environment Monitoring Center.

He said the program has attracted a group of scientists from the center as well as Beijing Normal University and Tianjin University.

China's Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea this year were hit by the worst ice in 30 years lasting from early January to the middle of March.

"The salinity of the sea water in the Bohai Bay is 3,200 mg/L. However, when the water is frozen, the rate drops to 600-800 mg/L. Our equipment can further reduce the salinity," said Gu Wei, a professor with Beijing Normal University, who is involved in the research.

If commercially adopted, the technology is expected to help quench the thirsty north China, where per capita availability of fresh water is only between 100 and 300 cubic meters annually, compared with 500 cubic meters - a United Nations criteria for water scarcity, said Gu.

So far, the program has led to the development of a sea ice collecting machine, which can gather 1,000 cubic meters of floating sea ice per hour.

The program has attracted interest from companies in China, Singapore and America, he said.

Gu said Bohai Bay where water from many rivers flows into, including China's second largest Yellow River, has low salinity compared with the other seas off China's coasts. It was feasible to build a freshwater tank in the bay to collect the desalinated sea ice using the new technology, he added.

The scientists said that the technology may be first applied by big industrial water users. (PNA/Xinhua)
http://www.pna.gov.ph/index.php?idn=...d=4&rid=268259
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Old April 8th, 2010, 09:07 AM   #682
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ZTE Bumps Motorola
Elizabeth Woyke, 04.07.10, 07:16 PM

Researcher iSuppli says ZTE broke into the top five handset makers while Moto slipped to No. 6.

In much of the world, ZTE is better known as a maker of telecom networking equipment and data cards than cellphones. But research firm iSuppli says the Shenzhen-based technology company shipped enough phones during the last quarter to break into the top group of handset makers, displacing Motorola.

The upset places ZTE among the largest five handset makers worldwide, an elite group that includes Nokia ( NOK - news - people ), Samsung, LG Electronics and Sony ( SNE - news - people )Ericsson ( ERIC - news - people ). ISuppli says ZTE climbed two spots to No. 5 by shipping 13.4 million phone units in the fourth quarter of 2009, equivalent to 4% of the global market. No. 4 Sony Ericsson had a 4.4% market share while the top three players--Nokia, Samsung and LG--controlled 38%, 21% and 10% of the market, respectively.

ZTE's success came at Motorola's ( MOT - news - people ) expense. The Schaumburg, Ill., phone maker dropped from No. 5 to No. 6 in iSuppli's results for the fourth quarter.

The shifting ranks could be a sign of ZTE's growing clout in the cellphone market. The company says it shipped a record 40 million handsets in 2009. Some of the phones went to Europe, North America and Japan in partnerships with operators like Telefonica ( TEF - news - people ), T-Mobile UK and Orange.

Motorola's drop could also be a reflection of the company's ongoing travails. An emphasis on costly smart phones has curbed Motorola's overall shipments.

ISuppli analyst Tina Teng, who calculated the ranking, says most of ZTE's gains likely came from outside these established markets. She attributes the company's recent growth to sales in its home country of China as well as India, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. "It's a very dynamic [industry]," she adds. "It might be a different story [next quarter]."

http://www.forbes.com/2010/04/07/mot...nneltopstories
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Old April 12th, 2010, 06:24 AM   #683
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New planting methods maintain farm output in drought-hit China province
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TENGCHONG, Yunnan, April 10 (Xinhua) -- Despite the worst drought in decades, a remote county in southwest China, on the Myanmar border, looks poised to maintain crop output this autumn thanks to the widespread use of water-saving techniques and more productive farming methods.

The drought, which has lingered since autumn, has left 98,600 people and 13,150 head of livestock with severe drinking water shortages in Tengchong county, Yunnan Province, according to local authorities.

The county aimed to harvest 67,800 tonnes of summer grain this year, but output is expected to be down by 10,000 tonnes due to the drought, said Yang Yanchang, deputy director of Tengchong's agricultural bureau.

The hilly county, with a population of 640,000 and 5,845 square kilometers in size, grows wheat, barley and cole as major summer crops and rice for autumn harvest.

Despite the fall in rice yields, Tengchong aimed to raise annual production by adopting water-saving measures and growing less water-demanding crops, Yang said.
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english201...c_13245144.htm

East China to get first lithium high-tech zone
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NANCHANG, April 10 (Xinhua) -- China's first Lithium-New Energy High-tech Industry Base is to be established in Yichun City in the eastern Jiangxi Province.

The base would cover 20 square km and its output value is expected to reach 100 billion yuan (14.7 billion U.S.dollars) by 2020, said Luo Zhiyong, director of the Lithium-New Energy Development Bureau in Yichun.

The area is designed to be a economic service zone for manufacturing and recycling of lithium batteries and research, Luo said.

The base had attracted 26 projects and almost 30.6 billion yuan of investment since January, he said.

An industrial chain is expected to be built and the zone is expected to become a new energy automobile manufacturing base, he said.

Yichun has the world's largest lithium mine with a proved capacity of 1.1 million tonnes, accounting for 31 percent of China's total and 12 percent of the world's reserves.
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english201...c_13245164.htm
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Old May 18th, 2010, 09:41 AM   #684
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Recordedly there're three Chinese cellphone makers in global top 10. US and SK has two respectively. Europe and Japan share two positions. Canada has one.


Source: iSuppli

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Old May 20th, 2010, 10:46 PM   #685
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CAS Launches High-Performance Distributed GPU Supercomputing System

2010-04-27

CAS High-Performance Distributed GPU (Graphic Processing Unit) Supercomputing System was officially launched at IPE (Institute of Process Engineering), Chinese Academy of Sciences on April 24, 2010, Beijing .

This computer system, with aggregated computing capacity of 6 petafalops, consisted of 10 sets of 100gflops computing system from Lenovo and Dawning.The development and deploy of the supercomputer were sponsored by special funds from both state government and CAS. The system will serve many key state programs and national natural sciences fund projects as well as big corporations, covering the industries including chemical engineering, metallurgy, oil and mining.


Dr. LU Yongxiang, President of CAS delivered a speech at the launching ceremony. He pointed out that the high-performance GPU supercomputing system was a big victory in CAS Knowledge Innovation Program III. It indicated that China has the ability to use high-performance computation to meet the challenges in research and engineering practices. China has become one of the world leaders in collaboration of hardware and software and cost and efficiency.

Professor LI Jinghai, CAS Vice President, Professor DENG Maicun, CAS General Secretary, Professor TAN Tieniu, CAS Deputy General Secretary and ZHAO Lu from Ministry of Finance were presented at the meeting.

http://english.cas.cn/Ne/CASE/201004...27_53443.shtml
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Old May 20th, 2010, 11:56 PM   #686
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Quantum teleportation achieved over 16 km

May 20, 2010


(PhysOrg.com) -- Scientists in China have succeeded in teleporting information between photons further than ever before. They transported quantum information over a free space distance of 16 km (10 miles), much further than the few hundred meters previously achieved, which brings us closer to transmitting information over long distances without the need for a traditional signal.

Quantum teleportation is not the same as the teleportation most of us know from science fiction, where an object (or person) in one place is “beamed up” to another place where a perfect copy is replicated. In quantum teleportation two photons or ions (for example) are entangled in such a way that when the quantum state of one is changed the state of the other also changes, as if the two were still connected. This enables quantum information to be teleported if one of the photons/ions is sent some distance away.

In previous experiments the photons were confined to fiber channels a few hundred meters long to ensure their state remained unchanged, but in the new experiments pairs of photons were entangled and then the higher-energy photon of the pair was sent through a free space channel 16 km long. The researchers, from the University of Science and Technology of China and Tsinghua University in Beijing, found that even at this distance the photon at the receiving end still responded to changes in state of the photon remaining behind. The average fidelity of the teleportation achieved was 89 percent.

The distance of 16 km is greater than the effective aerosphere thickness of 5-10 km, so the group's success could pave the way for experiments between a ground station and a satellite, or two ground stations with a satellite acting as a relay. This means quantum communication applications could be possible on a global scale in the near future.

The public free space channel was at ground level and spanned the 16 km distance between Badaling in Beijing (the teleportation site) and the receiver site at Huailai in Hebei province. Entangled photon pairs were generated at the teleportation site using a semiconductor, a blue laser beam, and a crystal of beta-barium borate (BBO). The pairs of photons were entangled in the spatial modes of photon 1 and polarization modes of photon 2. The research team designed two types of telescopes to serve as optical transmitting and receiving antennas.

The experiments confirm the feasibility of space-based quantum teleportation, and represent a giant leap forward in the development of quantum communication applications.

http://www.physorg.com/news193551675.html
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Old June 1st, 2010, 06:32 AM   #687
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China supercomputer named second-fastest in global list

Monday, 31 May 2010


China is ramping up efforts to become the world's supercomputing superpower.

Its Nebulae machine at the National Super Computer Center in Shenzhen, was ranked second on the biannual Top 500 supercomputer list.

For the first time, a second Chinese supercomputer appears in the list of the top ten fastest machines.

However, the US still dominates the list with more than half the Top 500, including the world's fastest, known as Jaguar.

The Cray computer, which is owned by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, has a top speed of 1.75 petaflops.

One petaflop is the equivalent of 1,000 trillion calculations per second.

It is used by scientists conducting research in astrophysics, climate science and nuclear energy.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/10181725.stm
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Old June 6th, 2010, 12:22 PM   #688
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Scientists Create Artificial Mini 'Black Hole'

ScienceDaily (June 3, 2010)


Chinese researchers have successfully built an electromagnetic absorbing device for microwave frequencies. The device, made of a thin cylinder comprising 60 concentric rings of metamaterials, is capable of absorbing microwave radiation, and has been compared to an astrophysical black hole (which, in space, soaks up matter and light).

The research published June 3 in New Journal of Physics (co-owned by the Institute of Physics and German Physical Society), shows how the researchers utilised the special properties of metamaterials, a class of ordered composites which can distort light and other waves.

Qiang Cheng and Tie Jun Cui of the State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves at Southeast University in Nanjing, China, designed and fabricated their absorbing device, officially called an "omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber," using 60 strips of circuit board arranged in concentric layers coated in copper. Each layer is imprinted with alternating patterns, which resonate or don't resonate in electromagnetic waves.

The designed device can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions by spiraling the radiation inwards and converting its energy into heat with an absorption rate of 99%. Hence it behaves like an "electromagnetic black body" or an "electromagnetic black hole."

At the moment, the device only works with microwaves, but the researchers are planning to develop a black hole for visible light next.

The current results could find some applications in microwaves. As the researchers write, "The good agreement between theoretical and experimental results has shown the excellent ability for metamaterials as the candidate to construct artificial omnidirectional absorbing devices.

"Since the lossy core can transfer electromagnetic energies into heat energies, we expect that the proposed device could find important applications in thermal emitting and electromagnetic-wave harvesting."

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0603091829.htm
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Old June 26th, 2010, 05:45 PM   #689
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[B]AMD describes two new x86 cores at Hot Chips
ARM7 server extensions, Xbox SoC and Godson 3c

06/23/2010

SAN JOSE, Calif. — Advanced Micro Devices is expected to steal the limelight at the annual Hot Chips conference in August when it describes two new x86 cores that mark the biggest architectural advance for the company in several years. The event will also host papers on ARM7 extensions for servers, a new integrated SoC for the Microsoft Xbox 360 and two significant chip designs from engineers in China.
AMD will describe its new high-end Bulldozer and low-power Bobcat x86 cores at the event hosted at Stanford University. Bulldozer includes AMD's first multithreaded x86 engines that share resources such as branch prediction and fetching units in an out-of-order design capable of issuing four instructions per clock cycle.

This is a radical architecture change," said Jose Renau, co-chair of Hot Chips and an assistant professor for computer engineering at the University of California at Santa Cruz. "Since AMD has been in trouble these could be do-or-die chips for them," said Renau.

"In the same way the move from the AMD K5 to the K6 was a big change, so the move from the Opteron to the Bulldozer is a huge change," said Renau.

A paper on instruction set extensions to the ARM 7 is likely to be more significant than it looks from the title. The extensions include support for features targeting computer servers such as virtualization, enhanced security and possibly 64-bit addressing.

ARM and partners including Marvell have been working on an initiative to drive the ARM architecture into a new class of low-power servers for Web 2.0 applications in big data centers.

Separately, Microsoft will detail a new SoC that integrates as many as three chips used in previous versions of its Xbox 360 videogame console. The chip is believed to contain multiple PowerPC cores, AMD graphics cores and embedded DRAM. The chip powers a new version of the console announced last week.

Two other papers will give insights into China's growing silicon design sophistication.

The Chinese Academy of Sciences will detail the Godson 3c, a 16-core version of the China-grown processor based on the Mips64 instruction set. The new version, also known as the GS464V, includes 512-bit vector processing extensions and is made in 32nm technology.

"It's a big jump for them" compared to the previous four-core, 65nm version of Godson, said Renau.

"From what we saw in the abstract, they are aiming at video streaming and supercomputers because they are running benchmarks like Linpack and getting more than half a teraflop performance per chip with high energy efficiency for large scale systems," he said.

"I am envious they have so many students to develop a project like that," Renau added.

China's Dawning Computer recently designed the world's second fastest supercomputer using Intel Xeon and Nvidia graphics chips. Designers at Dawning said the company's next system will use the new Godson part.

In networking, China's Huawei Technologies will detail its work on a packet forwarding processor for routers that uses a novel memory technology.

"Huawei is becoming big in China, and competitive with Cisco Systems in some respects," said Renau. "This is one of the first times they are talking about something a couple years out," he said.

The conference includes a session on FPGAs in which Xilinx will further detail its work on a 28nm design that includes support for embedded ARM A9 hard cores. "This is a change for them because they didn’t have hard cores previously and they used PowerPC cores," said Renau.

The conference runs August 22-24, starting with tutorials on non-volatile memory and optical interconnects. "Very simple systems using on-chip optical interconnects could be ready for commercialization relatively soon," said Renau.

The interest in non-volatile memory comes from two areas. Phase-change memory and other non-volatile architectures could replace DRAMs which are slowing the rate of scaling at 22nm and lower. And flash drives are having a significant impact on server design, Renau said.

http://www.eetimes.com/news/latest/s...leID=225701255
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Old July 1st, 2010, 02:37 PM   #690
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Old July 20th, 2010, 10:27 AM   #691
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Huge solar-powered station starts operation


China's Suntech BIPV. Suntech Power Holdings Co. is the world's largest maker of polysilicon solar-power modules.

Huge solar station starts operation - China.org.cn

"Huge solar station starts operation
China Daily, July 19, 2010

The world's largest stand alone integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) project started transmitting power to the grid in Shanghai on Sunday in another move showcasing China's commitment to reduced carbon emissions.

The 6.68-megawatt solar system can produce 6.3 million kilowatt-hours (kwh) of electricity per year to meet the needs of 12,000 Shanghai households. It will cut coal consumption by 2,254 tons, while reducing carbon emissions by 6,600 tons.

The project has been installed on the awnings on both sides of the newly completed Hongqiao Station of the Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway. Its 20,000 solar panels cover a roof area of 61,000 sq m and have produced 300,000 kwh power since the 160 million-yuan project began operation two weeks ago.

"The project is another manifestation of China's commitment to reducing carbon emissions to fight climate change. It comes after the country set a voluntary target of cutting carbon intensity per unit of GDP by 40 to 45 percent by 2020," said Yu Hailong, general manager of the Beijing-based China Energy Conservation and Environmental Protection Group (CECEP), the project's developer.

"As a pilot project, it will help stimulate the development of solar energy in China and promote the construction of more environmentally friendly railway stations," he said.

Chief engineer of the Ministry of Railway Zheng Jian said China will further encourage BIPV implementation at railway stations, which serve as an ideal vehicle to promote the technology.

A 2.2-MV BIPV system has also been installed at the Wuhan Station of the Wuhan-Guangzhou High-speed Railway. The system was connected to the national grid in May, CECEP deputy manager Chen Shuguang said.

"BIPV technology does not take up extra space, because it is integrated into buildings' design and construction. It is especially suitable for China's eastern areas, where there are limited land resources yet greater energy demand," Chen said.

The development of renewable energy has been topping the central government's agenda. It aims to have an installed capacity of 20 gigawatts of solar units and 100 gigawatts of wind power by 2020, official statistics show.

A number of world-class pilot projects have been completed this year in Shanghai, which is hosting the World Expo 2010.

They include the 4.6-MV solar energy generation system installed in the Expo Garden and China's first offshore wind farm, the 102-MV Donghai Bridge wind power project, which started transmitting electricity to the national grid in early July.

The government is also tendering for bids to develop 13 solar power projects with a combined capacity of 280 megawatts in the western regions, following last year's bidding for a 10-megawatt solar power plant in Gansu province's Dunhuang.

But Song Aizhen, of the solar energy branch of CECEP, said the government needs to come up with more detailed subsidy plans for renewable energies to encourage more active corporate investment.

"Take solar energy for instance - its cost is already three times that of thermal power, and BIPV technologies are even more expensive," she said.

'So government subsidies will be crucial to the technology's wider application.'"
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Old July 22nd, 2010, 01:05 AM   #692
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China's first surgical robot successfully developed

July 21, 2010

Robots can now help out with complicated surgeries in operating theaters. After three years of research, China's first surgical robot for minimally invasive surgery has been successfully developed in Tianjin Municipality.


This could be the newest addition to operating theatres across the world.

Doctors control the robot called Micro Hand A by looking at the 3D projection on the big screen.

Micro Hand A "obediently" performs delicate procedures such as cutting, suturing and knot-tying inside a patient's body. It's also capable of providing feedback and sending patient information to doctors who will make precise adjustments.

Experiments on animals have been carried out successfully using Micro Hand A. As a major breakthrough for surgical robots in China, Micro Hand A will be applied in regular and cardiac surgeries and will significantly lower costs.

Jiang Xueming, ASS. Chief Physician, Hospital of Tianjin University, said, "In the past medical instruments could not bend, and later some could turn left or right. But surgical robots are dexterous, capable of making 360-degree turns. And robots can be controlled remotely. There are a lot of benefits."

An evaluation committee says the system has large market potential. Micro Hand A is already being used in a few Tianjin hospitals.

http://www.china.org.cn/video/2010-0...t_20542212.htm

video : http://english.cntv.cn/program/newsu...1/100876.shtml
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Old July 22nd, 2010, 11:07 PM   #693
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China makes critical nuclear progress

2010-07-22

BEIJING - China's endeavor to increase the use of clean energy got a big boost on Wednesday after an experimental fast reactor using the mostly homegrown fourth-generation nuclear technology reached the critical state.

Fast reactors that run on the fourth-generation technology differ from others in that they are able to utilize the fuel in a more optimal way so as to reduce the overall energy costs significantly.

The technology will also lift the uranium usage ratio to as high as 70 percent from existing 1 percent. In the long run, it will also considerably reduce the nation's reliance on foreign fuel imports.

"The fast reactor will extend China's utilization of proven and verified uranium resources to 1,000 years from less than 100 years through the existing pressurized water reactors," said Zhang Donghui, general manager of the fast reactor program.

The fast reactor program has been set up with a total investment of 2.5 billion yuan ($369 million) and China is the eighth country to successfully master the technology.

"This is a significant step in China's nuclear program," said Zhao Zhixiang, dean of China Institute of Atomic Energy.

Uranium prices have been firming up recently due to a surge in demand and a dwindling of global proven resources. Added to this is also the long gestation time for successfully mining uranium from new finds.

China currently produces around 750 tons of uranium. The demand-supply gap of uranium is expected to exceed 10,000 tons by 2015 and reach nearly 30,000 tons by 2030, according to Yan Qiang, a researcher with Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences.

With the bulk of the nuclear power likely to be used for meeting the nation's power needs, demand for the clean energy is also expected to surge, said Yan.

China plans to set up 60 new nuclear reactors and have a nuclear power productivity of around 75 million kilowatts by 2020. The country is also constructing 23 machine sets to harness nuclear power, the largest among the 57 such sets in the world.

The nation is likely to double its uranium purchases to around 5,000 metric tons this year to build stockpiles for new reactors, said Thomas Neff, a physicist and uranium-industry analyst at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge.

China Uranium Development Co Ltd recently acquired a majority stake in Australian miner Energy Metals Ltd.

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchin...t_11034745.htm
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Old July 26th, 2010, 05:33 PM   #694
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China considers big rocket power

26 July 2010

Chinese engineers are considering a new super-powerful engine for the next generation of space rockets, say officials.

According to Li Tongyu, general manager of the marketing department at the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT), engineers are currently studying a rocket engine with the thrust of 600 tonnes, burning highly potent liquid oxygen and liquid oxygen propellant.

If China succeeds in the development of such power, it would increase the nation's capabilities in space by orders of magnitude.

For comparison, China is currently well in the development of its most powerful rocket to date - Long March-5 - that would sport engines with the thrust of 120 tonnes.

"Rockets (with 600-tonne thrust engines) would only be justified for things like sending humans to the Moon, if such projects are approved," Li Tongyu told BBC News.

In March, the official China Daily newspaper disclosed that CALT was studying a super-heavy launch vehicle, which could be used to mount lunar expeditions.

At the time, the newspaper quoted CALT Vice President Liang Xiaohong as saying that the total lift-off thrust of the future heavy launcher would be 3,000 tonnes.

'Grander scale'

To develop such thrust, the first stage of the proposed rocket would need five 600-tonne engines, possibly distributed between one central stage and four strap-on boosters.

The rocket's architecture would thus be similar to the one adopted for the Long March-5 rocket, but at a considerably grander scale.

Although the expected payload of the future heavy lifter had not been disclosed, available details allow placing it close to the same category with that of the Saturn-5 rocket, which carried US astronauts to the Moon.

In the meantime, the development of the Long March-5 rocket was proceeding well toward its first test launch, currently expected in 2014, Li Tongyu said.

The vehicle's first stage engine had already accumulated more than 10,000 seconds of firing during tests - an important milestone on the way to its certification for real missions.

A full-scale prototype of the Long March 5 rocket would be ready for testing in 2012 and a year later, test firing of fully assembled rocket stages would be conducted.

When operational, Long March-5 is expected to deliver up to 25 tonnes of payload, including space station modules to the low Earth orbit, and up to 14 tonnes to the so-called geostationary transfer orbit, where most communications satellites are released after launch.

At the UK's Farnborough airshow, CALT demonstrated computer-generation videos, showcasing impressive new assembly and launch infrastructure of the Long March-5 rocket.

Newly built facilities will feature a sprawling campus not far from Chinese capital Beijing, where the rocket would be assembled.

The rocket stages would then be shipped to the launch site in the very south of China, where it could take advantage of the Earth rotation to maximise its cargo capabilities.

Along with Earth-orbiting satellites, the Long March-5 is expected to carry Chinese spacecraft into deep space, including unmanned missions to return soil samples from the Moon.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-10762634
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Old July 26th, 2010, 05:35 PM   #695
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Chinese scientists to produce artificial cornea

2010-07-25

QINGDAO, July 25 (Xinhua) -- A group of Chinese researchers are cultivating human cells to make artificial corneas in a laboratory, bringing hope to some 5 million victims of corneal blindness in China.

The research team from the Ocean University of China (OUC) was expected to produce a complete cornea and begin clinical trials in three to five years, said Fan Tingjun, deputy dean of the College of Marine Life Science at the OUC.

An artificial cornea, each expected to cost 10,000 to 20,000 yuan (1,475 to 2,950 U.S. dollars), would provide an alternative for those patients anxiously awaiting donated corneas for transplant surgery, Fan said.

"Chinese doctors can only perform corneal transplant operations,

currently the only cure for corneal blindness, on 3,000 to 4,000 people every year due to a lack of donors," he said.

The cornea, a vulnerable shield protecting the eye and also playing a key role in creating vision, consists of three main layers -- the endothelium, stroma and epithelium.

The research team had made a major breakthrough by using tissue-engineering technologies to create a tissue similar to the endothelium, an innermost, single layer of cells essential to keeping the cornea clear, Fan said.

The creation of endothelium remained a key barrier in the global study of artificial corneas because the cells of the endothelium could not regenerate, which added great difficulties to cell cultures, said Fan, whose team started their research in 2002.

Before 2002, many researchers throughout the world resorted to the cancer gene to stimulate the growth of endothelial cells during the culture.

"So their achievements couldn't apply to clinical therapies, but only for further research," Fan said.

After nine years of trial and error, the team successfully cultivated a large quantity of normal human endothelial cells with the assistance of supports made of human amnion.

An evaluation panel of top ophthalmologists described their breakthrough as "building up the first endothelial cell line in the world without risks of causing tumors", as written on the achievement evaluation certificate issued by the State Science and Technology Commission.

The researchers have transplanted the artificial endothelium to a rabbit, which maintained the transparency of its cornea for more than a year.

Now the team is working on the production of stroma, which accounts for 90 percent of the thickness of the cornea and serves as a bridge between the endothelium and epithelium, the outmost layer of the cornea to block outside dust and bacteria from reaching the eye, as well as absorb oxygen and cell nutrients from tears.

Although some of Fan's foreign counterparts have produced artificial stroma similar to that found in the human eye, these have not functioned well when transplanted in animals, Fan said.

"We have chosen proper seed cells and supports made of composite materials to produce stroma. Now, we're performing adjustments of the supports' structure and function and hopefully will be finished in three to five years," Fan said, adding that the production of epithelium, which was comparatively easier, had been accomplished successfully years ago.

The researchers are working with the Qingdao Yuming Biotechnologies Co., Ltd to produce 150,000 to 200,000 pieces of endothelium every year to benefit more than 800,000 Chinese who became blind after their endothelium was damaged.

"The mass production of complete corneas will be launched after the artificial cornea passes the clinical trials," Fan said.

http://news.xinhuanet.com/english201...c_13413987.htm
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Old August 3rd, 2010, 09:06 PM   #696
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http://www.reuters.com/news/video?videoId=...;videoChannel=1



China launches 5th GPS satellite

Aug 1- 2010

China has launched its fifth satellite from the Xi Chang Center in the southern Sichuan Province as part of its GPS satellite navigation system.

BeiDou-2 IGSO-1 was placed into orbit via the CZ-3A Chang Zheng-3A (CZ3A-17/Y16) launch vehicle on Sunday at 5:30 a.m. local time.

China launched its satellite system project in 2000 using the codename COMPASS, which is the country's second-generation satellite navigation system capable of providing 3D geo-spatial positioning and speed measurement, Xinhua reported.

China aims to provide the Asia-Pacific region with communication services by 2012 and its long-term goal is to develop a global navigation satellite network similar to the GPS and GLONASS by 2020.

The BeiDou-2 has a life span of eight years and will help global positioning for transport and oil exploration industries as well as forecast weather and disasters. It will also help telecommunications and public security.
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Old August 26th, 2010, 05:25 PM   #697
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China's "Dragon" Sub Dives 3,759 Meters below Sea

2010-08-26

China said Thursday its domestically-made manned submersible had successfully reached 3,759 meters below sea level with three crew on board, the China News Service reported.

The vessel achieved the feat during 17 dives from May to July below the South China Sea, the Ministry of Science and Technology and State Oceanic Administration jointly announced.

It was the first time a Chinese submersible vehicle has gone that deep, said the report. A robot was used to plant a Chinese national flag at the bottom of the South China Sea.

China thus became the fifth country to produce a submersible that can withstand depths of more than 3.5 kilometres (2.17 miles) below sea level, following the United States, Russia, France, and Japan, the report said.

The submersible set a record for operating below sea level for 9 hours and 3 minutes, and the equipment on board successfully passed the test and operated at depths of more than 3,000 meters and met the relevant standards, the report said.

The submersible, dubbed "Dragon", has a designed capacity of reaching 7,000 meters below sea level and can cover 99.8 percent of the global oceans, the report said.

http://english.cri.cn/6909/2010/08/26/189s591246.htm
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Old August 27th, 2010, 04:17 AM   #698
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it's great news. more info on the Sub

Submersible dives into ocean elite of nations

By Chen Xin (China Daily)
Updated: 2010-08-27

Quote:


This file photo shows a submersible under construction at an undisclosed location. [China Daily]


BEIJING - A domestic submersible has reached a depth of 3,759 meters, making China the fifth country in the world to acquire deep-diving technology surpassing the 3,500-meter mark, authorities said on Thursday.

The Chinese submersible Jiaolong, which is 8.2 meters long and weighs nearly 22 tons, was designed to reach a depth of 7,000 meters and operate in most of the world's oceans, officials said.

Jiaolong is considered to be the world's only deep-sea vessel that can theoretically reach those depths. Japan's Shinkai 6500 has a depth capability of 6,500 meters.

The other three countries with deep-diving technology are the US, France and Russia.

A submersible differs from a submarine as it typically depends on another vessel or facility for support.

Jiaolong, with a crew of three, dived 17 times from May 31 to July 18 in the South China Sea, going below 3,000 meters four times. The deepest it reached was 3,759 meters. It operated at a peak duration of nine hours and three minutes and sent back videos and photos of the seabed.

In an experiment when it landed on the seafloor, it placed the Chinese flag and a sign depicting the legendary dragon's palace onto the seabed with a robotic arm.

"The successful diving trials of Jiaolong marked a milestone in our country's deepwater equipment and technology development," said Wang Weizhong, vice-minister of science and technology.

China started to develop the submersible in 2002. Work on the deep-sea vessel and its mother ship were completed after six years and involved about 100 institutions and companies nationwide.

"During the design and building stage, we overcame many technical difficulties such as pressure resistance, auto-control systems and battery capacity," Wang Fei, deputy chief of the State Oceanic Administration, said while introducing the submersible.

Jiaolong started its diving trials in August last year by going through depth stages.

"From last year's 50 meters, 300 meters and 1,000 meters to this year's depth of more than 3,700 meters, it is a great achievement. Such a depth means that Chinese scientists are able to conduct research in the deep. It also marks China becoming one of the few countries that possess manned deep-diving technology," said Liu Feng, chief director of the diving trials.

Lack of experience was the biggest difficulty faced in the trials, Liu said, adding that severe weather such as typhoons and storms also hampered efforts.

"We did pressure tests that simulated the environment at 7,000 meters underwater. That depth is our target. We will keep on trying deeper depths and finally reach the 7,000-meter goal," Liu said.

Ye Cong, one of the hydronauts on board Jiaolong, said he could sit in the vessel while the other two crew members could only stoop in the cabin.

"The air pressure in the cabin is the same as it is on the surface. I felt excited and nervous every time I went deep underwater," Ye said.

Ye said the team had just successfully completed the diving trials and it still had a long way to go before the submersible was applied to scientific research.

China's submersible development is aimed at scientific research to help with the peaceful exploration and utilization of natural resources, officials said.

Jiaolong's main missions include physical, chemical and biological research, as well as exploration and deep-sea salvage, officials said.
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Old August 27th, 2010, 06:46 AM   #699
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wow. I'm curious of when China will show off its aircraft carrier? Also how about the area of stem cell and research on genetic in general.
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Old August 27th, 2010, 01:35 PM   #700
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Huawei describes smart memory chip

8/24/2010

PALO ALTO, Calif. – Networking giants are racing to create a new generation of smart memories to speed packet processing, creating smaller, faster line cards for their network routers and switches. Big system makers are working separately on competitive implementations which could someday be used broadly in their products.


Huawei Technologies discussed work on a first-generation smart memory that will pack 32 Mbytes of IBM embedded DRAM on a 45nm chip consuming 60W. It will include an array of packet processing elements to drive data rates at rates up to 100 Gbits/second and achieve at least 250 million memory accesses per second.


The device, which still requires some external DDR3 DRAM, is in a verification phase. Huawei plans to start work in a few months on a follow-on chip that could pack as much as 128 Mbytes eDRAM.


"Our ultimate goal is to replace all our memory using smart memory," said Sailesh Kumar, an engineer who presented a paper on the device at Hot Chips.


The smart memory chips could eliminate TCAMs and three of four network processors used on network line cards today. They will also replace large banks of standard DRAMs.


The smart memory chips are aimed at speeding as many as 16 different packet processing jobs that require a little bit of processing on great gobs of memory. Thus the first Huawei uses an array of memories linked to small packet processing blocks that include logic to handle atomic locking operations.


In Huawei's initial part, the array blocks are directly linked to share intermediate data. Final results are passed to an external DRAM and then to an external network processor.


"Once we add these logic blocks we can do a lot of work and significantly reduce I/O bandwidth requirements between a packet processing ASIC and a memory subsystem," said Kumar.

http://www.eetimes.com/electronics-n...rt-memory-chip
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