daily menu » rate the banner | guess the city | one on oneforums map | privacy policy | DMCA | news magazine | posting guidelines

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > Infrastructure and Mobility Forums > Subways and Urban Transport

Subways and Urban Transport Metros, subways, light rail, trams, buses and other local transport systems



Global Announcement

As a general reminder, please respect others and respect copyrights. Go here to familiarize yourself with our posting policy.


Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old May 11th, 2017, 03:36 AM   #3761
hkskyline
Hong Kong
 
hkskyline's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2002
Posts: 86,891
Likes (Received): 18168

Quote:
Originally Posted by SSMEX View Post
Comparisons like these are always a bit disingenuous because other cities rely on commuter rail systems to reach into the surrounding suburbs and neighboring small towns while Shanghai relies primarily on the metro system, with the exception of one (possibly more?) commuter rail lines.

Granted, many of these commuter rail systems aren't grade separated and aren't considered rapid transit, but to boast about a city's transit development advancement using its metro system length isn't fair when said city is missing the entire other form of transit (again, with small exceptions).
The concept of commuter rail vs. conventional subway/metro rail is not really distinguished in China.
hkskyline no está en línea   Reply With Quote

Sponsored Links
Old May 11th, 2017, 03:54 AM   #3762
SSMEX
Registered User
 
Join Date: Mar 2016
Posts: 111
Likes (Received): 87

Quote:
Originally Posted by skyridgeline View Post
You can include Jiaxing (~100km), Suzhou (~100km) and Kunshan (~50km) as commuting sources/destinations for example. And there are ~225km/140 stations under construction (Shanghai "Metro").
Those are impressive numbers and the pace of expansion is admirable, but to put things in perspective, the commuter rail system of NYC has Metro-North (~600km), Long Island Railroad (~500km), and NJ Transit (~1000km). Even commuter rail in the San Francisco Bay Area, which is notorious for its lack of rail infrastructure, has about 540km of route length between Caltrain, Capitol Corridor, and ACE.

Again, I realize this is an inherently flawed comparison, but so was the original article. Different cities have different implementations, and allocate transit categories differently. If you're going to compare route lengths between systems, you need to be mindful of the nuances. For example, Tokyo has inarguably the most rail transit, both in system length and installed capacity, of any city in the world, but its two subway systems only operate 300km of track, which is an extremely small fraction of the total rail network (2400km+).
SSMEX no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 11th, 2017, 06:00 AM   #3763
saiho
Registered User
 
saiho's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: 多伦多/多倫多
Posts: 1,357
Likes (Received): 1291

Quote:
Originally Posted by SSMEX View Post
Those are impressive numbers and the pace of expansion is admirable, but to put things in perspective, the commuter rail system of NYC has Metro-North (~600km), Long Island Railroad (~500km), and NJ Transit (~1000km). Even commuter rail in the San Francisco Bay Area, which is notorious for its lack of rail infrastructure, has about 540km of route length between Caltrain, Capitol Corridor, and ACE.
To put things in perspective the NYC commuter rail system (NJT, LIRR and Metro North) carries less than 1 million passengers per weekday. SF's commuter system doesn't even go over 75,000 passengers per weekday. Lots of lines might look good on a map but if they are not high end infrastructure providing high quality service than throwing those in is not a bit disingenuous but flat out incorrect. By the logic of a couple of trains a day counting as good transit service means the Yangtze River Delta CRH intercity high speed rail network is now part of the Shanghai commuter rail web.
__________________

dbhaskar, _Night City Dream_ liked this post
saiho no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 11th, 2017, 06:57 AM   #3764
drunkenmunkey888
Registered User
 
Join Date: Aug 2005
Location: New York, NY
Posts: 921
Likes (Received): 53

Quote:
Originally Posted by saiho View Post
To put things in perspective the NYC commuter rail system (NJT, LIRR and Metro North) carries less than 1 million passengers per weekday. SF's commuter system doesn't even go over 75,000 passengers per weekday. Lots of lines might look good on a map but if they are not high end infrastructure providing high quality service than throwing those in is not a bit disingenuous but flat out incorrect. By the logic of a couple of trains a day counting as good transit service means the Yangtze River Delta CRH intercity high speed rail network is now part of the Shanghai commuter rail web.
Well lets not also forget SI railway and PATH trains. Altogether, NYC metro region rail length is approximately comparable to that of Tokyo. You do bring up a really good point about ridership though. I have been making the argument for years whenever people mention Shanghai as having the largest subway system in the world, that it pales in comparison to NYC in terms of route length if we were to blur the distinction between commuter rail and metro. However, Shanghai's ridership on 590 km of metro is greater (~10 million) than NYC's +2,000 km of rail transit (~6 million). Great point!

I do hope one day, Shanghai has commuter rail on par with that of Tokyo and NYC to supplement its metro. I don't think it's very feasible to take local trains from out in Kunshan. But a good commuter rail system with express service should change that. I wonder why Shanghai is so reluctant to build a commuter rail network. Other cities in China seem to be doing so, in particular, the Pearl River region, Beijing, Nanjing and even Changsha just built a really nice looking commuter rail line. What's the deal with Shanghai?
drunkenmunkey888 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 11th, 2017, 07:52 AM   #3765
SSMEX
Registered User
 
Join Date: Mar 2016
Posts: 111
Likes (Received): 87

Quote:
Originally Posted by saiho View Post
To put things in perspective the NYC commuter rail system (NJT, LIRR and Metro North) carries less than 1 million passengers per weekday. SF's commuter system doesn't even go over 75,000 passengers per weekday.
A million passengers per day doesn't seem like a lot, but commuter rail is built for thin and long corridors. Using NJT numbers to approximate across the 1M trips (3.4B passenger km / 90M annual riders = 38 km per trip on average), the NYC commuter rail system delivers 38 million passenger-kms per weekday.

To put that in perspective, the NYC Subway has 6M passengers per weekday averaging about 8km per trip, for 48 million passenger-kms per day. In other words, commuter rail accounts for 44% of daily passenger-kms delivered in the city's rail transit system, which is nothing to sneeze at.

Quote:
Originally Posted by saiho View Post
Lots of lines might look good on a map but if they are not high end infrastructure providing high quality service than throwing those in is not a bit disingenuous but flat out incorrect. By the logic of a couple of trains a day counting as good transit service means the Yangtze River Delta CRH intercity high speed rail network is now part of the Shanghai commuter rail web.
The Altamont Corridor Express, which runs four trains per day per direction, has a daily ridership of about 5,000 people per day, which is drop in the bucket but actually quite significant when you consider that it's a one-way commuter train for people living in Stockton (pop: 300,000) to get to work in San Jose (140km away).

No argument from me that rail transit in the SF Bay Area is insufficient and underfunded, but my point is that commuter rail systems deliver a lot of value for commuters and to discredit them as infrequent services carrying a relatively small number of passengers betrays the outsized impact they have in moving people long distances during peak commute hours.
__________________

Nouvellecosse liked this post
SSMEX no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 11th, 2017, 12:56 PM   #3766
skyridgeline
Registered User
 
Join Date: Dec 2008
Posts: 1,524
Likes (Received): 1214

Quote:
Originally Posted by SSMEX View Post
Those are impressive numbers and the pace of expansion is admirable, but to put things in perspective, the commuter rail system of NYC has Metro-North (~600km), Long Island Railroad (~500km), and NJ Transit (~1000km). Even commuter rail in the San Francisco Bay Area, which is notorious for its lack of rail infrastructure, has about 540km of route length between Caltrain, Capitol Corridor, and ACE.

Again, I realize this is an inherently flawed comparison, but so was the original article. Different cities have different implementations, and allocate transit categories differently. If you're going to compare route lengths between systems, you need to be mindful of the nuances. For example, Tokyo has inarguably the most rail transit, both in system length and installed capacity, of any city in the world, but its two subway systems only operate 300km of track, which is an extremely small fraction of the total rail network (2400km+).

150km radius ...

Jinshan Railway (50km)
Suzhou Rail Transit 120km (+45km under construction)
Changzhou Metro 70 km under construction
Wuxi Metro 56km (+33km under construction)
Hangzhou Metro 81km (+180km under construction)
Shanghai Metro 225km under construction
Hangzhou 160km (2x) - high-speed and slow rail
Changzhou 170km (3x) - Shanghai–Nanjing Intercity High-Speed Railway, Beijing–Shanghai/Jinghu High-Speed Railway and slow rail
30km maglev

1167km (530km high-speed) "commuting"/other metro rails
588km Shanghai Metro
553km under construction in the area


Slow
Fast

http://chinatrain12306.com/travel/hangzhou.htm



Beijing–Shanghai/Jinghu High-Speed Railway
Shanghai–Nanjing Intercity High-Speed Railway

https://www.travelchinaguide.com/chi...hai-suzhou.htm
__________________

dbhaskar, dimlys1994 liked this post

Last edited by skyridgeline; May 11th, 2017 at 01:11 PM.
skyridgeline no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 12th, 2017, 04:31 AM   #3767
saiho
Registered User
 
saiho's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: 多伦多/多倫多
Posts: 1,357
Likes (Received): 1291

Quote:
Originally Posted by SSMEX View Post
A million passengers per day doesn't seem like a lot, but commuter rail is built for thin and long corridors. Using NJT numbers to approximate across the 1M trips (3.4B passenger km / 90M annual riders = 38 km per trip on average), the NYC commuter rail system delivers 38 million passenger-kms per weekday.

To put that in perspective, the NYC Subway has 6M passengers per weekday averaging about 8km per trip, for 48 million passenger-kms per day. In other words, commuter rail accounts for 44% of daily passenger-kms delivered in the city's rail transit system, which is nothing to sneeze at.

The Altamont Corridor Express, which runs four trains per day per direction, has a daily ridership of about 5,000 people per day, which is drop in the bucket but actually quite significant when you consider that it's a one-way commuter train for people living in Stockton (pop: 300,000) to get to work in San Jose (140km away).

No argument from me that rail transit in the SF Bay Area is insufficient and underfunded, but my point is that commuter rail systems deliver a lot of value for commuters and to discredit them as infrequent services carrying a relatively small number of passengers betrays the outsized impact they have in moving people long distances during peak commute hours.
Commuter rail is for thin and long corridors hence directly comparing it with subways is incorrect. If you are going to bring in regional commuter rail then you can't discount the intercity HSR network around Shanghai. If we are going to be comparing importance and value then why not throw in the massive Shanghai bus network that has over a thousand routes and carries 10 million passengers per day? They deliver a lot of value for commuters and to discredit them as low infrastructure services betrays the outsized impact they have in moving people around the city. The article in question just said Shanghai leads the world on one well defined (but not absolute) criterion of transit, not "Shanghia's transit network is the best in the world." Side note, it mentions the creation of a 90 min commuter belt transit system with neighboring cities in the next 5 years. So I guess there is your commuter rail.

Quote:
Originally Posted by drunkenmunkey888 View Post
Well lets not also forget SI railway and PATH trains.
To be honest I would consider PATH and SI trains to be actual rapid transit.
__________________

dbhaskar, _Night City Dream_ liked this post
saiho no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 12th, 2017, 08:12 AM   #3768
drunkenmunkey888
Registered User
 
Join Date: Aug 2005
Location: New York, NY
Posts: 921
Likes (Received): 53

Quote:
Originally Posted by saiho View Post
Commuter rail is for thin and long corridors hence directly comparing it with subways is incorrect. If you are going to bring in regional commuter rail then you can't discount the intercity HSR network around Shanghai. If we are going to be comparing importance and value then why not throw in the massive Shanghai bus network that has over a thousand routes and carries 10 million passengers per day? They deliver a lot of value for commuters and to discredit them as low infrastructure services betrays the outsized impact they have in moving people around the city. The article in question just said Shanghai leads the world on one well defined (but not absolute) criterion of transit, not "Shanghia's transit network is the best in the world." Side note, it mentions the creation of a 90 min commuter belt transit system with neighboring cities in the next 5 years. So I guess there is your commuter rail.



To be honest I would consider PATH and SI trains to be actual rapid transit.
Agreed, PATH and SI are definitely real rapid transit but they're never counted in the NYC subway system because of different fare structure and disconnection with the rest of the network respectively.

The issue with counting the HSR network is whether it is feasible for use as a true commuter rail network from a fare structure perspective? Like can someone feasible live in Suzhou or Wuxi and commute to downtown Shanghai for work on a daily basis? I'm assuming it is feasible from a timing perspective, as I recall, it takes just under 30 minutes from Suzhou and little over 40 minutes from Wuxi. But are the fares feasible for daily commutes? It seems to cost around RMB 40 for a one way fare, equating to 80 RMB per day, which is roughly $12 a day. This translates to approximately $250-$300 a month, which is comparable to an unlimited monthly pass for zone 7 of the LIRR, or 40 miles from penn station at the farthest. However, purchasing power of those living in NYC suburbs I'm sure are much higher on average than those in Shanghai. Spending RMB 1,600 to 2,400 a month just on the commute alone seems out of reach for many commuters. Seems like the HSR wasn't priced for daily commuter use and much more for less frequent, mid-distance trips. Perhaps if they implemented a monthly pass that provides significant discounts over pay-per-ride, then it may be feasible to consider the HSR "commuter rail".

Also, the coverage is more consistent with that of a mid-long distance intercity rail than actual commuter rail. Commuter rail networks are generally denser but cover less area.

Last edited by drunkenmunkey888; May 12th, 2017 at 08:17 AM.
drunkenmunkey888 no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 13th, 2017, 04:55 AM   #3769
saiho
Registered User
 
saiho's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: 多伦多/多倫多
Posts: 1,357
Likes (Received): 1291

Quote:
Originally Posted by drunkenmunkey888 View Post
Agreed, PATH and SI are definitely real rapid transit but they're never counted in the NYC subway system because of different fare structure and disconnection with the rest of the network respectively.

The issue with counting the HSR network is whether it is feasible for use as a true commuter rail network from a fare structure perspective? Like can someone feasible live in Suzhou or Wuxi and commute to downtown Shanghai for work on a daily basis? I'm assuming it is feasible from a timing perspective, as I recall, it takes just under 30 minutes from Suzhou and little over 40 minutes from Wuxi. But are the fares feasible for daily commutes? It seems to cost around RMB 40 for a one way fare, equating to 80 RMB per day, which is roughly $12 a day. This translates to approximately $250-$300 a month, which is comparable to an unlimited monthly pass for zone 7 of the LIRR, or 40 miles from penn station at the farthest. However, purchasing power of those living in NYC suburbs I'm sure are much higher on average than those in Shanghai. Spending RMB 1,600 to 2,400 a month just on the commute alone seems out of reach for many commuters. Seems like the HSR wasn't priced for daily commuter use and much more for less frequent, mid-distance trips. Perhaps if they implemented a monthly pass that provides significant discounts over pay-per-ride, then it may be feasible to consider the HSR "commuter rail".

Also, the coverage is more consistent with that of a mid-long distance intercity rail than actual commuter rail. Commuter rail networks are generally denser but cover less area.
I know a commuter market exists between Suzhou/Kunshan into Shanghai. Kunshan to Shanghai fares range from 25 to 15 RMB. There are arrangements in some workplaces to work longer hours and only commute for 4 days of the 7 day in a week.
saiho no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 15th, 2017, 12:10 PM   #3770
skyridgeline
Registered User
 
Join Date: Dec 2008
Posts: 1,524
Likes (Received): 1214

From Jiaxing (does not have its own airport) to Shanghai Hongqiao Airport ...




Full-speed pass through @ 1:40 (hold on to your skirt ).
__________________
skyridgeline no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old May 24th, 2017, 12:58 AM   #3771
CNGL
Leudimin
 
CNGL's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2010
Location: Huesca
Posts: 7,452
Likes (Received): 1932

After looking at a map I feel line 2 should have been built differently between Loushanguan Lu and Jing'ansi. Instead of hopping to Changning Road in between Tianshan Road and West Nanjing Road I would have built it along West Yan'an Road, with two intermediate stops: Kaixuan Lu (where Yan'an Xilu sits now, since line 2 was built first it would have got naming rights) and Jiangsu Lu (not where it is now but at the intersection of Jiangsu Road and West Yan'an Road). What is now Yan'an Xilu on lines 3 and 4 would be Kaixuan Lu, and there would be an extra stop on line 11 between Jiangsu Lu and Longde Lu, which would be Changning Lu. But the plans in the mid 90s were definitely different, as line 2 was built to Zhongshan Gongyuan and may have been planned to continue along Changning Road. This, of course, would have affected my "shanzhai" version, as it would make impossible a joke and a not-so coincidental alignment I have in the area.

BTW, I use different translations when referring to a thing or another. I render station names in pinyin (Renmin Guangchang), while streets and places get translated (People's Square).
__________________
Neque porro quisquam est qui dolorem ipsum, quia dolor sit amet, consectetur, adipisci velit, sed quia non nunquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem - Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum, from which placeholder text is derived.

dimlys1994 liked this post
CNGL no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 8th, 2017, 05:35 PM   #3772
saiho
Registered User
 
saiho's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2009
Location: 多伦多/多倫多
Posts: 1,357
Likes (Received): 1291

Line 17 begins dynamic and load testing.



__________________
saiho no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 29th, 2017, 03:38 AM   #3773
tjrgx
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2013
Location: Boston
Posts: 1,043
Likes (Received): 2810

China builds world's longest metro system in Shanghai



Deep below ground level in Shanghai, workers on a flood-lit construction rig carefully install massive concrete wall sections for a new subway tunnel. Meter by meter, they are making the world's longest metro system even longer.

The future Line 14 is part of plans to extend the underground subway network in Shanghai by another 35 percent of its current size. By the time the project concludes in 2020, the network will span 830 kilometers. That's more than the distance from New York to Chicago.
__________________
tjrgx no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 7th, 2017, 12:37 PM   #3774
zidar fr
Registered User
 
zidar fr's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2014
Posts: 141
Likes (Received): 625

Updated map of Shanghai metro:

- Wider layout
- Added all lines under construction
- Added all ring roads to better reflect the urban landscape




Full resolution image:
http://www.inat.fr/metro/shanghai/
__________________
zidar fr no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 15th, 2017, 12:29 AM   #3775
tjrgx
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2013
Location: Boston
Posts: 1,043
Likes (Received): 2810

Shanghai Metro: keeping world’s longest mass-transit rail system on track

http://www.scmp.com/magazines/post-m...s-longest-mass




Shanghai Metro’s Line 14 under construction

Some respite from the intense summer heat can be found 18 metres below the scorching streets of Shanghai, but humidity remains energy sapping in the dark tunnels that are growing beneath Pudong. And yet, Yang Jun’s men keep drilling, and the huge tunnel-boring machine they operate advances 9.6 metres per day.

“We use concrete blocks to cover the walls of the tunnels as the ‘mole’ moves forward,” shouts Yang, trying to make himself heard above the din. “Each circle is made up of seven 1.2-metre-wide pieces and takes about 1.5 hours to complete. It’s a hard task.”

Yang is project manager of Shanghai Metro Line 14, the construction of which began this year ahead of an expected 2020 opening.

“This is the fifth line I’ve worked on in the past 12 years, and I’ve seen huge improvements in the construc*tion process,” he says. “Thanks to the latest technology, now we move faster and safer, although ground conditions are becoming increasingly challenging as we expand the metro network and dig deeper. Workers have eight-hour shifts, one day off a week.”


Line 14 project manager Yang Jun.Line 14 project manager Yang Jun.

A nearby worker is operating a crane by remote control, lifting one of the concrete blocks and then manually moving it into position. It’s a delicate operation. A few metres back, the driver of a small cargo locomotive is waiting as the tipper at the front of his vehicle is filled with soil being fed back in tubes from the boring machine. The rock and soil will be taken to Jinyue Road Station to be processed for reuse.

“Safety and environmental protection are our main con*cerns,” says Yang. “We need to make sure the tunnel is sealed and ground settlement doesn’t affect the buildings above.”

The city has already done what took others 100 years

Shao Weizhong, vice-president of Shentong Metro Group

Line 14 is one of five routes under construction in the main*land’s economic capital. It will add 38.5km and 32 stations to the world’s largest subway network, which already has 617km of track, enough to transport you from Hong Kong to Taiwan. By the end of this year, three more lines will have opened, taking the total to 18 (if you include the world’s fastest magnetic levitation line, with a top speed of 431km/h, connect*ing Pudong International Airport with Longyang Road station), adding 55km to the network.

But Shanghai won’t stop there.

“By 2020, the total length of operational lines will exceed 830km, and our goal is to reach 1,000km by 2030,” says Shao Weizhong, vice-president of Shentong Metro Group, the subway operator. That is almost five times as long as Hong Kong’s MTR, Airport Express and Light Rail lines combined.

And those extra kilometres do not come cheap.


A map of the Shanghai Metro.

“Each kilometre costs from 500 million yuan [HK$580 million] to 700 million yuan in the outskirts, where most lines lie above ground, and reaches 1.3 billion yuan in the city centre, where only lines three and four are elevated,” says Shao. “And costs keep increasing along with those of labour, materials and the relocation of families.”

Ticket prices haven’t increased accordingly; the cheapest is three yuan, the most expensive 11 yuan, and a day pass with unlimited travel costs 18 yuan. Shanghai Metro, therefore, runs at a loss.

“As a public service, it’s heavily subsidised,” says Shao.

Some 45 per cent of the budget for line construction is covered by the government, which also bears the cost of the interest on loans for the other 55 per cent.

“Commercial use of the metro – including advertising and shop revenues – accounts for only 20 per cent of our income. Our target is to be like Hong Kong, where income covers all operational costs,” says Shao.

Even though it’s still far from breaking even, the Shanghai network has become an example for the rest of China, where 41 cities are building subway lines, 26 of which are getting their first. State media has reported that the country will spend almost two trillion yuan in the current five-year plan to 2020, and, according to a report published by Economic Information Daily, the frenzy is about to get crazier.

Currently, only cities with a population of more than three million and annual revenue of more than 10 billion yuan can apply to build subways. But, as the newspaper points out, those figures may soon be halved.

“We won’t invest in other cities’ metro networks, but we will offer them our knowledge,” says Shao. And that knowledge comes on the back of some astonishing figures.

Average weekday traffic on the Shanghai Metro stands at 10.65 million individual trips, which makes it second only to Tokyo. Record traffic reached 11.8 million trips on April 28, a day in which four lines had more than a million passengers each. And Shao is certain that number will soon be surpassed.

More than 4,000 trains – triple the number running in 2005 – serve the network’s 367 stations and run with a punctuality rate of 99.82 per cent – similar to the 99.9 per cent achieved by Hong Kong’s MTR. Five thousand security staff and 30,000 CCTV cam*eras make the Shanghai network one of the safest in the world.

Its biggest accident to date happened in September 2011, when “a signal error followed by negligence and human error” allowed two trains to collide on Line 10 – which runs from the northeast of the city, through the centre to Hongqiao Airport, in the west – leaving almost 280 passengers injured. Three officials were fired and nine others penalised after an investigation into the incident.


The People’s Square station, on Line 2.

According to official data, the subway already accounts for 53 per cent of all the public transportation in this megalopolis of 24 million people. With a satisfaction rating of 87.4 per cent, it’s also well regarded.

Not that riding the rails during rush hour is likely to be a pleasant experience; doing so definitely gives meaning to the old saying “people mountain, people sea”. And the first impression the traveller is given is one of the worst.

The government imposes strict security controls at all stations. The airport-like screenings include compulsory X-rays of all bulky luggage and bags, as well as random checks of purses. Lengthy queues at station entrances and the network’s 700 checkpoints are the most criticised feature of the Shanghai Metro.

“People think we are looking for terrorists, but that’s some*thing intelligence services deal with,” says police officer Zhou Wei, who is in charge of subway security operations. “Our mission is to keep the metro free of hazardous materials, especially chemicals and explosives, because some people don’t know what is dangerous.We confiscated 63,000 dangerous items last year.”

There is no denying the checks are annoying; they channel passengers in a way that reduces the number of entrances to stations and creates tension between users and security per*son*nel. Zhou acknowledges that and points at future develop*ments: “We are considering different techno*logies – for example, body scanning arches – to avoid slowing down users. And we are also researching artificial intelligence, to add facial recognition to our security cameras, but I can’t give an implementation timeframe.”


Security checks at the Zhongshan Park station.

Officer Zhang carries out a different type of passenger screening at Zhongshan Park station, an inter*change between lines two and three. Using a digital device, he reads the chips in travellers’ identity cards.

“The machine is connected to our database, so we can see if passengers are wanted for some reason,” he explains. Even though he seems to choose his targets at random, there is a procedure. “First, we look for people who try to avoid us. Then we check those who wear clothes that either don’t match the weather or their appearance, especially those with coats on in the summer or with formal attire but an otherwise shabby look.”

It sounds like an espionage B-movie approach, but it appears to work, though the hit rate is low.

“Since 2016 and until July 2017, we have checked the iden*tity of 17.1 million people and caught 404 fugitives,” says Zhou.

Overseeing the network are staff at the Central Operations Command Centre (COCC). Here, a huge screen displays the situation along all 14 metro lines in real time and footage from any given surveillance camera can be viewed. It’s almost 3pm when we visit, and the day’s network ridership total stands at 5.7 million. All trains are running on schedule and the four men scrutinising the computer screens look relaxed. But not enough to lounge on one of the room’s sofas.


Li Yingfeng, a spokesman for the Central Operations Command Centre.

“We have been using the Communication Based Train Control System since the opening of Line 6 [in December 2007], and we are working to upgrade older lines to stand*ardise all,” explains COCC spokesman Li Yingfeng. “Any emergency will immediately show in our systems. Each sector has its own control room, which will deal with an incident in the first instance. If it is deemed serious, we will take over and draw a plan accordingly.”

For example, if a passenger pulls the emergency brake, the driver will first report to the line’s control room, which can dispatch emergency services while the COCC monitors the situation.

“Our response times are among the fastest in the world,” Li says, proudly.

As the clock ticks towards the afternoon rush hour, the COCC screens start to show increasing crowds. At 5.30pm, there is a flood of humanity and many passengers have to wait for a couple of trains to depart until they are able to board one. This is the time when most sexual harassment occurs.

According to a 2012 survey, 13.6 per cent of China’s female subway passengers have suffered some kind of sexual abuse. A year later, a study found that 38 per cent of respondents considered the metro the second worst place for harassment, after buses (44 per cent).

In response, subway operators in Guangdong province decided to add priority carriages for women, although not women-only cars. In Shenzhen, the restriction applies through*out the day while in Guangzhou it is applicable only during rush hour. Shanghai is not planning to follow suit.


Sexual harassment is a problem on the metro.

“A few years ago, we travelled to Japan because we con*sider*ed implementing their cars-for-women system,” recalls Shao. “But we found three reasons not to do so. First, the over*whelming volume of passengers renders the scheme imprac*ti*cal. It would disrupt operations, dragging down efficiency. Second, we considered taking this measure only during rush hour, but we have no way to enforce it and we don’t see a real need for it. Finally, we thought it would be better to strengthen our cooperation with the police and promote awareness among women.”

In 2012, Shentong Metro made waves when it published a photo of a woman in a see-through dress waiting for the subway. “It’s no wonder that some people get harassed if they dress like this,” the company captioned the picture on its Weibo account. “Pay attention to how you dress. Cherish yourselves,” it added, in a message that sparked intense public debate.

Why are ‘women priority’ carriages on China’s subway being overrun by men?


“The cases of some perverts caught on camera have been widely publicised, but they are just nasty exceptions,” says Hu Yuan, a young female subway user. “Even though riding the metro at peak hours is extremely uncomfortable, I feel safe in it. I think it’s one of the things that work best in Shanghai.”

Twenty-eight thousand people work to make Shanghai Metro safe and reliable. Most, though, are never seen by the public and many are busy working when most users are tucked up in bed.

“Rush hour here starts at 11pm, and by midnight the place will be full,” says Tang Jinrong, a mechanic at the Line 8 garage, while checking rolling stock. In this facility, 40 trains must be thoroughly inspected within six hours.


Garages at the end of Line 8, near Shendu Highway station.

“Each takes around half an hour. We check the wheels’ temp*erature, the position of the screws and many other critical areas,” Tang explains, as he walks along the lowest of the three gantries that are used to help workers examine the trains. A colleague does the same on the upper gantry, checking the roof.

“Technology has changed a lot, so we can now do many checks remotely,” says Qi Bin, one of the men supervising the process. Trains pass beneath a newly installed arch. “It takes photos of all the pantographs that connect to the overhead electricity supply lines. The images are instantly sent to our control room, where staff can see if there is any anomaly. That saves a lot of time.”

The garage is also full of high-definition cameras that engineers can use to zoom in on specific components. “There are some places we can’t see because pillars create blind spots, but it helps to double check mechanics’ work,” says Qi.

Three types of train are currently in use on Line 8, which runs from the northeast of Shanghai, through the centre and down to the south. The oldest were made by French manu*facturer Alstom, then Japan’s Hitachi was contracted. The latest additions are Chinese made, by CRRC, a corporation that also provides metro rolling stock to Hong Kong and cities in Thailand, Iran, Brazil and Argentina.

Fei Chaoxia drives a CRRC train. We travel with him along Line 3, which runs from the north and skirts the western side of the city centre, but he is not allowed to speak. He needs to concentrate on the signals. Every now and then, Fei raises his arm and acknowledges a traffic light. At every station, he needs to get out, make sure that all passengers are aboard and signal again before setting off.


Tang Jinrong inspects a train in the Line 8 garages.

Also in the cabin is a shy novice, who may soon be driving a train in some eastern city.

“Shanghai is one of the main training bases in the country,” explains Xia Zhiyi, who is in charge of Line 3’s 300 drivers and is also with us in the cab. “Here, drivers have to take a three-month-long theory course and spend another six months of practice before they can take the final exam for the job. If they pass, they still need to complete another half year of practice at their final post.

“The pay is similar to that of bus and taxi drivers, but the duties are more intense. Drivers complete eight-hour shifts and can rest for only 10 minutes when they reach the end of their line, which may take close to two hours. There is a half-hour break for lunch. Those on the night shift will end their working day in the small hours, so they will have to sleep in accommo*dation provided by the company. The first shift starts at 5am.”

It’s a job better suited to men, says driver Fei, breaking his silence. “Less than 20 per cent of all Shanghai Metro drivers are female,” he says. “I believe men not only endure better, they are also more capable of solving emergency situations.”

Xia is quick to intervene, adding, “But we accept every candi*date as long as he or she can pass the tests.”

Men also predominate in the maintenance teams. The toughest are in the track repair and conditioning department. We find a maintenance team along the open-air section of Line 8 near Lianhang Road station, at 5pm, when the temperature still lingers close to 40 degrees Celsius. Soaked in sweat and using surprisingly rudimentary tools, they check that the width and length of tracks haven’t changed; make sure that all screws and moving parts are intact and in working order; and comb the crushed stones between the rails.


Driver Fei Chaoxia (right) and an intern operate a train on Line 3.

“It takes one whole year to cover all the lines,” says Wu Xiaoyin, head of one of the teams.

Not far away, other technicians oversee another critical element of the metro: the transformer substations. The system is almost fully automatic and trackside monitoring rooms are air-conditioned and comfortable. Wang Bin and Qian Xiaofeng keep an eye on two stations, a 400 kVA installation for metro offices and one of 1,500 kVA that supplies electricity to Line 8 trains.

“We need to make sure that any fault is repaired fast and doesn’t spread along the line,” explains Wang. “Our biggest concern are objects touching the electrified cables, mostly clothes blown away from residential buildings by the wind and helium balloons,” he adds with a smile. “Fortunately, we’ve had no big incidents.”

It’s been only 24 years since Shanghai opened its first sub*way line. But, as Shao points out, “the city has already done what took others 100 years”. London achieved the engineering feat of building its first underground train line 154 years ago, but times have changed and the world’s most spectacular infrastructure achievements now belong to China.

The upcoming Line 14 is another example.

“It will cross five of Shanghai’s most populated districts and boast 16 interchange stations, which will be the city’s record,” says general engineer Zhou Xisheng. “Some will be 36 metres below the surface, and the one at Yuanshen Road will boast three levels: B1 for cars [a tunnel passing beneath the Huangpu River], B2 for ticket offices and B3 for tracks.”


Qian Xiaofeng flips a substation switch while colleague Wang Bin looks on.

That station is also the first to have been built under a temporary roof.

“This system is notably more expensive but reduces noise and dust – something people are more concerned about nowa*days because of high pollution levels – and it enables work to continue in harsh weather conditions, like the summer heat, the winter cold and rain,” says Zhou.

Complaints from forced evictions and relocations have also dramatically decreased in recent years.

“We have learned from past mistakes and we plan the future development of the net*work much more carefully,” says Shao. “We understand it can’t be a burden to the residents, so the standards for relocation and compensation have been raised a lot. The process now takes a third of the total budget for building new metro lines. District governments have different rules, but one can’t be changed: people have to be moved to a place with a metro station nearby.”

The biggest challenge now is to have Shanghai’s subway network break even.

“We have different business development plans, which have been inspired both by Japan and Hong Kong,” says Shao. “We are trying to increase advertising revenue – including from tunnel screens that feature ads while the metro is moving – and we also want to attract higher quality retail and services companies to our commercial spaces.

“But we can’t forget that we run a public service, and that ticket prices have to remain affordable to all.”
__________________

dimlys1994, zntfdr liked this post
tjrgx no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 15th, 2017, 12:38 AM   #3776
tjrgx
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2013
Location: Boston
Posts: 1,043
Likes (Received): 2810

Shanghai’s Subway Looks to New York, but Not for Everything

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/11/b...ro-subway.html

SHANGHAI — New York commuters suffer regular delays. Aging tracks at Penn Station are being rebuilt after a series of derailments. The entire subway system is operating under a state of emergency.

Halfway around the world, China is rushing to build new subway systems. Here in Shanghai, three new lines are being extended this year. Trains are nearly always on time.

Chinese officials are quick to say that New York has a model public transport network, albeit one they aspire to emulate more closely in some respects than others.

While the New York system is aging, it still shows the soaring ambition of its original creators in its bold design — express tunnels and stations bring together up to a dozen lines. Shanghai’s is clean, efficient and constantly expanding. But its development also reflects a preoccupation with managing vast crowds and avoiding stampedes, which results in a layout that can make trips longer.

On Time, or All The Time?

Fares on Shanghai’s subway are 3 to 4 renminbi, or 45 to 60 cents, for all but the longest journeys. To the extent that wages in the Chinese city are about a sixth that of New York, they roughly compare to the $2.75 fares in New York.

But the similarities largely end there.

New York’s subway struggles with chronic delays, partly because of mechanical breakdowns but also because of debris on the tracks and even people falling off platforms. The city has begun an intensive campaign of cleaning tracks of debris, to reduce the frequency of fires. Only two lines — the Lexington Avenue subway and the Queens Boulevard line — are able to offer trains every two minutes, and other lines can be much slower. Much of New York’s signal and switch equipment was installed before World War II.

By contrast, Shanghai’s trains are not only frequent but also dependable. The city’s subway claims to have an on-time rate of 99.8 percent. People or trash seldom fall on the tracks: thick, clear barriers of reinforced glass separate the platforms from the tracks, with sliding doors that open only when a train is in the station. Trains run every two minutes on the busiest lines, and almost as frequently on the other lines.

New York does have its advantages — particularly for night owls.

Subway systems in Shanghai, and across China, shut down every evening. Only in the last few months has Shanghai even extended the closing time for its most heavily used lines to midnight, while other routes still close as early as 10:30 p.m.

The Metropolitan Transportation Authority takes pride in keeping all 472 of its stations open 24 hours a day.

It is able to do so because of the foresight of its builders more than a century ago, said Shao Weizhong, the Shanghai Metro vice president overseeing the system’s operations and management center. The New York system was built with express train tunnels in addition to local train tunnels. So subway cars can take turns during the night running through the local tunnels and the express tunnels, with maintenance conducted on whichever tunnel is not in use.

Shanghai’s subway system, like most such networks around the world, does not have separate local and express tunnels, so the entire system has to stop every night for maintenance. But the system’s newest and most technologically advanced line, Line 14, which is scheduled to open in 2020, will have parallel tracks along at least part of it for ease of maintenance, Mr. Shao said. He added that no decision had been made yet on whether to extend its hours of service.

Workers and Machines

What really separates the Shanghai subway, and those of other Chinese cities, from many Western counterparts is the speed of construction.

The Metropolitan Transportation Authority has used six giant tunnel-boring machines in recent years across the subway network. Shanghai has 60 such devices working on just one of the many new lines it is building or extending.

“Our working progress is faster than in Western countries — maybe we only take one or two years to finish” a task, said Zhou Xisheng, a 49-year-old deputy chief engineer for Shanghai Metro. “However, in foreign countries, it may take five to ten years.”

Shanghai does not just have more equipment, it also has cheaper labor. Heavy equipment operators earn about $1,000 a month here, a small fraction of what comparable workers earn in New York.

The overall effect is striking: China has completed more miles of subways than the rest of the world in each of the last two years, according to the Brussels-based International Association of Public Transport.

To be fair, a simple count of tunnel-boring machines and laborers is not enough to compare the challenges each city faces in building subway lines.

For starters, not all of New York’s subway construction even uses tunnel-boring machines: Some of it is done by cutting a very deep trench in the ground, laying the new line and then covering it.

A bigger difference is that New York has to cut through solid rock to make new tunnels, while Shanghai is digging through relatively soft, solidified mud left by rivers winding across the Yangtze River delta for millions of years. (But that mud creates another hazard that is less of a worry in New York’s firm bedrock: making sure that the roofs of Shanghai’s subway tunnels do not sag or leak water.)

Squares and Diagonals

Shanghai’s subway may carry nearly twice as many people as New York’s, even though it has a quarter fewer stations. But on a day-to-day basis, the biggest difference between the two networks lies in the complexity of each city’s stations.

The sprawling Times Square station, for example, and its 42nd Street extension have 12 lines, although a few of them share tracks. Across New York’s subway map, no line is rigidly straight throughout.

Shanghai, on the other hand, has a subway map that looks more like a rectangular grid — lines run north to south, and east to west, with few exceptions. As a result, most transfer stations involve just two lines, a few have three lines and only one station in the entire network has four.

The lack of “diagonal” lines means that journeys tend to be slightly longer and often involve a transfer — riders in effect go around a square to reach a destination, and have to change trains at the corners.

Line 14, the newest addition to Shanghai’s network, is a notable exception. It will run diagonally along part of its route when it finally opens.

But faced with a city with three times the population of New York, and fearful of overcrowding, Shanghai subway officials say that they prefer the simplicity.

“We try to avoid four-line hubs,” said Li Yingfeng, the chief of the Shanghai subway’s operation management center, “because we have a much higher ridership than the New York City system.”
__________________
tjrgx no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 15th, 2017, 01:34 PM   #3777
Ashis Mitra
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jan 2009
Location: Kolkata
Posts: 2,432
Likes (Received): 1142

Could anyone post here a map of first generation tramway system in Shanghai, which was closed in seventies? Because I could not find any such anywhere.
Ashis Mitra no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 15th, 2017, 08:09 PM   #3778
Silly_Walks
Registered User
 
Join Date: Aug 2010
Posts: 3,976
Likes (Received): 836



Literally the first result on google image search:


Which led me to:


and:


source: http://www.virtualshanghai.net/Maps/Collection


Do you not have Google at your house?
__________________

dimlys1994, zntfdr, Ashis Mitra liked this post
Silly_Walks no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 18th, 2017, 01:08 PM   #3779
Ashis Mitra
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jan 2009
Location: Kolkata
Posts: 2,432
Likes (Received): 1142

The first map is best, but there is no names of termini and depots, could anybody say about those names, following the route numbers based on that map?

Thankfully Shanghai has done the correction almost after 40 years by returning tram in city. The new tram is much different than old tram. The old tram network was single coach or double coach separated, high floor, opened window, trolley-pole, steel wheel, noisy, and slow, but much expanded and served many parts of the entire city. The new tram is five coach articulated, low floor, air-conditioned, panto-graph, rubber tyre, calm and fast, but only one route.

The new tram route is completely different from the old tram route, because the new system serves such places which were very much decongested, even village like area around 50s and 60s, so there were no need for trams, but today it is a very important place for information technology.
Ashis Mitra no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old August 20th, 2017, 12:54 PM   #3780
Ashis Mitra
Registered User
 
Join Date: Jan 2009
Location: Kolkata
Posts: 2,432
Likes (Received): 1142

After reading many websites I’ve recently saw some matters, which arise some questions and curiosity. I’m asking these because I want to compare the Shanghai Tram with my city’s Kolkata Tram. Although the main difference is that Shanghai tram has closed its original network at seventies, whereas Kolkata tram has is continuing its journey, overcoming that notorious anti-tram sixties, although some routes has closed. Here I’m writing—

Note - I have not find any answers of the following questions in any website till now, so I am asking.

1) I heard in future tram will be expanded vastly like today’s metro, and it will create an 800Km network (just unbelievable, but not impossible in Shanghai and China!). Is it true? If yes, please write some details about the future planning, and if possible, give me some English maps and English websites about the future extensions.

2) I heard about an extension of the current network. The next phase of the project is the Zhangjiang tram division multiple-phase construction, a project in the east Greenfield Road, from Zu Chong Zhi Road (Shanghai Metro Line 2 Zhangjiang Hi-tech station), west to Osmanthus Road Autumn Road, which covers a distance of about 10 km, with a total of 15 stops, 1 depot. It will be followed by an extension in the direction of Tang Zhen-Qing. Could anyone show it details with map?

3) Is there any tram conductor inside tramcars for ticketing? Or tickets should be bought before boarding the tram from tram stations?

4) What kind of ticket they used in tram—simple paper ticket or electronic card?

5) Are other motor vehicles allowed on track? I saw the network is completely street running and unreserved, so I’m asking this.

6) Are all stops as tram stations? Or there are some single unreserved street surface stops?

7) Does the entire route is middle of the road ? Or sometimes on left or right side?

8) Is there any special seats for children, ladies, senior citizens and handicapped persons inside the tram cars ?

9) Is there any system for monthly tickets and all-day tickets for tram routes?
Ashis Mitra no está en línea   Reply With Quote


Reply

Tags
metro, shanghai, tram

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Related topics on SkyscraperCity


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 01:50 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.11 Beta 4
Copyright ©2000 - 2018, vBulletin Solutions Inc.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

vBulletin Optimisation provided by vB Optimise (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us | privacy policy | DMCA policy

tech management by Sysprosium