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Old September 7th, 2009, 02:36 AM   #361
Mars Uy
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Samar-Leyte: The Twin Islands of the Pacific

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION
Eastern Visayas encompasses the two large islands of Leyte and Samar, the province of Biliran and several minor islands. This region is the eastern boundary of the Philippines.

The San Bernardino Strait separates Eastern Visayas from Luzon in the southeast while the Surigao Strait separates the province of Leyte from the northeastern part of Mindanao. The Visayan and Camotes Seas separate the region from the rest of the Visayas. On the east, the region faces the Pacific Ocean.

The San Juanico Strait separates the islands of Samar and Leyte. The terrain of the two large islands is entirely different. Leyte has a high peaked mountain mass in the interior while Samar has low rugged hills interspersed with valleys

POPULATION
As of August 1, 2007, the total population of the region was 3,912,936. This increased by 1.12% from its population of 3,610,355 in May 1, 2000.

CULTURAL GROUPS
Region VIII is inhabited by the Waray-Warays, the country’s fourth largest cultural linguistic group. But Cebuanos, from the nearby island of Cebu live in Ormoc City, Western Leyte and parts of the Southwest of Leyte.

CLIMATE
The eastern portion of the region is frequently visited by storms from the Pacific Ocean. The region receives heavy rainfall throughout the year with no pronounced dry season.

LAND USE

Eastern Visayas is primarily an agricultural region with rice, abaca, corn, coconut, sugarcane and banana as major crops. Its total land area is 21,431.7 sq. kms. 52% of its total land area are classified as forestland and 48% as alienable and disposable land.

NATURAL RESOURCES

The region’s sea and inland waters are rich sources of salt and fresh water fish and other marine products. It is one of the fish exporting regions of the country.

There are substantial forest reserves in the interiors of the islands. Its mineral deposits include chromite, nickel, clay, coal, limestone, pyrite and sand and gravel.

It has abundant geothermal energy and water resources to support the needs of medium and heavy industries.

ECONOMY

Primary sources of revenue are manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade and services. Mining, farming, fishing and tourism contribute significantly to the economy Manufacturing firms include mining companies, fertilizer plants, sugar central, rice and corn mills and other food processing plants. Cebu is the hub of investment, trade and development in the region.

Other industries include mining, rice, corn and sugar milling, coconut oil extraction, alcohol distilling, beverage manufacture and forest products. Home industries include hat and basket weaving, metal craft, needlecraft, pottery, ceramics, woodcraft, shell craft and bamboo craft.

The region receives the “spillover” from Cebu’s industrial and eco-tourism activities

Leyte is planned to become an industrial hub of the region with the development of the following industrial estates and centers:

• Leyte Industrial Development Estate
• Amihan Cebu Woodlands township
• Eastern Visayas Regional Agri-industrial Growth Center
• Barugo Economic Zone
• Leyte Provincial Industrial Center in Ormoc City
• Baybay Techno Science Par
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Old September 7th, 2009, 02:46 AM   #362
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FICTION IN LEYTE-SAMAR HISTORY

Prof. Rolando O. Borrinaga
School of Health Sciences
University of the Philippines Manila
Palo, Leyte


I was invited to talk about the topic "The History of Leyte and Samar" before this gathering of esteemed media practitioners in the region. Of course, the topic is too broad and potentially boring to an audience who I presume already have basic knowledge of the region’s history and whose attention have been partially left in their beat and areas of assignment. So I decided on a delimited but controversial angle to my topic. Hopefully, this will result in an animated open forum and private discussion and debate.

I shall talk about some fiction that were presumed as facts and became part of the conventional history of the Leyte-Samar region. Fiction-as-history dot the broad expanse of the written history of this region from the time of Magellan up to the present.



The First Mass

The Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan "rediscovered" our archipelago in March 1521 by entering through our region. Little did he know that more than 400 years later, two places will contest the site of the recorded First Mass in the Philippines. The controversy was whether this event was held in Limasawa Island in southern Leyte or in Masao, Butuan. This issue reached hilarious proportion two years ago when Limasawa and Masao both commemorated in grand style the 475th anniversary of the recorded First Mass in their respective places.

By way of a background, Dr. Gregorio Zaide and his daughter, Sonia, in several editions during the 1980s of their widely-disseminated history textbook, insisted that the recorded First Mass was held in Masao, Butuan. In the process, they dismissed the Limasawa claim as erroneous. In contrast, Father Peter Schreurs, a retired Columban missionary priest and former parish priest of Magallanes in Agusan del Norte, where Masao is found, also refuted the Masao claim. After conducting archival research for his book Caraga Antigua, Fr. Schreurs concluded that Limasawa was the historical site of the recorded First Mass. He dismissed the Masao claim as "an imaginary event."

The Limasawa-versus-Masao controversy continues and the experts have been called to intervene and to settle the dispute once and forall. I was told recently by a reliable source that the National Historical Institute, in a decision handed out early this year, had ruled that the recorded First Mass in the Philippines was held in Limasawa Island. Unfortunately, the erroneous textbook entry in the popular Zaide publication remains uncorrected and will likely remain gospel truth for some more years.


Legazpi’s route


The second piece of fiction I would like to refute pertains to the Philippine route of the Legazpi expedition in 1565. The Zaide textbook implied that the expedition anchored first near Cebu before proceeding to Samar. This is an error.

The Philippine landfall of Legaspi’s ships was an islet now called Tubabao, off Oras town in northeastern Samar. From here, they made a week-long stop-over near another islet now also called Tubabao, off Guiuan town in southern Samar. From Guiuan area, the ships proceeded to Cabalian in southern Leyte, which the Spaniards raided to procure food. From Cabalian, they proceeded to Limasawa, which had been depopulated in the aftermath of a reported Portuguese raid. Without meeting anybody in Limasawa, the expedition eventually proceeded to Camiguin, then to Bohol where the famous "Blood Compact" between Legazpi and Sikatuna was held, and finally to Cebu, where they established the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines.


No Bankaw-Legazpi meeting

This brings me to the third fiction that I seek to refute: the purported meeting between Bankaw and Legazpi in Limasawa in 1565. Almost all our history textbooks mentioned this event. But the Legazpi chronicles did not mention such meeting at all, during which Bankaw supposedly received royal thanks from King Philip II through Legazpi.

The source of the fictitious Bankaw-Legazpi meeting was a history of the Jesuit missions in the Philippines, written by Jesuit Father Pedro Murillo Velarde and published in 1749. Historians quoted from his work without verifying from the original sources, and thereafter propagated a fiction that was accepted as historical fact.

The massacre of Bankaw’s family

A fourth partly-fictional event was the Bankaw Religious Revolt in 1621. After reviewing many of the published accounts and official documents, I have come to a conclusion that there was no Bankaw Revolt as claimed by historians. Of course, there was active dissent in Leyte at that time, which I had discussed in a speculative biographical article on the life of Bankaw. Indeed, Bankaw threatened to return to the religion of his ancestors after actively supporting the initial Spanish plans, which included the concentration of people and settlements into pueblos with a town plaza.

Bankaw’s dissent created panic among the Spanish priests in Leyte. One of them, Father Melchor de Vera, the Jesuit superior in Carigara, quietly left for Cebu to report about Bankaw’s alleged apostasy and sedition. Don Juan de Alcarazo, the alcalde-mayor (governor) of Cebu, quickly gathered a fleet of 40 ships and sailed for Leyte to suppress Bankaw.

During negotiation for Bankaw’s return to the Catholic fold, the unwelcome visitors, composed of Spanish officials and soldiers and hundreds of Cebuano reinforcements, appeared to have massacred instead the chief and his family. For the Cebuanos, it might have been their first taste of victory and revenge against their perennial Waray tormentors. But their act seemed too shameful they had to report a revolt to hide their treachery.

However, folklore, place-names, and rituals -- now acceptable as legitimate indicators of history -- suggest a totally different version of the Bankaw episode. Two barangays in Carigara named Hiraan suggest a verbal altercation or debate, and not a battle, between Bankaw’s camp and his visitors. And the turugpo, an annual festival of cock-fighting, carabao-fighting, horse-fighting, and gambling every Good Friday, the holiest day in the Christian world, suggests the Church’s complicity in the massacre of Bankaw and his family.

As if these indicators were not enough, the natives changed the name of their island, formerly Abuyo, into "Ila-Iti" (or "This is Iti’s land!"), which was later corrupted to Leyte. Iti, an endearing old nickname meaning Good Boy, seemed to have been Bankaw’s baptismal name. Therefore the name Leyte, muted and forgotten its historical meaning and context may be, appears to be a protest call, telling our colonizers and oppressors (of different guises, then and now) that this is not their land; that they should not dictate to us what to do with this land! We echo the same call now, when everybody else, except us, is deciding what to do with our geothermal resources and how much we pay for our electricity.

The natives also echo the name Tirana to this day. Tirana was the unreported victim of the so-called Bankaw Revolt. The one wife left after the four others were divorced, she seemed to have been blamed for Bankaw’s apostasy. As suggested by a folk song titled "Tirana," which soulful line is "Tirana bitaw’ng makalulu-oy" (or "Tirana, really the pitiful one"), she seemed to have been drowned to death.

Tirana was buried wrapped in banana leaves, because a priest disallowed a decent burial for her. And though the Spaniards tabooed her name, it still persists in altered form in Maritana, a sitio of Palarao in Leyte-Leyte, my theorized burial area of Bankaw, and in Triana, the largest poblacion barangay in Limasawa.

Biliran Religious Revolt

A fifth fiction I would like to refute is the historians’ claim that all the native revolts prior to the Philippine Revolution in the 1890s were effectively suppressed by the Spaniards. This general claim extends from the text about the failed revolts written by Fr. Murillo Velarde, which I cited earlier. However, this generalization, when extended beyond the post-1749 period, is not necessarily correct.

Perhaps some of you had watched the movie titled "The Mission" in the late 1980s. If memory serves me right, this critically-acclaimed movie starring Robert de Niro and Jeremy Irons won the Best Picture Award in the Cannes Film Festival in France, but not in the Oscar Awards. The movie was about the aborted Jesuit experiment in communal society living among the Guarani Indians in the forest of Paraguay, in South America. It might interest you to know that its Asian parallel was carved out of the forest of Biliran town in Biliran Province.

The Biliran Religious Revolt from 1765 to 1775 was the most successful revolt in Philippine history, though it is not found in our history textbooks. It was led by Padre Gaspar Ignacio de Guevara, a Samar-born native priest who was appointed as the first parish priest of Biliran pueblo by the Spanish colonial government.

Padre Gaspar turned out to be deluded and heretical. He created a new poblacion for Biliran pueblo by moving it away from its original site in Sitio Ilawod of Barangay Caraycaray in the present town of Naval. The new poblacion was carved out of the mountain top forest in what is presently known as Barangay Hugpa in Biliran town.

Padre Gaspar called the new poblacion site as Albacea, a Spanish word for "executor of the testament." Here he set up a sanctuary, enthroned himself in the "chair of Peter" with the royal throne in Biliran Island, and styled himself as the "first of the priests of the world."

From his sanctuary, Padre Gaspar spread his doctrines, granted indulgences, spread out news of miracles in the Leyte-Samar region, recruited and sent out disciples to incite revolts, conferred sacred orders, gave out offices, legislated, threatened those who opposed him and, together with a native "alcalde-mayor" of Biliran whom he appointed, fought against the Franciscan friars in Samar and the Augustinians in Leyte.

Padre Gaspar ordained sub-deacons, and attracted a great number of followers, especially among the women. He was also cordially treated and sheltered by the Catbalogan-based alcalde-mayor of Samar, who also worked with him.

The revolt ended after Padre Gaspar was captured by Moro pirates about 10 years later. He was drowned to death near Tagasipol Islet off Kawayan town in Biliran.

The Franciscans in Samar believed that if the Moros had not caught Padre Gaspar, "there would not today (this was 1775) be a Christian left on Samar and Leyte."

The "Biliran commune" would be replicated elsewhere by members of the "Dios-dios" movement in Leyte and Samar in the 1890s, during the revolution that ousted the Spaniards from the region in 1898, and during the Pulahan Wars against the Americans from 1902 to 1907. This native model of commune living, invoked by milleniarist movements during dangerous and uncertain times, preceded Karl Marx’s "The Communist Manifesto" by nearly a century.


Conclusion


As media practitioners, I would not be surprised if you have also come across some fiction that became accepted as historical fact in your places of origin or assignment. I just gave you five of what I know. Perhaps you can add up to the list during the open forum or workshop.

Thank you and may you have a good day.
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Old September 7th, 2009, 03:12 AM   #363
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The first mass in the Philippines is realy questionable, ayt?!

Congratulations for the new thread!
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Old September 7th, 2009, 03:33 AM   #364
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Taga-Biliran pala si Lapu-lapu? I'll post an article later.
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Old September 7th, 2009, 04:04 AM   #365
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Lapulapu in Biliran?
(A Tentative Hypothesis)

By Rolando O. Borrinaga


This is a tentative, speculative piece to support the following theories:

1. That Lapulapu, our first national hero, settled in a village called Bagasumbol, the old name of Naval, the capital town of Biliran Province north of Leyte;

2. That the word Bagasumbol was a reverential folk attribute to Lapulapu for his spectacular feat, the victory over the attacking Spanish troops led by the ill-fated Ferdinand Magellan during the Battle of Mactan in April 1521;

3. That Bagasumbol was the "provincial" abode of Lapulapu, his vacation spot, and the farming and hunting ground of his tribe; and

4. That Mactan Island was merely Lapulapu’s "urban" abode near Cebu (Sugbu), an ancient trade center, an abode which he shared with Sula, another datu (chief).

These speculations surfaced quite eclectically after I had finished researching and writing the paper on the beginnings of Naval together with a group of local intellectuals.1


The Meaning of Sumbol

The former name of the town of Naval was Bagasumbol (i.e., "like sumbol"). According to local folklore this "war-like" name, Bagasumbol, was changed in 1859 to a more "peaceful" name, Naval, supposedly to commemorate the historical La Guerra Naval de Manila in 1646, which was believed to have been won by the Spaniards against the powerful Dutch squadron because of the miraculous intercession of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary. The Blessed Virgin is the adopted patroness of the town of Naval.2

The folklore of the town, therefore, has a ready explanation for the "Naval" name. However, the natives have always been at a loss to explain the origin of its former name, Bagasumbol. This old name has been provided with explanations by several authors and writers in the past.

Artigas3 wrote that the word bagasumbol meant "an obstacle to enemies." Lepasana4 mentioned that the settlement was named after its founder who happened to be called Bagasumbol. Chico5 noted the theories advanced by Artigas and Lepasana, but added that whatever may be the case, "the place (Bagasumbol) may either refer to the founder who earned the name of an obstacle to the enemies for his prowess and fearlessness against the hostile attacks of the enemies, or it may refer to the inhabitants themselves, who were reputed for their bravery and courage which enabled them to repel the almost insuperable (sic) invasions of their antagonists."

The diverse interpretations of Bagasumbol, borne largely out of word-play rather than out of a discreet inquiry into the etymology of the word, certainly did not put an end to the debate.



In 1990 I finally came across a direct reference to the word sombol, together with its definition, in an English translation of the Alzina manuscript of 1668. Alzina defined the Bisayan word sombol as "a great feathered ornament (gran plumaje) which they tie to the prow (of their boats, when returning from war or a mission) as a symbol of their victory or as the greatest sign of conquest."6 The word therefore always referred to the ethnic, self-made equivalent of the modern victor’s trophy.

Thus the word Bagasumbol or baga sumbol had always meant "like or similar to (baga, in Waray) a symbol of a great victory or conquest (sombol)." With the meaning of Bagasumbol now known, I was left with speculating on how the place became referred to as Bagasumbol.


"Urban" and "Provincial" Abodes

Pigafetta’s account of his observations in Limasawa Island gives us some clues that the native datus in 1521 had both "urban" (i.e., near a trade center) and "provincial" abodes, where they farmed, hunted, or vacationed. For instance, the brothers Rajah Kolambu and Rajah Awi, whom Magellan and Pigafetta met in Limasawa, happened to be in that island at the Spanish contact only because they had previously agreed to meet each other and do some hunting there.7 In the case of Rajah Awi, he appeared to have an "urban" abode in Butuan, but his "provincial" abode appeared to be Calagan (Surigao). As for Rajah Kolambu, Limasawa Island appeared to be just a favorite "provincial" abode, but he probably came from his "urban" abode in the present Carigara town in north Leyte, which was the abode of his grandson, Rajah Bankaw, of the Bankaw Revolt fame in the 1620s.8

With the above examples in mind, we might surmise that Lapulapu, the other datu of Mactan, must have also had a "provincial" abode. And this could have been Bagasumbol, the old name of the town of Naval in Biliran Island.

Historical Inference

The historical proof for Bagasumbol as the "provincial" abode of Lapulapu could partly be inferred from the accounts on the expedition of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1565.9 When Legazpi and his expedition settled in Cebu that year, he found that the people of Mactan persistently refused to come to terms with the Spaniards, as Lapulapu had done to Magellan in 1521. When Legazpi tried to negotiate peace with them, the Mactanese instead fled eastward, to Leyte. Later, when a force was about to be sent to Leyte, the refuge of the Mactanese, the people of Cebu begged of Legazpi not to launch the attack until they had warned their relatives trading there to get out.10

One of the interesting native characters dealing with the Legazpi expedition was a person named Makyaw. He was the brother of Rajah Tupas, the datu of Cebu in 1565, and the husband of a woman and the father of two girls who had been taken hostage by Legazpi to guarantee peace following the burning of Cebu by the Spaniards. After his family was released, Makyaw played a front-line role in a native attempt to drive the Spaniards out of the islands by hunger, a passive resistance approach to preserving their way of life. But this tactic failed because the Spaniards had decided to settle in these islands, though they left Cebu after a few years in favor of Panay, from where they proceeded to Manila to establish their permanent settlement.11

Makyaw appeared to be the same person as Capitan Basio (a corruption of Makyaw?), the legendary founder of the settlement of Kawayan, now a town 18 kilometers north of Naval. The historical data paper of Kawayan tells that Capitan Basio was a resident of Cordova in Mactan. It also tells that he fled from Mactan and settled in Kawayan supposedly to escape the injustice inflicted on his family by the Moros and the Spaniards.12 If Makyaw of history and Capitan Basio of legend were indeed the same person, then we have proof that Biliran Island was the Mactanese domain in Leyte where Makyaw fled to.13 This could provide a tenuous association with the claim that the neighboring Bagasumbol may have been the "provincial" abode of the famous Mactanese, Lapulapu, who probably sired a similarly brave and defiant son who also became chief of Mactan.14

Was Lapulapu Bagasumbol?


Lapulapu’s victory over Ferdinand Magellan during the Battle of Mactan in the morning of 27 April 1521 was a memorable event in the Western world. Magellan’s death was mourned as a great loss to world history. However, if my speculation is correct, the natives of the Philippines at the Spanish contact may have also acted like true victors: they apparently memorialized Lapulapu’s victory by revering him as a living human trophy, baga sumbol ("like a symbol of a great victory"). Taking Lepasana’s explanation cited earlier, was Lapulapu the person called Bagasumbol, the founder of the settlement of the same name?

In a previous article published in Kinaadman concerning the beginnings of Naval town,15 I apparently erred in interpreting Artigas’s Bagasumbol, "obstacle to enemies." I wrote that Bagasumbol became the name of the old poblacion site of Biliran pueblo only after the local residents showed a belligerent attitude against their deluded and heretical first parish priest, following the latter’s decision to transfer the poblacion to another site sometime between 1765 and 1775. I now believe that Bagasumbol had been the name of this village long before it was made the poblacion of Biliran pueblo, and that the "obstacle to enemies" perception contextually evolved out of a different "war-like" stance showed by the local residents -- that of protracted resistance. The new meaning expanded, but did not necessarily alter, the original meaning of Bagasumbol.

But it might be asked, if the village was named after Lapulapu, why was it not named Lapulapu? Why Bagasumbol instead? The answer to this question reflects the civilities, terms of courtesy, and good breeding of the prehispanic natives. Their greatest courtesy was in their form of address. They never spoke to anyone as "you" or in the second person but always in the third person.16 Thus, in the case of Limasawa Island, for example, the island was not named after Rajah Kolambu in his name, but after one of his probable attributes -- his having five wives (i.e., of him who has lima asawa).17

One of the interesting events in Naval history occurred sometime in the 1930s. The predominantly Spanish names of the town’s 14 streets were abruptly renamed mostly after illustrious local forebears.18 However, one old street name was retained: Magallanes. (Another renamed street, Gran Capitan or Great Captain, probably referred also to Magellan.) It probably would not strain our credulity if the redundant folkloric reference to Magellan in this town subconsciously alluded to the fact that it was Magellan’s conqueror who founded the settlement that became known as Bagasumbol and who may have brought there some trophy from the battle of Mactan.

Last edited by Mars Uy; September 7th, 2009 at 08:04 AM.
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Old September 7th, 2009, 06:42 AM   #366
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Congratulations @mars for making this thread possible.
With these thread, we will be delighted and recognized to fellow forumers of different ethnicity (hope I got a correct term) on how beautiful our Waray Heritage, if not Lineyte-Samarnon-Biliranon Heritage.
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Old September 7th, 2009, 06:55 AM   #367
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Thank you Sir Ijun! Magcontribute pa tayo sa thread na ito para makita ng iba ang kakaibang kultura ng Silangan Bisayas.
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Old September 7th, 2009, 09:40 AM   #368
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maraming Bisaya sa Mindanao because they speak Bisaya/Cebuano. we can't really change the mindset of the people that Bisaya only pertains to Cebuano.

(Bisayang Manok? or Bisdaka tawhana oy). maybe that term evolve because Cebuano language is very dominant.
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Old September 7th, 2009, 02:13 PM   #369
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Tama ka @federalist most probably Cebuano language is very dominant in most Central and Southern part of the country. That BISAYA thing has evolved enough to the mindset of people to the point that we cannot correct it by an instance. So, now I know the answer to my question. But, I still consider myself as WARAYNON to specify my ethnicity.
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Old September 7th, 2009, 09:25 PM   #370
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Pre-Hispanic Leyte


Archeological findings


LONG before the Spaniards arrived in the island of Leyte, thriving communities populated several coastal areas that later became town centers. Contrary to popular beliefs, these were not uncivilized savages that lived here but well-ordered societies having their own laws and customs, their own culture and ways of coping with the problems of survival.

Significant is the presence of iron slags in association with these sherds. This is proof of a metal smelting activity, suggesting an organized community already thriving in the area.

Large fragments of earthenware jars that were found in association with human skeletal remains were indications that the jar-burial traditions were not only being practiced on the mainlands such as in Samar, Bohol, Sorsogon and other parts of the country but at small islands as Limasawa.

According to the archeologists, the presence of sherds of ceramics in Magallanes is an indication of a thriving ancient trade networks of the Limasawa Island to the "outside world". Our ancestors were trading with the Chinese, Thai and Vietnamese during the Ming Dynasty period (13th to 17th centuries A.D.). [ Melchor L. Aguillera Jr., "Result of the Initial Archaeological Field Survey in Limasawa Island, Southern Leyte," Souvenir Programme, March 31, 1996, 475th Year Commemoration]

Indeed, Leyte had a thriving economy that already bordered on the fringes of agriculture, using hand tools to cultivate rice fields and workable irrigation systems in some places. When the Spaniards came, trading settlements were already flourishing in the coastal areas of Carigara, Ogmuc, Dulaque and Hilongos. From China, Siam, Cambodia, Sumatra and other places, the natives bought porcelain, iron vases, silk, fabrics, fish nets, tine, silk umbrellas and various animals. In return, they bartered cotton, sinamay, coconuts, wax, camotes, mats (petates), pearls, rare shells, betel nuts (which they chewed endlessly), cattle, fowl and hogs.

They knew ship-building, mining of iron, manufacture of war implements, gold trinkets, jewelry, native wine and cotton textiles. They fished with nets and corrals. Hog and poultry raising were common as also noted by Legaspi in Cabalian in 1565.



SOURCE: http://www.geocities.com/ebjustimbaste/
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Old September 7th, 2009, 09:50 PM   #371
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Pre-Hispanic Leyte



Pintados


THE first impression of the western man on the native in Leyte could be read in Pigafetta's account in Limasawa when he described the brother of Rajah Siani of that island: He "was the handsomest among these people. His hair was very black and of shoulder length; he had a silk cloth on his head and two large gold rings hang from the ears. He wore a cotton cloth, embroidered with silk to cover himself from waist down to the knees.

On his side, he wore a dagger with a long handle, all of gold, with its scabbard made of carved wood. With this he wore upon him scents of storac and binoin (benzoin). He was tanned and his face was all painted... The painted king was called Colambu and the other Rajah Siani." (Blair & Robertson)

Although Pigafetta was describing what could have been the representative of the upper crust of Leyte's social structure during the period of discovery, the observations of the early Jesuits here, particularly Chirino and Alzina, did not seem to vary too much.

Alzina saw that there were distinctions in the way the natives dressed compared to their chiefs. "Men wore red bajag or pinayusan down to their knees, chiefs wore theirs longer; one end of this cloth fell to their knees, the other end is passed between the legs. They bring it up to the waist and wind it once until it joins with the end that comes from below. Thus joined, they wind the cloth around the stomach once, twice or even three times, until the end in front and that in the back are even, such that both the front and back ends cover all the body from waist down..."(Alzina)

As for their ends (called ampis in the vernacular), "...one should be much longer than than the other". The upper portion of the body was covered with baro, with"... sleeves fitting, neck hole wide and round, reaching the knees. Some are open in front, others are closed. People merely fold a strip of cloth and cut a hole in the middle through which to thrust their head. But the sides are sewn, leaving on the bottom side slits a palm long more or less."(ibid)

Men's attire were not complete without the head turban or pudung. Among the poor, this was made of abaca, wound twice around the head, with the top uncovered. But the chiefs wore linen ones, completely decorated with silk, and wound many turns around the head. Those who had records of valor wore colored pudung called pinajusan.

Some natives had hats made of straw or palm, flat and with no crown. They walked barefooted.

But that was not the complete picture of the native Leyteño at the end of the 16th century. Without the indelible paint etched on his dark brown skin, he would not be considered man enough. "Pintados" was the name given to the natives here because of their body paintings.

"The Bisayans are called Pintados because they are in fact so, not by nature although they are well-built, well-featured and white, but by painting their entire bodies from head to foot as soon as they are young men with strength and courage enough to endure the torture of painting. In the old days, they painted themselves when they had performed some brave deed. They paint themselves by first drawing blood with pricks from a very sharp point, following the design and lines previously marked by the craftsmen in the art, and then over the fresh blood applying a black powder that can never again be erased.

They do not paint the whole body at one time, but part by part, so that the painting takes many days to complete. In the former times they had to perform a new feat of bravery for each of the parts that were to be painted. The paintings are very elegant, and well proportioned to the members and parts where they are located. I used to say there, captivated and astonished by the appearance of one of these, that if they brought it to Europe a great deal of money could be made by displaying it. Children are not painted. The women paint the whole of one hand and a part of the other." (ibid)

Legaspi in 1565 made a similar observation when he set foot on Leyte. " The torsos, thighs and arms of the men were tattoed with pigment deep in the flesh; most of them wore only bahag to cover the loins; gold pendants hang from their ears; and the chiefs also wore gold anklets."(Documentos Ineditos)

Women's attire. If the men's attire of bahag was a bit shocking to the Catholic Spaniard, the women were somewhat too scantily dressed in view of the strict Spanish morality.

Generally, women wore short skirts. But those of the upper brackets of society wore their skirts a little over or below the knees. The slaves had even shorter skirts. Common folks made theirs of abaca, while the high-born women had silken ones, probably of Chinese origins.

Their breasts were covered with baro (or jackets) so short that they did not reach the waist. When their arms were raised, part of the breasts were exposed. Some wore kerchiefs that barely covered their heads; high-born ones had bigger kerchiefs reaching down to the shoulders.

Between the men and women, the latter seemed to have more time to make themselves beautiful. And of all the parts of their body, it was their hair that was most attended to. Observed Alzina: "Women grow their hair long, care for it more than any part of the body. In some instances, hair grows down to the floor.( Cutting it meant one was in mourning.) They wash it with a bark of a wood like soap, dress it with fragrant oils, the most common being sesame oil. They adorn their hair with flowers and sweet-smelling leaves"
The women of the upper crust on the other hand used civet, amber and musk, adding different flowers and sweet-smelling leaveas called "tagonibaisat" (Meaning, something that adds beauty).

Freed from the worries of making a living, these high-born women kept themselves shut inside their houses, so that they were called binocot. Some never stepped on the ground and were carried on their shoulders when they left their abodes. A lot of them were even as fair as Spanish women.

Not to be outdone, men in some places wore their hair long too, a custom they acquired from the Chinese traders. Some cut it down to shoulder length like the Javanese.

Both men and women wore earrings of gold called Panicas or Pamarang. These errings had spokes through the sides and golden flower through the center with pearls or precious stones. Some had nothing in the center but had edges extending out and designs carved on them. Some errings were made of carabao horn, ivory, sea shells and turtle cases. The biggest erring would be at the bottom of the ear, the smallest at the top of the ear lobe.

Completing their bodily decorations were gold bracelets, rings in fingers and necklaces, beads of gold garnets of several color and sizes. After a few years of Spanish occupation, cornelians were used as the Spaniards took much of their gold.

(These bodily decorations of the 16th century Leyteño underwent drastic changes after a few years of Spanish rule. By the middle of the 17th century, these quiant traditions were being superceded by the Spanish haircut and manner of dressing. The bahag disappeared and the short skirts to go too. The Jesuit missionaries were in a large measure responsible for their disappearance.)

A simple folk. Native innocence with its utter disregard for the western sense of modesty blended well in their plain, simple lifestyle. This Chirino noted:"The people are plain, simple and intelligent. They posess among other good and laudable customs, two in particular which are common to neighboring islands. One is that to travel or sail, they have no need to carry provisions with them since wherever they may arrive, they can be sure of being lodged or fed. The other is that whether the harvest be good or bad, the price of rice never goes up or down, the grain being sold by one to another always at the same price. Both practices derive from the spirit of good neighborliness that exists among them..."

Such simplicity was further reflected in their households. Their houses were usually built on six to eight poles (called harigue), some made of matured bamboo poles. The roof was made of palm leaves, straw or split bamboo. These houses measured three of four fathoms long, two fathoms wide and two fathoms high. But there were no doors as nobody would steal their belongings.

Once inside their houses, the natural propensity for comfort took over. They went about almost naked because of the heat: men enveloped themselves in blanket in which they sleep on the floor, while women knotted their mantles at the waist, without bodice or shirt. Some women wore skirts reaching to their feet, called lambong. Children under twelve ran about naked until they started to develop pubic hair.

Although every couple aspired to have their own house, it was customary for two or three couples to live in one house especially if they were related. Apparently, they were more concerned about their security, physical as well as economic, to bother too much about privacy.

The priest Fr. Alzina also observed that the natives "never knew the use of sheets and mattresses. Neither men nor women when sleeping had any sheet or bed but lay on the floor of their houses on small mats or palm that they call `petate'...they had other mats made of ratten, small palms with very long trunks; cut trunks into pieces of a fathom more or less and split them into strips which they tied closely together with a cord", a custom that still exists in many places to this day.

Their rattan mat was called "taguican" which was said to be nicer than "rampacan", which was fashioned from thin bamboo. But this second type of mat was more commonly used as it was easier to make.

Natives were not familiar with soft feather pillows, but they would use a block of wood for a pillow. As for blankets, in earlier days, it was sewn like a sack, open at one end and closed at the other. This was made of abaca.

Their bed or sleeping area was usually an elevated portion of the hut near their hearth. Nearby their cats, dogs and other domesticated animals also slept.The pigs however were used to clean up food leftovers and their human wastes left in some corner of the house.

In their kitchen, simplicity was again written all over. Plates and tumblers were made of coconut shells. These plates were called "paia", the tumbler "ongot". A few had chinaware, very thick and well-made, but these were used sparingly. They also tried making plates from clay but these were very crude. Despite these conditions, Alzina saw the people were happy and contented.



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Old September 7th, 2009, 10:15 PM   #372
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Magellan


(Source: "The Site of the First Mass in the Philippines" by Fr. Miguel A. Bernad, SJ. Kinaadman III (1981), a publication of Xavier University, Ateneo de Davao and Ateneo de Zamboanga)
Magellan

FERDINAND Magellan, a Portuguese, offered his services to Spain because he felt the king of Portugal had not sufficiently rewarded his services as a soldier and officer in India and Malacca.

He told King Charles I of Spain that he would find a new route to the East by sailing westward. Magellan was given command of a Spanish fleet consisting of five ships, the flagship Trinidad (110 tons), San Antonio (120 tons), Concepcion (90 tons), Victoria (85 tons) and Santiago (75 tons).

An Italian member of the expedition, Antonio Pigafetta, served as the official chronicler and wrote eyewitness account of the expedition, entitled "Primo Viaggio Intorno Al Globo Terracqueo (First Voyage Around the Terrestial Globe) first published in Italian in 1800.

The expedition set sail from Seville on Auygust 10, 1519, but dropped anchor at the mouth of Guadalquivir, San Lucar de Barrameda until Sept. 20, 1519 when they lift anchor and sailing once more to start the long and arduous journet with 237 men aboard the five ships.

The fleet sailed west, then southwest to South America. The first objective was to look for a passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific which they found now called Strait of Magellan in October 1520.

They crossed Africa, dropped anchor at the coasts of Brazil, Cape St. Agustine, Rio de Plata and the famous Bay of St. Julian along the desolate Patagonian coast where they stayed for five months and where Santiago was shipwrecked. They they proceeded along the coast and anchored at the river of San Antonio slipped away and returned to Spain, dropping out of the expedition.

Then they began a long voyage pver the Pacific and the three ships, Trinidad, Concepcion and Victoria sailed on steadily for three and two-thirds months without being able to reprovision, according to Pigafetta.

"At dawn on Saturday, March 16, 1521, we came upon a high land at a distance of three hundred leguas from the islands of Ladroni-an island named Zamal (i.e., Samar). The following day, the captain general desired to land on another island which was uninhabited and lay to the rights of the above-mentioned island, in order to be more secure, and to get water and some rest. He had two tents set up on the shore for the sick and had a sow killed for them.

"On Monday afternoon (March 18), we saw a boat coming toward us with nine men reached the shore, their chief went immediately to the captian-general , giving signs of joy because of our arrival. Five of the most ornately adorned of them remained with us, while the rest went to get some others who were fishing, and so they all came.

"The captain-general, seeing that they were reasonable men, ordered food to be set before them, and gave them red caps, morrors, combs, bells, ivory, bocasine and other things. When they saw the captain's courtesy, they present fish, a jar of palm wine, which they call uraca (i.e. arrack), figs more than one palmo long (bananas) and others which were smaller and more delicate, and two cocoanuts.

"They had nothing else then, but made us signs with their hands that they would bring umay or rice, and cocanuts and many other articles of food within four days.

"Cocoanuts are fruits of the palmtree. Just as we have bread, wine, oil and milk, so those people get everything from that tree. They get wine in the following manner. They bore a hole into the heart of the said palm at the top called palmito (stalk), from which distils a liquor which resembles white must. That liquor is sweet but somewhat tart, and (is gathered) in canes (of bamboos) as thick as the leg and thicker. They fasten the bamboo to the tree at evening for the morning, and in the morning for evening. The palm bears a fruit, namely: the cocoanut which is as large as the head or thereabouts....etc.

"Those people became very familiar with us. They told us many things, their names and those of some of the island that could could be seen from the place. Their own island was called Zuluan, and it is not very large. We took great pleasure with them for they were very pleasant an d conversable. In order to show them greater honor the captain-general took them to his ship and showed them all his merchandise - cloves, cinnamon, pepper, ginger, nutmeg, mace, gold and all the things in the ship. He had some mortars fired for them, whereat they exhibited great fear, and tried to jump out of the ship. They made signs to us that the above said articles grew in that place where we were going.

"When we were about to retire, they took their leave very gracefully and neatly, saying they would return according to their promise. The island where we were is called Humunu (Homonhon); but inasmuch as we found two springs there oif clearest water, we called it Acquada da li buoni Segnialli (the watering place of good sings), for there were the first signs of gold which we found in those districts.We wound a great quantity of white coral there, and large trees wtih fruits a trifle smaller than the almond and resembling pine seeds. There were many islands in that district, ands therefore we called them the archipelago of San Lazaro, as they were discovered on the Sabbath of St. Lazarus. They lie in x degrees of latitude toward the Arctic Pole, and in a longitude of 161 degrees from the line of demarcation.

"At noon on Friday, March 22, those men came as they had promised us in two boats with cocanuts, sweet oranges, a jar of palmwine and a cock, in order to show us that there were fowls in that district. They exhibited great signs of pleasure at seeing us. We purchased all those articles from them. Their seignior was an old man who was painted (tattoed). He wore two gold earrings (schione) in his ears, and others many gold armlets in their arms and kerchiefs about their heads.

"We stayed there one week and during that time our captain went ashore daily to visit the sick, and every morning game them cocoanut water from his own hand, which comforted them greatly. There are people living near that island who have holes in their ears so large that they can pass their arms through them. Those people are caphri, that is to say, heathen. They go naked, with a cloth woven from the bark oif a tree (abaca?) about their privies, except some of the chiefs who wear cotton cloth embroidered with silk at the ends by means of a needle. They are dark, fat and painted. They annoint themselves with cocoanut and beneseed oil as a protection against sun and wind. They have very black hair that falls to the waist, and uise daggers, knives and spears ornamented with gold, large shields, fascines, javelins and fishing nets that resemble rezali; and their boats are like ours. (?)

"(On March 25th, Pigafetta fell overboard. Luckily, he was saved.)

That same day, we shaped our course toward the west southwest between four small islands, namely, Cenalo, Hiunanghan, Ibusson and Abarien.

"On Thursday morning, March 28, as we had seen a fire on an island the night before we anchored near it. We saw a small boat which the natives called baloto, with eight men in it, approaching the flagship. A slave belonging to the captain-general who was a native of Zamatra (Sumatra), which was formerly called Traprobana, spoke to them. They immediately understood him, came alongside the ship, unwilling to enter but taking a position at some little distance.

"The captain seeing that they would not trust us, threw them out a red cap and other things tied to a bit of wood. They received them very gladfly, and went away quickly to advise their king. About two hours later we saw two balanghai coming. They are large boats and are so called (by those people). They are full of men and their king was in the larger of them, being seated under an awning of mats.

"When the king came near the flagship, the slave spoke to him. The king understood him, for in those districts the kings know more languages than the other people. He ordered some of his men to enter the ships, but he always remained in his balanghai, at some distance from the ships until his own men returned; and as soon as they retured he departed. The captain-general showed great honor to the men who entered the ship, and gave them some presents, for which the king wished before his departure to give the captian a large bar of gold and a basket full of ginger. The latter, however, thanked the king heartily but would not accept it. In the afternoon we went in the ships and anchored dear the dwelling of the king."



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Old September 8th, 2009, 01:41 AM   #373
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Great new thread!
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Old September 8th, 2009, 01:55 AM   #374
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some commercials on local radio are in Cebuano (talagsa la it Tagalog.. kaurugan/kasagaran Waray ngan Cebuano)
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Old September 8th, 2009, 03:32 AM   #375
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Maupay na aga mga urupod at mga sangkay!





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Old September 8th, 2009, 03:39 AM   #376
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This is really an excellent thread!!!





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Old September 8th, 2009, 07:14 AM   #377
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ijun View Post

Yah your right @2dok better say PINOY AKO! (sabay sayaw ng Pinoy Ako dance step popularized by PBB Housemates.)
Questiön lang: If Visayas group of people (e.i. Hiligaynon, Cebuano and Waray) are called Bisaya, bakit may mga Mindanawans (e.i. Surigao, Gen. San., Davao, Camiguin and even Cagayan de Oro) are also called Bisaya. And they'd speaking Cebuano-like language. So, does it mean whether you're from Visayas or Mindanao (or even you're from Luzon) as long as you are speaking Hiligaynon, Cebuano and Waray puede kang matawag na Bisaya. Thus, being Bisaya is not pertaining to a certain belonging to one of the Visayan islands but belonging to a group of people considered as a major ethnic group of Visayan, Hiligaynon, Cebuano and Waray. Am I right?
Sa sitwasyon naman ng mga hayop at halaman, (e.i. manok) pagsinabing Bisayang Manok dapat din bang galing ng Visayas o may lahing Hiligaynon, Cebuano o Waray para puedeng matawag na 'Bisaya'? Kasi may mga Bisayang Manok naman ata sa Mindanao at Luzon. Tsaka hindi pa ako naka-encounter ng Tagalog na Manok (not unless if you mentiön Andok's first thing comes to my mind is litsong manok galing ng Pampanga) o Mindanawang o Mindanawenyöng Manok (heheheh sorry I cannot find such right term for that matter), ang weird noh?
Just my two cents...
Let's not forget that majority of the migrants in Mindanao are from Visayas...They maybe born and raised in Mindanao, but they have Visayan blood...
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Old September 8th, 2009, 12:35 PM   #378
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Quote:
Originally Posted by urban Iegend View Post
some commercials on local radio are in Cebuano (talagsa la it Tagalog.. kaurugan/kasagaran Waray ngan Cebuano)
I think sometimes Star FM airs their broadcast in Cebuano.
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Old September 8th, 2009, 03:21 PM   #379
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An artist's conception of the planting of the Christian cross in a Limasawa hill on March 31, 1521.
(From the book, The Encounter, by Fr. Jose Vicente Braganza, SVD, San Carlos Publications, 1965.)

The right place for disputed first Mass in Limasawa

By Rolando O. Borrinaga
Tacloban City


(Published in the Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 14, 2007.)


A NEW TWIST IN AN officially settled historical dispute again requires action from authorities.

On March 31, the 486th anniversary of the recorded First Mass in the Philippines in 1521 was commemorated by two claimants — Limasawa town in Southern Leyte and Butuan City on behalf of its old Masao District.

The decades-old Limasawa vs Masao dispute was officially settled in March 1998 when the National Historical Institute (NHI) ruled for Limasawa. But this verdict did not deter the pro-Masao group from persisting with their claim and performing parallel ceremonies.

The NHI decision ignored another historical error by tacitly upholding the belief that the First Mass was held in the southeastern coast of Limasawa, in the vicinity of the present Barangay Magallanes.

Legacy

A legacy of this error, the new Shrine of the First Holy Mass — an edifice made of bricks and polished concrete that was inaugurated two years ago — sits on top of a hill overlooking the barangay.

Vicente C. de Jesus, an independent scholar who strongly supports the Butuan claim, has criticized the NHI commission that looked into the issue for allegedly dismissing an eyewitness account that implied a western site of the First Mass on the island recorded as Mazaua in 16th-century documents.

The witness was Gines de Mafra, a member of both the Magellan expedition in 1521 and the Villalobos expedition in 1543. He had dropped by Limasawa on both occasions. In 1543, he met again the same chief, presumably Rajah Kolambu, who received Magellan in 1521.

De Mafra’s account had remained hidden in a Madrid archive for 375 years before it was found and published in 1920. It mentioned that the Magellan fleet anchored in Mazaua at “a good harbor on its western side, and is inhabited.”

De Mafra’s claim is corroborated by a map made by Antonio Pigafetta, chronicler of the Magellan expedition, according to De Jesus. The map in the Nancy-Libri-Beinecke-Yale codex is said to show a cross in one of two hills facing the sea southwest of the island.

The Pigafetta map in the Beinecke manuscript shows the cross on the upper hill near the sea. The lower hill, drawn in the middle of the land mass at the bottom of the map, does not have the cross symbol.

Ships’ movement

A single sentence in the popular James Robertson translation of the Pigafetta account could give the First Mass event to western Limasawa. It said: “In the afternoon we went in the ships [and anchored] near the dwelling of the king.”

This meant sailing the ships from their initial anchorage off the southeastern coast and rounding the island at the south toward the acantilado (deep) waters of the western cove fronting Barangay Triana, the oldest settlement and present town proper of Limasawa.

Such overlooked movement of Magellan’s ships could corroborate De Mafra’s account.

The locals had always believed that Triana was a word play on Tirana, the name of the legendary Bisayan queen who was known as one of the five wives of Rajah Bankaw.

But Fr. Peter Schreurs, MSC, who had published two books that favor the Limasawa claim, told this writer in a 1999 letter that Triana was a suburb of the old Spanish capital of Seville, across the Guadalquivir River, in which main church Magellan was wedded to Beatriz Barbosa.

Thus, it now seems that it was Magellan himself who designated the name Triana to the settlement in Limasawa.

Affirmatory proof

An aerial photograph of Limasawa Island shows the two prominent hills that affirm the landmarks on Pigafetta’s map in the Beinecke manuscript. The hill on which Magellan and his crew erected a cross after the Easter Sunday Mass in 1521 was presumably the upper hill marked with a cross on the old map, and the one nearest to Triana and overlooks the present town proper from the north.

Perhaps now is the time for the NHI to consider issuing a complementary amendment to their verdict related to the First Mass being held in Limasawa. The supporting evidence strongly suggest that this event happened in the vicinity of the present Barangay Triana and not in Barangay Magallanes, and that the cross was erected on the hill overlooking Triana and nowhere near the present shrine southeast of the island.

With the official correction, it is hoped that the fifth centennial of the Limasawa event in 2021, or 14 years from now, could be celebrated in its right place on the island.
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Old September 9th, 2009, 09:58 PM   #380
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Two Kings of Mazaua


(Source: "The Site of the First Mass in the Philippines" by Fr. Miguel A. Bernad, SJ. Kinaadman III (1981), a publication of Xavier University, Ateneo de Davao and Ateneo de Zamboanga)


"NEXT day Holy Friday, March 29, the captain-general sent his slave who acted as our interpreter, ashore in a small boat to ask the king if he had any food to have it carried to the ships and to say that they would be well satisfied with us for he and his men had come to the island as friends and not as enemies.

"The king came with six or eight men in the same boat and entered the ship. He embraced the captain-general to whom he gave three porcelain jars covered with leaves and full of raw rice, two very large orade and other things. The captain-general gave the king a garment of red and yellow cloth made in the Turkish fashion, and a fine red cap; and to the others (king's men), knives and mirrors.

"The captain-general had a collation spread for them, and had the king told through the slave that he desired to be casi-casi with him, that is to say, brother. The king replied that zhe also wished to enter the same relations with the captain-general. Then the captain showed him cloth of various colors, linen, coral (ornamanets) and many articles of merchandise, and all the artillery, some of which he had discharged for him, whereat the natives were greatly frightened.

"Then the captain-general had a man armed as a soldier (with armor) and placed him in the midst of three men with swords and dagger, who struck him on all parts of the body. Thereby was the king rendered almost speechless. The captain-general told him through the salve that one of those armed men was worth one hundred of his own men. The king answered that that was a fact.

"The captain-general said that he had two hundred men in each ship who were armed in that manner. He showed the king cuirasses, swords and bucklers and had a review made for him. Then he led the king to the deck of the ship, that is located above at the stern; and had his sea chart and compass brought. He told the king through his interpreter how he had found the strait in order to voyage thither, and how many moons he had been without seeing land, whereat the king awas astonished. Lastly, he told the king that he would if it were pleasing to him so that he might show them some of his things. The king replied that he was agreeable and I went in company with one of the other men.

"When I reached shore, the king raised his hands toward the sky and then turned toward us two. We did the same toward him as did all the others. The king took me by the hand; one of his chief took my companion; and thus they led us under a bamboo covering, where there was a balanghai, as long as eighty of my palm lengths, and resembling a fusta.We sat down upon the stern of that balanghai, constantly conversing with signs. The king's men stood about us in a circle with swords, daggers, spears and bucklers. The king had a plate of pork brought in and a large jar filled with wine. At every mouthful, we drank a cup of wine. The wine that was left in the cup at any time, although that happened but rarely, was put into a jar by itself. The king's cup was always kept covered and no one else drank from it but he and I.

"Before the king took the cup to drink, he raised his clasped hands towards the sky, and then toward me (at first I thought he was about to strike me) and then drank. I did the same toward the king. They all made those signs on toward another when they drink. We ate with such ceremonies and with other signs of friendship. I ate meat on holy Friday for I could not help myself.

"Before the supper hour I gave the king many things which I had brought. I wrote down the names of many things in their language. When the king and the others saw me writing, and when I told them their words, they were all astonished.

"While engaged in that the supper hour was announced. Two large porcelain dishes were brought out, one full of rice and the other pork with its gravy. We ate with the same signs and ceremonies, after which we went to the palace of the king which was built like a hayloft and was thatched with fig and palm leaves. It was built up high from the ground on huge posts of wood and it was necessary to ascend it by means of ladders. The king made us sit down there on a bamboo mat with our feet drawn up like tailors.

"After an hour, a plate of roast fish cut in pieces was brought in, and ginger freshly gathered and wine. The king's eldest son who was the prince came over to us, whereupon the king told him to sit down near us, and he accordingly did so. Then two platters were brought in (one with fish and its sauce) and the other with rice, so that we might eat with the prince. My companion became intoxicated as a consequence of so much drinking.

"The used the gum of a tree called anime wrapped in palm of fig leaves for light. The king made us a sign that he was going to sleep. He left the prince with us, and we slept with the latter on a bamboo mat with pillows made of leaves. When day dawned, the king kissed our hands with great joy, and one of his men went to where we had supper in order to partake of refreshments, but the boat came to get us. Before we left, the king kissed our hands with great joy and we his. One of his brothers, the king of another island, and three men came with us. The captain-general kept him to dine with us, and fave him many things.

"Pieces of gold, the size of walnuts and eggs, are found by sifting the earth in the island of that king who came to our ships. All the dishes of that king are made of gold and also some portion of his house, as we were told by the king himself. According to their customs, he was very grandly decked out (molto in ordine) and the finest looking man that we saw among those people. His hair was exceedingly black, and hung to his shoulders. He had a covering of silk on his head, and wore two large golden earrings fastened in his ears. He wore a cotton cloth all embroidered with silk, which covered him from his waist to his knees. At his side hung a dagger, the sahft of whichn was somewhat long and small and all of gold, and its scabbard of carved wood. He had three spots of gold on every tooth, and his teeth appeared as if bound with gold. He was perfumed with storax and benzoin. He was tawny and painted (tattoed all over). That island of his was called Butuan and Calagan. When those kings wished to see one another, they both went to hunt in that island where we were. The name of the first king is Raia Colambu, and the second Raia Siaui.



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