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Old October 15th, 2013, 06:12 AM   #241
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Article by TE

Infrastructure spending in Thailand
Fast train coming
Oct 12th 2013, 9:45 by T.J. | BANGKOK




IN THE grand concourse of Bangkok’s main train station, Hua Lamphong, the future is on display. Hulking billboards announce the impending arrival of high-speed trains and an age of international connectedness. For those who happen not to pass through the capital, a two-month road show called “Building the Thai Future 2020” is touring the provinces to keep people abreast of the government’s plans for the country’s railways and other infrastructure.

In the past 20 years, train passenger numbers have collapsed from 88m per year to 46m. The government, it would seem, is no longer willing to tolerate the slide.

The big idea is to spend 2 trillion baht ($64 billion) by 2020 towards upgrading the country’s creaking infrastructure. Another 3 trillion baht will come due as interest on the loans, accumulating over the next 50 years. It aims to fulfil a favourite dream of Thailand’s political class: To make the country the keystone of mainland South-East Asia. (WikiLeaks reveals that in 1973 Thai mandarins joined Edward Teller, an American nuclear nut, in the fantasy of using Hiroshima-sized bombs to blast a canal from the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean.) The “Future 2020” plan will be the first state-led push to build anything on a truly grand scale since the crash of 1997, which ended a monumental construction boom.

This will also be a stimulus programme, so large as to trigger labour migration. The new works should create 500,000 jobs—more than there are unemployed people in Thailand, the only country in Asia that enjoys an effective rate of full employment. The timing is convenient for the government, even if there are already jobs aplenty. Elections must be held by 2015 and a pot of off-budget spending worth nearly one-fifth of the country’s GDP is a nice thing for the politicians to have handy, just when well-placed allies and voters need reassurance that their loyalty is appreciated.

Yingluck Shinawatra, the prime minister, has embarked on a mission to raise the cash. A fortnight ago parliament passed a bill that permits the government to take on off-budget debt equivalent to the combined annual economic output of Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia.

The centrepiece of the spending plan is a network of high-speed railway lines to connect the country’s four main regions with Bangkok. (Smaller dollops of cash are to be earmarked for roads and ports.) Two of the lines are part of a broader plan to link China’s Yunnan province with Singapore. One of these runs right through Thailand’s north-east, which is the political base of Ms Yingluck’s family; the other connects the capital with Thailand’s second city, Chiang Mai, which is their actual hometown. The economic rationale is to cut transport costs everywhere, bearing in mind that almost twice as many Thais live in the countryside as in the cities; Thailand is still among the least urbanised countries in Asia. Another objective of the beefed-up rail network is to keep migrant workers in the cities connected to their roots.

The Democrat Party, at the head of the opposition, agrees with the general thrust of the bill—but not with its financing. The Democrats have come up with their own 2 trillion baht plan, which would use the annual budget (rather than emergency legislation) for less-costly trains and then leave money in the pot for education, health and irrigation. Korn Chatikavanij, an opposition politician and former finance minister, says the government’s bill violates “the main tenets of fiscal prudence”. He says his party will contest it in the constitutional court before it is sent to the palace for royal endorsement.

This call for fiscal prudence is not what the opposition needs if it is to change the electoral map in its favour. As it stands, districts are heavily tilted towards the Pheu Thai party, the third incarnation of a party founded by Ms Yingluck’s exiled brother. The close relationship between the Thai state and rural Thailand—where Ms Yingluck’s family has its base—owes more to generosity than to prudence.

Largesse and the culture of easy credit are what worry the Bank of Thailand, the central bank, and many other economists too. According to Standard Chartered, a private bank, household borrowing as a share of national income now stands at 68% of Thailand’s GDP, much higher than in bigger Asian countries, such as China (20%), India (18%) and Indonesia (17%).

But the spending bill is not likely to create either a monstrous level of public debt or a household-debt problem. The public debt, at 45% of Thailand’s GDP, is still very low. And unlike most Asian countries, Thailand has a vast stock of assets—land and property—against which people can borrow. And so looking at rising debt-to-income ratios, as everyone in the debate appears to be doing, is to miss an important part of the story. Robert Townsend, an economist at MIT, runs the Townsend Thai Project, the largest and longest-running survey of households in the developing world. He reckons that average debt-to-asset ratios in rural Thailand are relatively low and have actually been falling since 2006.

The case against the infrastructure plan, which everyone agrees is needed in principle, starts not with debt but with corruption. Thailand’s government agencies are notorious for their procurement contracts’ lack of transparency. The slipshod State Railway of Thailand, which was founded by King Rama V as a non-profit entity (and anyway run in a manner that precludes the possibility of turning a profit), is supposed to handle more than a trillion of the baht to be raised.

China has been looking for reassurances from Ms Yingluck’s government that Thailand’s future really can be expected to pull into the station by 2020. That is when China plans to connect Vientiane, the capital of Laos, to Thailand. In the meantime China plans to sink $6.2 billion into a passenger and freight railway that will run from Kunming to Vientiane, tunnelling through 196km of mountains to get there. A Swiss man based in Vientiane remarks that in his country a project on this scale would be called a Jahrhundertprojekt, “a project of the century”. China’s clock however, runs faster: they are giving it five years.

On October 12th Ms Yingluck and Li Keqiang (pictured facing one another, at the left), the prime minister of China, stood together at a press event, to gaze at a model train and then into the future of high-speed railway magic—on a large screen, in Bangkok.

(Picture credit: AFP)

Source: http://www.economist.com/blogs/banya...asttraincoming
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Old April 23rd, 2014, 08:18 PM   #242
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From Railway Gazette:

Quote:
http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/i...programme.html

State Railway of Thailand plans southern track renewal programme
23 Apr 2014

THAILAND: A 6bn baht programme of track renewals and earthworks enhancement is due to begin next month, according to State Railway of Thailand Governor Prapat Chongsanguan.

The work is focused on the 1 200 km main line running south from Bangkok, with the aim of raising line speeds and improving safety on the metre-gauge network. Soil reinforcement and replacement of wooden sleepers with concrete will initially be undertaken on the 1 000 km section between Hua Hin and Sungai Kolok, close to the border on the eastern branch of the two rail corridors between Thailand and Malaysia. The programme is expected to take around three years to complete, although Chongsanguan said that he hoped ‘the southern rail route would remain open to travellers’ during most of the work.

Medium-term investment in SRT’s main line network has been in doubt after the government’s plans to introduce a 2tr baht national infrastructure programme were declared ‘unconstitutional’ in a court ruling in early March. Any revival of the ambitious proposals, which included funding for a network of four standard gauge fast passenger lines, double-tracking of the metre-gauge network and a series of urban rail projects in Bangkok, is dependent on the election of a permanent government.
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Old April 27th, 2014, 01:27 PM   #243
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Old July 25th, 2014, 05:36 PM   #244
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From Railway Gazette:

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http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/n...orm-plans.html

Private operators to be encouraged under railway reform plans
24 Jul 2014





THAILAND: State Railway of Thailand is likely to be abolished under a wide-ranging reform programme planned by the interim military government.

Giving a briefing on railway investment in Bangkok on July 23, Dr Chula Sukmanop, Director-General of the Office of Transport & Traffic Policy & Planning, said the government saw restructuring of the rail sector as a prerequisite to support greater investment in the country’s main line network.

‘We cannot use SRT as a leader any more’, Sukmanop said. Vertical separation is envisaged through the establishment of a railway authority to manage the infrastructure and oversee investment projects. An independent regulatory body would also be established, and private operators would be encouraged to enter the market.

While the administration of former Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra had planned construction of four 1 435 mm gauge fast passenger lines to link Bangkok with regional centres, the interim National Council for Peace & Order is prioritising double-tracking of the existing 1 000 mm gauge network. This would cover an initial five sections of route totalling 734 km:
  • Lop Buri – Paknampo, 143 km;
  • Chachoengsao – Kangko, 106 km;
  • Prachobrirekhan – Chumpon, 167 km;
  • Mubkrabai – Jira, 134 km;
  • Jira – Khon Khan, 184 km
NCPO has not indicated a timescale or budget for the planned works, but Sukmanop said the Ministry of Finance had agreed to provide loans for land acquisition to expedite the programme. Funding would also be made available for the purchase of new locomotives, coaches and multiple-units, he added. The investment programme is being given added impetus by a desire to provide more capacity for potential international services if and when long-planned links to Vientiane and Phnom Penh become operational. Cross-border railway progress is again in focus as Thailand and its neighbours prepare for the launch of the ASEAN Economic Community free trade area at the start of 2015.

NCPO is also understood to be assessing the viability of a programme of gauge conversion, which has been discussed over several decades. The country has 4 000 km of metre gauge line, but just 29 km of 1 435 mm gauge on the newly-built link between Bangkok and Suvarnabhumi Airport.
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Old July 30th, 2014, 03:15 AM   #245
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Thailand Massive Double Tracking Projects & New lines

Junta just approved the investment for mass double tracking projects from 2015 to 2022.

[IMG]http://i58.************/wbqnbp.png[/IMG]
Phase I: Red, Phase II: Blue, Phase III: Green

Phase I

887 km double tracking with at 127.472 billion Baht to be done by 2020

1.1. Thanon Jira Juncton - Khon Kaen (185 km) - 26.007 billion Baht construction will begin in 2015 to be done by the end of 2018 - waiting for MoF
1.2. Prachuab Khirikhan - Chumporn (167 km) - 17.293 billion Baht construction will begin in 2015 to be done by the end of 2018 - waiting for EIA Approval
1.3. Nakhon Pathom - Hua Hin (165 km) - 20.038 billion Baht construction to begin in 2015 to be done by the end of 2018 - waiting for EIA Approval
1.4. Lopburi - Paknam Pho (148 km) - 24.842 billion Baht construction will begin in 2016 to be done by the end of 2020
1.5. Map Krabao - Nakhon Ratchasima - Thanon Jira Juncton (132 km) - 29.855 billion Baht construction will begin in 2016 to be done by the end of 2020
1.6. Hua Hin - Prachuab Khirikhan (90 km) - 9.437 billion Baht - construction will begin in 2016 to be done by the end of 2020

This will help SRT to increase the train from 288 trains a day to 800 trains a days - need 50 new locomotives + 115 aircon carriages and 308 BCFs for this matter + CTC systems.

These 6 double tracking will remain meter gauge as the extra price to pay for regauging would be at least 715 Billion Baht even though the regauging and increasing the axle load of the permanent way and the bridges would add even billions Baht more for the projects.



Furthermore, the standard gauge lines (double track) with max speed of 160 kph to allow Chinese cargo trains to go to Laem Chabang have been approved including:

[IMG]http://i60.************/znlssy.jpg[/IMG]
http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/tran...-gets-go-ahead

1.7. Nongkhai - Khorat - Saraburi - Klong 19 - Laem Chabang - Map Ta Phut (737 km) - 392.570 billion Baht
1.8. Chiang Khong - Denchai - Ban Phachi - Laem Chabang (655 km) - 348.890 billion Baht

This one is 30% cost less than full fledged high speed train with the construction cost at 350-400 Million Baht per km while the full fledged high speed train with max speed of 200 kph cost about 550-600 Million Baht per km. Nevertheless, the standard gauge lines (double track) must be designed in the way to allow the major upgrade to full fledged high speed trains as people demand.


Phase II

2.1. Paknam Pho - Denchai - 30 billion Baht
2.2. Khon Kaen - Nong Khai - 18 billion Baht
2.3. Thanon Jira Junction - Ubon Ratchathani - 32 billion Baht
2.4. Chumporn - Surat Thani - Padang Besar - 52 billion Baht (Chumporn - Surat Thani at 17 billion Baht and Surat Thani - Padang Besar - 35 billion billion Baht)
2.5. New line: Denchai - Chiang Rai - Chiang Khong - 77 billion Baht
2.6. New Line: Ban Phai - Roy Ed - Mukdahan - Nakhon Phanom - 42 billion Baht
2.7. New Line: Surat Thani - Phuket (Ban Thung Pho - Tha Nun)


Phase III

3.1. New Line: Mae Sod - Tak - Phitsanuloke - Phetchabun - Khon Kaen -
3.2. New Line: Mukdahan - Ubon (Bung Wai) - Chong Mek


Credit: Thanks Khun Wisarut for the translation
http://www.bangkokbiznews.com/home/d...%A9%D2%B9.html
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Old August 7th, 2014, 03:00 PM   #246
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thai railway pic

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphot...488627&nseq=50

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphot...71516&nseq=160

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphoto.php?id=491606

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphoto.php?id=491116

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphoto.php?id=481545

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphoto.php?id=492410

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphoto.php?id=483754

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphoto.php?id=484344

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphoto.php?id=479990

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphoto.php?id=491824

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphot...490448&nseq=21

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphot...489626&nseq=33

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphot...488273&nseq=53

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphot...487423&nseq=67

http://www.railpictures.net/images/d...1404035502.jpg

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphot...487564&nseq=65

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphot...76516&nseq=131

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphot...76515&nseq=132

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphot...76317&nseq=135

http://www.railpictures.net/viewphot...74821&nseq=138
http://www.railpictures.net/viewphot...489156&nseq=46

Last edited by wwc234; August 7th, 2014 at 03:12 PM.
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Old August 8th, 2014, 10:13 AM   #247
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Freight trains in Thailand still have a caboose at the rear ? Must be one of the
last railways in the world to do that, no ?
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Old August 8th, 2014, 01:02 PM   #248
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The State Railway of Thailand is very very outdated and has been neglected for many years, more like 50 year or so. Old track, old locomotives and carriages.

Thai people have complained about it and only recently are there big reforms and improvements to the railway. This includes rehabilitation of the existing lines, new double track lines, electrified double track lines and also buying new locomotives and new aircon carriages. So change is happening and the government finally sees the importance of railway, after neglecting it for so long.
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Old August 9th, 2014, 01:49 AM   #249
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Codename B View Post
The State Railway of Thailand is very very outdated and has been neglected for many years.
That I can understand, although the tracks seen on most of the pictures
above seem in quite good shape... But does the decision to stop using rear
end vans on freight trains require changes to the infrastructure, or is it just a
question of updating the railway's operating procedures ?
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Old August 9th, 2014, 08:02 AM   #250
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Probably both, as they're gonna update their signaling system, so railway's operating procedures should follow after that.
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Old August 11th, 2014, 12:12 PM   #251
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Urban and unruly Experts explain need for national development strategies, writes Kanana Katharangsiporn
Published: 11 Aug 2014 at 06.00
Writer: Kanana Katharangsiporn

[IMG]http://i62.************/t0ke90.png[/IMG]

Late last month, the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) approved two high-speed train routes and six dual-track routes as urgent projects under the eight-year national transport infrastructure development plan, starting this year.

The high-speed train projects costing 741 billion baht are planned to link Nong Khai with Map Ta Phut and Chiang Khong (Chiang Rai) with Ban Phachi (Ayutthaya). The two routes are intended to serve as links between Thailand and southern China.

The maximum speed of trains on the routes will be reduced to 160 km/h from the previous plan of 200 km/h.

The Nong Khai-Map Ta Phut route will cover 737 km and cost 392.5 billion baht, while the Chiang Khong-Ban Phachi route will be 655 km and cost 348.8 billion.

Construction of the routes will begin next year and should be completed by 2021.

Urgent projects under the 2.4-trillion-baht investment include six dual-track railways with a construction budget of 117.4 billion baht, the purchase of 106 locomotives and the renovation of highways.

The highway renovation plan covers Highway No.4 (Krabi-Huay Yot), Highway No.12 (Kalasin-Somdet), Highway No.304 (Kabin Buri-Pak Thong Chai), Highway No.314 (Bang Pakong-Chachoengsao) and Highway No.3138 (Ban Bung-Ban Khai).

Construction of four electric rail routes in Bangkok will be finished within the next three years. The 23-km Purple Line (Bang Yai-Bang Sue) should be completed by next year. The 27-km Blue Line extension (Bang Sue-Tha Phra-Bang Khae), the 12.8-km Green Line (Bearing-Samut Prakan) and the 26-km Red Line (Bang Sue-Rangsit) are all expected to be completed by 2017.

The other electric rail projects are still awaiting the bidding process or pre-bidding preparation, which includes an environmental impact assessment.

Channarong Buristrakul, president of Khon Kaen Real Estate Association, says better, faster railways will boost the province's industrial sector and logistics.

"There will be new investment in factories and warehouses that will spur new employment and raise people's incomes. This and the relocation of people from nearby or other provinces to work or do business will drive the housing market," he says.

Major industries in Khon Kaen include rice, cassava, sugar and sugar cane. The province is also one of the Northeast's largest logistics centres for retail business.

http://www.bangkokpost.com/business/...ban-and-unruly
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Old August 14th, 2014, 07:27 PM   #252
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Projects set to boost construction sector
Published: 14 Aug 2014 at 07.00
Writer: Phusadee Arunmas

The military regime's infrastructure development plan worth 2.4 trillion baht is expected to give a push to new business registrations, particularly for construction.

Pongpun Gearaviriyapun, director-general of the Business Development Department, said the number of new registrations is expected to top 65,000 this year, with at least 7,000 expected for construction to cash in on the junta's economic stimulus and massive infrastructure development.

According to the department's latest report, 35,058 juristic persons sought registration in the first seven months of 2014, down 18% from the same period last year. Their total registered capital fell by 46% to 135.83 billion baht.

The drop was attributed mainly to the department's tighter controls on new registrations for lottery business.

Last year, the number of new registrations reached 67,302 with a combined registered capital of 379 billion baht.

The National Council for Peace and Order last month approved an eight-year infrastructure scheme through 2022 that features the construction of two high-speed train routes and six dual-track routes as urgent projects starting this year.

The two high-speed rail routes, estimated to cost 741 billion baht, will link Thailand and southern China.

The Nong Khai-Map Ta Phut route will cover 737 kilometres and cost 393 billion baht, while the Chiang Khong-Ban Phachi route will be 655 km and cost 349 billion.

Construction of the routes should be completed by 2021.

The Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning has been tasked with conducting a feasibility study for the development of three additional dual-track rail routes using a 1.435-metre standard gauge at a top speed of 160 km/h.

The new routes are
Ayutthaya (Ban Phachi)-Padang Besar,
Nong Khai-Ubon Ratchathani and
Tak (Mae Sot)-Phitsanulok-Khon Kaen (Ban Phai).


By 2020, there will be six dual-track projects covering 887 km — Nakhon Ratchasima-Khon Kaen, Prachuap Khiri Khan-Chumphon, Nakhon Pathom-Hua Hin, Saraburi-Nakhon Ratchasima, Lop Buri-Nakhon Sawan, and Hua Hin-Muang district in Prachuap Khiri Khan.

http://www.bangkokpost.com/business/...ruction-sector
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Old August 20th, 2014, 02:49 PM   #253
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Plan for Thailand High Speed Train is up.

Electrified Dual-track rail routes using a 1.435-metre standard gauge at a top speed of 160 km/h.
The High Speed Lines will be constructed to be able to handle a speed of 250-300 km/h. Much of the system will match high speed trains except for the speed and for the first phase (for the two high speed lines) the speed will be lowered to 160 km/h.

The first phase is expected to finish in 2022, while the second phase in 2029.

Published on Aug 20, 2014


[IMG]http://i59.************/rk81fo.png[/IMG]

[IMG]http://i60.************/2kkb3p.png[/IMG]
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Old August 20th, 2014, 05:03 PM   #254
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So, is it true that China will provide the HSR technilogy with a loan to boot?
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Old August 21st, 2014, 04:15 AM   #255
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It's a little tricky to understand the speed bit. It is clear that the speed will be limited to 160km/h. However the news articles keep mentioning 'high-speed' which implies that the railway should be built to specs of at least 200km/h.

Are they planning to upgrade it later to handle higher speeds? If so what are the major points which fall short of achieving at least 200km/h straight away? Signalling? Rolling stock? Track geometry?

Or are they calling a 160km/h line 'hi-speed' just because this is faster than any existing railway in Thailand at the moment (except Airport Express) and is a cool thing to say?
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Old August 21st, 2014, 12:23 PM   #256
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Much of the system will match high speed trains except for the speed to reduce cost. They're not setting up the signal of a HSR system and no need to buy expensive trains that can go 300 km/h, but 160 km/h instead. It is possible to upgrade to a speed of 250/300 km/h after further investment, which they will do in the second phase.

They have until the end of this year to do a feasible study, so things should be clearer by then.
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Old August 21st, 2014, 07:52 PM   #257
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Codename B View Post
Projects set to boost construction sector
Published: 14 Aug 2014 at 07.00
Writer: Phusadee Arunmas

The military regime's infrastructure development plan worth 2.4 trillion baht is expected to give a push to new business registrations, particularly for construction.

Pongpun Gearaviriyapun, director-general of the Business Development Department, said the number of new registrations is expected to top 65,000 this year, with at least 7,000 expected for construction to cash in on the junta's economic stimulus and massive infrastructure development.

According to the department's latest report, 35,058 juristic persons sought registration in the first seven months of 2014, down 18% from the same period last year. Their total registered capital fell by 46% to 135.83 billion baht.

The drop was attributed mainly to the department's tighter controls on new registrations for lottery business.

Last year, the number of new registrations reached 67,302 with a combined registered capital of 379 billion baht.

The National Council for Peace and Order last month approved an eight-year infrastructure scheme through 2022 that features the construction of two high-speed train routes and six dual-track routes as urgent projects starting this year.

The two high-speed rail routes, estimated to cost 741 billion baht, will link Thailand and southern China.

The Nong Khai-Map Ta Phut route will cover 737 kilometres and cost 393 billion baht, while the Chiang Khong-Ban Phachi route will be 655 km and cost 349 billion.

Construction of the routes should be completed by 2021.

The Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning has been tasked with conducting a feasibility study for the development of three additional dual-track rail routes using a 1.435-metre standard gauge at a top speed of 160 km/h.

The new routes are
Ayutthaya (Ban Phachi)-Padang Besar,
Nong Khai-Ubon Ratchathani and
Tak (Mae Sot)-Phitsanulok-Khon Kaen (Ban Phai).


By 2020, there will be six dual-track projects covering 887 km — Nakhon Ratchasima-Khon Kaen, Prachuap Khiri Khan-Chumphon, Nakhon Pathom-Hua Hin, Saraburi-Nakhon Ratchasima, Lop Buri-Nakhon Sawan, and Hua Hin-Muang district in Prachuap Khiri Khan.

http://www.bangkokpost.com/business/...ruction-sector
1435mm gauge to Padang Besar.?Would not do well for cross border freight movement if the gauges between the two countries dont match.
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Old August 21st, 2014, 11:56 PM   #258
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Much of the system will match high speed trains except for the speed to reduce cost. They're not setting up the signal of a HSR system and no need to buy expensive trains that can go 300 km/h, but 160 km/h instead. It is possible to upgrade to a speed of 250/300 km/h after further investment, which they will do in the second phase.

They have until the end of this year to do a feasible study, so things should be clearer by then.
Ok this clarifies the question. SO track geometry (and perhaps tracks themselves) will be up to HSR standard but signalling and other attributes (which are fairly easy to upgrade) will stick to conventional rail standard of 160km/h.
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Old August 22nd, 2014, 12:29 AM   #259
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1435mm gauge to Padang Besar.?Would not do well for cross border freight movement if the gauges between the two countries dont match.
It is still not decided yet what track gauge they will use for the Hat Yai-Padang Besar section, which is also getting a priority. However every new lines in Thailand now will be standard gauge to accommodate future High Speed Rail, so they will have to find a way to work that out somehow. The plan should be clearer at the end of the year.
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Old August 22nd, 2014, 02:00 AM   #260
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It is still not decided yet what track gauge they will use for the Hat Yai-Padang Besar section, which is also getting a priority. However every new lines in Thailand now will be standard gauge to accommodate future High Speed Rail, so they will have to find a way to work that out somehow. The plan should be clearer at the end of the year.
My understanding is that they would probably build some kind of railway logistics terminal in order to load cargo from one gauge to another.

Standard gauge also means that Thailand would be able to use Chinese-made rolling stock which is probably a good thing given that China builds huge amounts of all kinds of rolling stock and other related railway products for standard gauge.
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