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Old June 18th, 2012, 07:30 AM   #641
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Windmill makers in India accused of opaque pricing

According to reports, the Tamil Nadu Spinning Mills Association (TASMA) has decided to approach the Competition Commission of India if windmill makers failed to provide the capital expenditure break-up of a project to the Tamil Nadu Energy Regulatory Commission (TNERC). TASMA members, who account for around 3,500 MW of wind power installed in the state, say the windmill makers are non-transparent in their project pricing and have formed a cartel.

“We have been demanding for a detailed break-up of project capex (capital expenditure) from the windmill makers. At a recent public hearing, TNERC asked the manufacturers to submit the cost break-up. If that data is not shared, we’ll file a complaint with the competition commission,” K. Venkatachalam, the chief advisor of TASMA, told IANS.

Tariff for the wind power is fixed by TNERC based on the capex. At a TNERC public hearing held here last week for revising tariff for wind power, officials of the Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation (TANGEDCO) alleged the existence of a windmill manufacturers’ cartel. They said capex for per MW could not exceed Rs.4.5 crore and the Rs.6.5-Rs.7 crore price quoted by the manufacturers was on the higher side.

“Four to five windmill makers determine the overall market and others follow. There seems to be a cartel,” a senior TANGEDCO official told IANS.

Agreeing, a senior official at an independent power producer said: “The terms and conditions offered by the windmill makers are identical.”

Refuting the charges, Ramesh Kymal, chairman, Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association, told IANS: “During 1992-94, the cost per MW was around Rs.3.6 crore. Today, it costs Rs.6.5 crore. If one takes into account the exchange rate, freight and land cost and taxes, the cost has actually come down. Over the years, the plant load factor (PLF) has gone up from 12 percent to 25-28 percent. The cost of a windmill will be between Rs.5 crore and Rs.5.5 crore. The remaining is accounted by the balance of plant (BOP).”

Disagreeing with him, Sunil Jain, chief operating officer of Green Infra Ltd, another independent power producer, told IANS: “The windmill alone should not cost over Rs.4.2 crore per MW. As a turnkey solution, the cost per MW should not exceed Rs.5.5 crore.”

Venkatachalam of TASMA said there was good scope for bringing down the price. However, he said, the market was free and competitive.

According to a senior TANGEDCO official, a reduction of Rs.1 crore per MW will result in reduction of cost by around 50 paise per unit. “We will save around Rs.11,00,000 per MW per year. Around 900 MW of fresh windpower capacity is added annually in Tamil Nadu. The overall saving will be around Rs.100 crore per year,” he said.

The user segment is of the view that Chinese equipment, if allowed into the country, will bring down the capex which in turn would bring down the end power cost. “Chinese equipment will be cheaper by at least 20 percent. The Indian manufacturers have to work hard to bring down their costs,” said Jain.

The TANGEDCO official said if Chinese players came in, the real cost per MW would be known.
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Old June 18th, 2012, 10:32 AM   #642
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Use of bio-CNG in commercial vehicles to be tested

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PUNE: City-based the Automotive Research Association of India will test the bio-CNG produced from bagasse and its use in operating a commercial vehicle, following instructions from the Union ministry for new and renewable energy (MNRE).

Hyderabad-based Spectrum Renewable Energy Private Ltd will provide the bio-CNG and an engine of a commercial vehicle for detailed testing. This will include testing of emission levels, engine performance under different conditions and technical challenges, if any.

Mohan Rao, chairman and chief executive officer of the company, told TOI: "The production of bio-CNG would start in the next 40 days and we will provide cylinders of CNG and an engine to Automotive Research for testing. The primary tests have shown sufficient generation of bio-CNG, which is cost-effective. If this fuel meets requirements, then we will certainly go for commercial production of bio-CNG."

The test is significant as for the first time compressed natural gas (CNG) is produced from bagasse of sugar factory. City-based Agharkar Research Institute (ARI) has helped in extracting methane from biogas and further converting biogas into CNG, which is used as fuel in New Delhi, Mumbai and Pune. The ministry has asked Warna Group and Spectrum to get proper permissions and launch the project. The ministry has asked for tests to estimate production and conversion costs, fuel efficiency and money saved if vehicles run on bio-CNG than conventional fuel like petrol and diesel. The primary report was positive.

The first pilot project is set up at Warnanagar near Kolhapur. The Warna cooperative sugar factory and Spectrum Renewable have joined hands for this project.

Sources at the ARI said, "Compared to CNG, methane content in biogas is around 54 to 60% while remaining gases are carbon dioxide and hydrogen disulphide. Once these two gases are reduced, the methane content goes up and we get CNG, where methane share is 93 to 95%. The source of methane is different; hence it is called bio-CNG."

Rao said, "The total investment in the project is Rs 30 crore, of which 30% is the cost of the German technology and the machinery, which was imported. The company had to make changes to make it suitable for India. Press-mud from Warna group will be processed and bio-CNG would be produced. It will be used by Warna group for running their vehicles."

As per the current production figures, 9,200 kg of bio-CNG can be recovered from 12,000 cubic meter of biogas. "Once we get a nod from the Union ministry, production will be ramped up, Rao added.

Sources from Kolhapur-based Warna Group said, "Apart from being a cooperative sugar factory, we are also into dairy and dairy products business, with a big fleet of vehicles. If the bio-CNG works out, the cost on fuel will be saved. Commercial production could be the next step. We are waiting for the results."
TOI
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Old June 19th, 2012, 05:54 AM   #643
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Indian Wind Developments Threatened by Weakening Rupee, CLP Says

According to reports, India’s weakening rupee threatens to make wind projects unviable because it’s pushing up the cost of imported components, according to CLP Holdings Ltd., the largest developer of wind farms in the South Asian nation.

“If the rupee isn’t reined in, there’ll be a lot of difficulty putting together viable projects,” Mahesh Makhija, director of renewables at CLP’s Indian unit, said in an interview in Mumbai.

The currency has slid 8.7 percent this quarter, the worst performance among Asian currencies, adding to the woes of the third-largest wind market where installations are forecast to drop more than 30 percent this year. In response to higher import costs, turbine suppliers have had to raise prices by 2 percent to 3 percent in the last few months, Makhija said.

Growth is set to stall in India, a major turbine market for suppliers like Suzlon Energy Ltd. (SUEL) and Gamesa Corp. Tecnologica (GAM) SA, after the government ended two wind-industry incentives at the end of March. Installations this year could plunge by as much as a third to 2,000 megawatts if the incentives aren’t reinstated, according to estimates by Bloomberg New Energy Finance and CLP.

CLP, Hong Kong’s biggest electricity supplier with power assets across Asia, is focusing new investments in India on renewable projects after experiencing fuel shortages at its coal and gas-fired plants.

Meanwhile, CLP plans its first solar investment in India by the end of the year. The company will build a 15 megawatt photovoltaic plant at the site of one of its existing coal or gas power stations. The project will most likely use thin-film panels though a supplier hasn’t been selected yet, Makhija said.
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Old June 20th, 2012, 06:33 PM   #644
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Originally Posted by engineer.akash View Post
KSRTC’s innovative projects pay dividends

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BANGALORE, JUNE 20:
The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation’s (KSRTC) investment in innovative projects to cut energy bill has paid off.

Addressing a workshop ‘Green Economy – The way for sustainable public transport’, Mr Manjunath Prasad, managing director, KSTRC, said the corporation has gained substantially in experimenting and implementing projects such as exploring second and third generation bio-fuels and lubricants in transport operations, energy management and afforestation to reduce the carbon footprint.

KSRTC is now exploring bamboo bus flooring to reduce dependence on ply boards. “Bamboo flooring is superior to the conventional compressed ply boards in strength, durability, dimensional stability and fuel efficiency,” he said.

“We expect to get better mileage as bamboo mat boards are 15 per cent lighter than the regular ply boards,” he added.

The corporation has developed its own environment systems with regard to underground tank with dozing system for ethanol usage in Mysore city. Diesel particulate filters for vehicles in Mysore reduce emission and flame arrestors for ethanol dozed vehicles ensure safety.

Mr Prasad said the corporation has achieved fuel efficiency improvement through innovative system of fitment of carbon pod as well.

Under the alternative fuel programme, the corporation has implemented bio-diesel at its Doddaballapur depot and expansion is planned at five depots in the ratio of 10 per cent. As of now, 21 depots are commissioned for blending of ethanol diesel that is 7.7 per cent ethanol plus 0.5 per cent solubiliser plus 91.8 per cent diesel.

As for energy management, the corporation has been installing solar lighting at rural bus stations and depots. “So far we have installed 45 numbers of two KWp and 126 numbers of 300 Wp,” he said.

“The corporation has been doing regular energy audit at all our depots, divisional workshop and central office for conservation and optimisation of energy conservation,” he added.

Afforestation is another programme given importance and is regularly monitored. All units are given targets annually to carry out the activity and so far 3.5 lakh saplings have been planted.
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Old June 25th, 2012, 07:00 PM   #645
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Meghalaya to tap its huge green energy potential in a big way

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Shillong: Taking cue from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, power-deficit Meghalaya is going all out to tap green energy to bridge the widening demand-supply gap in the state.

A preliminary investigation conducted by the Meghalaya Non-Conventional and Rural Energy Development Agency indicated that the state could generate about 3155 MW of electricity through non-conventional sources of energy such as bio-mass, solar and wind energy.

A GIS mapping, conducted by the Chennai-based Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET), an autonomous institution of the Government of India, said the state is capable of tapping between 40-90 MW of power from wind energy alone, MREDA director John Rodborne said.

The government agency in collaboration with CWET is presently conducting a feasibility study in the entire state to install windmills in at least seven selected sites across the state.

Three Wind Turbine Test Stations have been installed in the southern slope of Meghalaya and four more will be added by year end, he said.

These stations have been installed in Ladrymbai in Jaintia Hills district, Laitdiengsai in East Khasi Hills district and Mawiawet in West Khasi Hills district respectively.

The other four will be set up in Skhentalang in Jaintia Hills district, Laitkynsew and Mawkynrew in East Khasi Hills district and Phodjaut in West Khasi Hills district, the official said.

The preliminary information received from the installed centres indicated that wind blowing up the cliffs in the southern slopes of the state could be essentially tapped for almost throughout the year.

The reason behind the idea of having wind-power project is because it is one of the most environment friendly means to generate electricity, Rodborne said.

The time taken to set up a wind power project is also shorter as compared to the time taken to set up a conventional thermal power plant.

Officials said the preferred wind speed for optimum power generation is around 12 m/sec (40-50 km per hour) above which the turbines have to be switched off to avoid damage.

The average height of the wind turbine is 200 meters while the blades could have span of about 80 meters.

The testing stations installed at the mountain edge, Rodborne said, would actually give a rough idea on how much amount of power will be generated if a power windmill is installed.

In a year’s time, the data collected from these testing stations will be collected, condensed as statistical data before the government can come up with a formal detailed project proposal to set up windmills wherever feasible, Rodborne said.

At present Karnataka is adding 200 MW of wind energy every year to its grid whereas Tamil Nadu is doing a much better job, generating a whopping 1,000 MW annually, official sources said.

On the other hand, till date the agency has also lighted 134 remote villages where the Meghalaya Electricity Corporation Ltd found it unviable to extend their power grid. In 2012, the agency plans to light 242 villages out of which 106 have been approved so far, the official said.

On the generation of power using bio-mass, Rodborne said the agency is processing a plan to have machines installed in all districts.

Forests wastes, and other wastes will be used for the purpose of generating about 65 MW of power, he said.

The state, famously known for being the abode of clouds, is not to be left behind as latest technology has come up to catch the slightest sunlight.

"Considering 2 per cent of land that can be used to have solar cells installed, the state can easily generate about 3000 MW of electricity," Rodborne said.

In, 2008 Meghalaya requires approximately 610 MW of power and it incurred several crores to buy power from outside to cater to its consumption.

At present, Meghalaya Electricity Corporation Ltd (MeECL) generates 228.5 MW of power and receives and about an equal amount of power from the Central shares.
Zee News

Vinod Khosla's SunBorne Energy raises $5M VC funding
Bangalore based HHV develops important tool for R & D in Solar Energy and Nano Technology
CSIR-NCL working on harnessing solar energy to produce power
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Old June 25th, 2012, 07:00 PM   #646
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20-MW Wind Energy Project to Supply Power to Indian Metro Project

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June 24, 2012 By Mridul Chadha

According to reports, the upcoming Ahmedabad-Gandhinagar metro rail project in India’s western state of Gujarat is likely to have a 20-MW wind power plant dedicated to power its trains, stations, and utilities. This will be the first Metro in India to be powered by renewable energy. The project entails an investment of $2.7 billion (Rs 15,000 crore).

The rail project is being undertaken by Metro Link Express for Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad (MEGA), which is a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) of the government of Gujarat.

The expression of interests (EOI) has been invited from leading companies like Aecom, Atkins, Mott MacDonald, TUV Rheinland (India), Seoul Metro, DB International GmbH, China Railway Eryuan Engineering Group, Egis Rail, Dong Myeong E&C India, Structon Consultants, Sejong Corporation, Sambo Engineering, Thai Engineering Consultants Company Limited, URS Infrastructure & Environment UK Limited, etc. for setting up the dedicated wind power farm for the metro project. Two companies will be finalized for design, system integration, evaluation, and project management.

The dedicated wind farm will reduce dependence on fossil fuels and will create an additional revenue source by selling carbon credits. If MEGA manages to get United Nation certification for carbon credits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, Ahmedabad-Gandhinagar Metro will become the first in the world to run on ‘green power’ to earn carbon credits.

The project will be completed over a period of seven years and will cover 110 kilometers. The implementation of the project will be done in three phases. The Metro rail is proposed to cover a 44-kilometer route in its first phase. Later, the government also plans to link Dholera with Ahmedabad by the Metro rail.

The expected cost of the dedicated 20-MW wind farm is around $22 million. The high initial cost of the system can be easily overcome by low operating costs because of zero cost of fuel and minimal maintenance and additional revenue generation from the sale of carbon credits.
Clean Technica
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Old June 25th, 2012, 07:01 PM   #647
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Shimla toy train to run on solar power

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SHIMLA: The Kalka-Shimla toy train - Himalayan Queen - has become the first in the country to have coaches operating on solar-based power system.

Each coach has been fitted with a 100-watt solar panel at a cost of Rs 1.25 lakh, enabling the coaches to run for two days without the sun and make two trips to Shimla. The railways will also earn carbon credits through this green initiative.

The 96km Kalka-Shimla track is on the heritage list of UNESCO. The train passes through 102 tunnels and 864 bridges is considered as an engineering marvel.

Divisional railway manager, Ambala, P K Sanghi told TOI that the railways has taken the initiative of using clean and green energy for the Himalayan Queen to spread the message of saving the fragile ecology of the Himalayan state.

Railway authorities initially conducted a trial run by using solar panels on the toy train running on the Pathankot-Jogindernagar track. Based on its success, all seven coaches of the Himalayan Queen were fitted with solar panels, railways officials said. After switching over to the solar system, each coach has become lighter by 500kg. It has also reduced the need for frequent maintenance.
TOI
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Old June 25th, 2012, 07:04 PM   #648
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Ranchi: Airconditioned pushcarts to sell vegetables door-to-door

Can they use put solar roof on pushcart for airconditioning?
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Old June 26th, 2012, 06:23 AM   #649
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BHEL plans huge investment in solar panel manufacturing

Taking a big leap in the renewable energy sector, public sector giant Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd is planning to set up a solar photovoltaic (PV) cells and solar panels plant, the first of its kind in the country.

The proposed manufacturing unit is likely to come up at Sakoli which is part of Union heavy industries minister Praful Patel’s constituency Bhandara. According to Patel, the process for land acquisition of 500 acres of land through MIDC for BHEL plant had already begun. Patel said the land acquisition would be on the lines of Mouda-NTPC model. The identified land was located on the national highway and is mostly unirrigated with farmers willing to part with it for proper compensation, he said.

The minister said that that in the first phase, BHEL will set up a fabrication unit at an estimated investment of Rs 1000 crore. As of now, the work is being done at Trichy unit of BHEL and to increase the capacities, part of the fabrication work will be shifted to Sakoli plant.

The solar cells plant will come up in the second phase. It will involve an investment of Rs 3000 crore, said Patel adding that BHEL would be diversifying into future energy source like solar for the first time. It will also be the first such plant in the country.

Source: TOI
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Old June 26th, 2012, 06:34 AM   #650
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Morgan Stanley to invest 1,200cr for developing 500 MW of wind energy in India

Morgan Stanley Infrastructure Partners is all set to invest Rs 1,200 crore in a wind farm owned by Singapore-based Continuum Wind Energy for developing 500 MW assets. According to the deal, the arm of the US investment bank, will hold majority shares in the power generation company co-founded by Essar Group director Vikas Saraf and investment banker Arvind Bansal.

Continuum operates 36 MW wind farms at Kutch and Sangli in Maharashtra, and is in advanced stages of building 183 MW assets. Another 300 MW is also in the pipeline. According to close sources, Continuum will issue preference shares to Morgan Stanley to be converted into equity at a later date. The purchase will be equivalent to more than 50% stake in the energy firm.

This is one of the biggest private equity actions in the Indian wind energy market surpassing Goldman Sachs’ investment of Rs 1,000 crore in ReNew Wind Power in September 2011. The backing of Morgan Stanley is definitely going to be a great push for Continuum and the Indian wind energy sector in general.
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Old June 27th, 2012, 08:16 AM   #651
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Project to generate power from bamboo on the cards

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Bangalore, June 26, 2012, DHNS :

Project proposed in Kanakapur on a pilot basis

The generation of power from bamboo will be a reality soon if the Forest Department has its say.

Forest Minister C P Yogeeshwara told reporters on Tuesday that a proposal had been submitted to the government to take up the project on a pilot basis in Kanakapur taluk.

Land in some parts of Kanakapura had become unfit for agriculture due to flow of sewerage water from Bangalore. Bamboo plantation can be taken up on such land and power can be generated by setting up gasifier plants, he said.

The minister said he had recently visited Mundargi in Gadag district where a bamboo-based gasifier plant was being set up and collected details about the project.

He said he had already appraised Chief Minister D V Sadananda Gowda of the proposed project and had received a positive response from him.

According to the minister, about 40 tonnes of bamboo can be grown in an acre of land. About 5 mega watt of power can be generated from about 40,000 tonnes of bamboo.

Per unit cost of power generation under this method is Rs 1.50. Bamboo can be cultivated anywhere in the State and in all seasons.

“If the government can take up bamboo cultivation on dry and barren land and set up a gasifier plants in all districts, the State will become free of power shortage problem,” he said.

He said he will soon urge the Centre to consider bamboo as a plantation crop so that those who take up bamboo cultivation can get subsidies.
Deccan Herald

Bamboo: Roles in climate change, carbon sequestration and ...
Bamboo Biofuel: The Future is Upon Us
Replacing forest wood with bamboo: the where and why
New Prospects For Bamboo Biofuel
Wood gas
Dr. MGR Bamboo Project

Even Jatropha was planned to be cultivated on land unfit for agriculture. But, Union Rural Development Minister Jairam Ramesh is against cultivation of Jatropha on the basis of The Energy Research Institute (TERI) report which pointed out that the plantation of the oil seed plant was not only financially unviable but also poses a threat to food security. We have to think of viability, water requirements and impact on food security here also.

Jairam has no faith in jatropha biofuel
Ramesh raises alarm against Bio-fuel for food security
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Old June 28th, 2012, 06:24 AM   #652
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Renewable Energy Certificate trading volumes up in June – Solar demand grows six fold

In the May trading of REC, as many as 168,685 renewable energy certificates were traded on the two power exchanges and the first solar RECs were also traded on the markets.

On the Indian Energy Exchange, 223,164 non-solar RECs were traded for an average price of Rs 2,402. On the Power Exchange of India, 13,321 non-solar RECs were traded for an average price of Rs 2,460.

336 solar RECs were traded in the Indian Energy Exchange, for an average price of Rs 12,750. On the Power Exchange of India, 6 solar RECs were traded for an average price of Rs 12,506.


REC Trading Data for June 2012 (Source:REConnect)

Industry observers have noted that the demand for REC continues in a positive manner. However, supply position getting stronger, upward price movement has softened. This also indicates that future price movement would have reasonably high dependence on buy side participation from new players.

There has been a significant jump in Solar REC demand compared to last month. The demand for Solar RECs this month was 9619 (close to 6 times that of last month – from 1642 RECs last month). This would definitely be a very pleasing sign for all potential Solar investors.

“The overall market growth in both solar as well non-solar space seems good. However, it would even more important to get increased participation from large public DISCOMs,” says Mr Vishal Pandya, Director, REConnect, whose clients accounted for 50 per cent of the volumes traded.
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Old June 29th, 2012, 09:57 AM   #653
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India to launch 16 new nuclear reactors

Mods, I wasn't sure if this was the place for this so move it if you want.

Quote:
India to launch 16 new nuclear reactors
By Venkatachari Jagannathan Published: June 2012

Chennai. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) will launch 16 reactors at an outlay of Rs.2.3 trillion ($40 billion) during the 12th Plan period (2012-17), a top official of the atomic power operator said.

"We have to launch eight 700 MW pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) and eight light water reactors (LWRs) involving a total outlay of Rs.230,000 crore (Rs.2.3 trillion). The LWRs will be from foreign companies," S.K. Jain, who retired May 31 as NPCIL chairman and managing director, told IANS in an interview.

According to him, the eight 700 MW PHWRs would come up at Kaiga in Karnataka, Gorakhpur in Haryana's Fatehabad district, Banswada in Rajasthan and Chutka in Madhya Pradesh.

The 16 reactors are in addition to NPCIL's four 700 MW PHWRs under construction - two at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (units 7 and 8) and two at Kakrapara in Gujarat - at an outlay of Rs.22,000 crore.

The NPCIL currently generates 4,780 MW of power. The new additions of 4,800 will take this to 9,580 MW. A 500 MW reactor to be commissioned by another company, Bhavini, will take India's installed nuclear power capacity to 10,080 MW by the end of the 12th Plan.

This will be three percent of the 300,000 MW generation capacity planned by 2017. India currently generates a little less than 200,000 MW of power.

Jain, who had a long stint as the NPCIL head, added that raising funds will not be an issue for the projects.

"NPCIL is sitting on Rs.15,000 crore which we call as cash for investment. In addition, the company has entered into joint ventures with NTPC, Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (IOCL) and Nalco for setting up nuclear power plants. Each one of them is a giant in its own field."

On the strength of these companies' balance sheets, additional funds of Rs.40,000 crore could be raised and with NPCIL's internal accruals, a total of Rs.80,000 crore could be mobilised, Jain said.

"Eighteen overseas banks have come out for arranging debt to NPCIL's expression of interest that was floated recently. Four have said they would underwrite the entire debt funding for our projects," Jain said.

According to him the company is looking at external commercial borrowings (ECBs) and export credit agencies (ECA) for funds and over a month ago, NPCIL raised $250 million through ECBs.

He said three public-private-partnership joint venture companies have been incorporated and the projects would be soon allotted for them after the Atomic Energy Act is amended to allow such tie-ups in the nuclear field.

Referring to the two equipment joint ventures that NPCIL has entered into, Jain said the company has tied up site, money and technology and is all set to progress further.

NPCIL has entered into a three-way joint venture with Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) and Alstom for manufacturing turbines for the 700MW PHWRs.

"As far as PHWRs are concerned, we have now finalised that the minimum size would be 700 MW. In the future we may also make the turbines at this plant for imported reactors," he added.

The atomic power plant operator has another joint venture with Larsen and Toubro for making forgings for nuclear power plants.

While Jain was silent on the fuel position, industry officials told IANS that the domestic fuel situation is comfortable for NPCIL as it will be getting 60 percent more uranium for powering four new reactors.

(IANS)
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Old June 29th, 2012, 11:54 AM   #654
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Thiruvananthapuram Central railway station to go solar-powered

Thiruvananthapuram Central railway station is tipped to become the first railway station in India to be powered by solar energy. At least 25 per cent of its total energy consumption will be facilitated by the renewable source incurring a cost of Rs. 30 lakh. The project is under and solar panels atop the station are being installed that will produce 10 kilo watt of power. The project will make the building a green structure among government offices in the state.

According to officials, the railway administration in Kerala are committed to the by railway ministry declaring 2011-12 be observed as the Year of Green Energy. Southern Railway (SR) headquarters in Chennai proceeding with the process of procuring solar panels after the project was given sanction, recently.

During the initial stage, only the first floor of Thiruvananthapuram Central would be solar powered and would cover all the lights and fans. The terminus would need very little amount of solar power during the day, while the night’s demand is expected to be met through the battery backup.

“It is to study the effectiveness that we are restricting it to just 25 percent for the time being. If found viable, the initiative would be extended for the entire building. Similarly we are also planning installation of solar panels across the state at railway offices and stations. Already we use solar powered water heaters at most of the offices. The powering of level crossings in the state by solar energy, which at the moment depends on manpower, will go side by side,” a senior official of the Electrical Department, SR, Thiruvanathapuram Division said.

Besides tapping green energy, environmental friendly initiatives are being introduced across the state, which includes scientific methods to deal with feacal waste produced, on board running trains. Sources from Mechanical Department said that three technologies are currently available with Indian Railways, that are Bacterial Disintegration, Zero Discharge and Vaccum Suction, to tackle faecal waste.

“We are studying the practicality of these technologies and will introduce them in Kerala, on trial basis, very soon,” the official said. Kerala, which is far behind in cutting down carbon footprints is expected to gain plus points through these initiatives, sources said.
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Old June 30th, 2012, 07:15 AM   #655
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Algae as a viable food, feed and energy option

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Mark Sommer , IPS :

Algae is not a high priority on energy R&D agendas now, but it is rapidly gaining traction.

At a time when most conventional fuels cast ever longer shadows of unintended consequences, algae *that lowly pond scum — offers a pleasant surprise: a near-term, low-tech alternative with apparently few of the hidden costs of more elaborate, expensive and exploitive energy sources.

The first, simplest, and fastest-growing life form, algae holds unheralded promise to become a pivotal resource for the planet's future as the basis for a high quality biodiesel that doesn't (like corn) siphon food from humans. And it’s not just a fuel. It’s animal feed, human food and the building block for a wide range of biodegradable bio-plastics to replace petroleum-based plastics. And algae does all this as it grows by absorbing enormous amounts of CO2, the very greenhouse gas we most urgently need to reduce.

At the moment algae is not a high priority on most national or major corporate energy R&D agendas, but it is rapidly gaining traction in the private sector and academia as its potential becomes clear. In some cases it is being researched by giant energy conglomerates as a byproduct of the development of so-called ‘clean coal,’ since it effectively absorbs the CO2 generated by the burning of carbon. But coal is nothing but 500 million-year-old algae. So, ask some algae advocates, why not just stop strip-mining and mountaintop removal, leave the coal in the ground and instead farm fast-growing, CO2-absorbing algae?

Technical obstacles

This is not a distant dream. One fact that sets algae apart from just about every other energy option, conventional or alternative, is its simplicity, ubiquity, and near-term availability. Algae researchers say that while technical obstacles remain to be resolved before they can achieve cost-effective large-scale production for its many uses, none appear to be insurmountable. With its prodigious growth habit, algae under cultivation does need to be carefully controlled. Algal blooms occur naturally, but they are also triggered by chemical and agricultural pollution. It’s a serious problem and must be considered when designing algae farms in the open rather than in the controlled environments of bio-digesters, as most biodiesel is currently produced. But unlike a nuclear chain reaction, even if allowed to bloom excessively, algae will inflict consequences nowhere near those of a nuclear meltdown.

On a recent visit to ENN, a fast-growing Chinese energy company based an hour from Beijing, this correspondent was given a tour of a laboratory where a team of scientists is developing micro-algae for a variety of uses. It’s part of a joint venture between ENN and Duke Energy, the largest US public utility. Standing in a sunlit greenhouse filled with walls of clear glass tubing through which green sludge circulates, Liu Minsung, the young, energetic director of ENN’s algae team, gestured to a row of transparent vials of varying colour and consistency.

In 2012, the US Navy will launch what it calls a Green Strike Group, a flotilla of ships powered by a 50 per cent algae-based and 50 per cent NATO F-76 fuel, forming a 50/50 blend of hydro-processed renewable diesel. By 2016, the Navy plans to launch a Great Green Fleet, a carrier strike group composed of hybrid electric ships and aircraft propelled by biofuels including algae, and *maybe not so green- nuclear-powered vessels.

Algae is a full circle innovation because it serves many uses at once. In its elegant synthesis of stacked functions, algae as fuel, food, feed and plastic follows bio-logic rather than techno-logic. It demonstrates the virtues of elemental simplicity in an era of hype technology. Technological solutions have grown so complicated and costly that, as with not-so-smart phones, a surfeit of inessential features ends up defeating their core capabilities. Algae is ancient but it is far from primitive. In fact, it has had about five billion years to evolve into a lean green growing being.

Like every other ‘solution’ that’s ever been devised, algae undoubtedly has shadow sides that have yet to be discovered. But the greatest danger it poses is that, like the electric car, it won’t developed. But one great virtue of algae is that you can grow your own. Life on earth began with algae, and if life is found on distant orbs it will likely be algae we find there first. Will this simplest, wisest life form help rescue us from our energy dilemma?
Deccan Herald


Algae, new-age biofuel for green tomorrow
Quote:
Algae have emerged as a low cost tool to capture global warming causing carbon.

Algae, a latin word for seaweed, are a very large and diverse group of simple, typically tropical organisms. They are like plants but grow on water. They produce more than 71% of the Earth’s oxygen, as
related stories per estimates of some scientists. Carbon dioxide and water are the basic requirements for algae’s growth and this in turn releases oxygen as a by-product.

Since its clean credentials are established, algae is become a solution for capturing carbon from vehicular emissions, for providing oxygen to solders in high peaks and for reducing oceanic acidification, algae is providing possible answers to increasing carbon emissions across the globe.

The latest in the spree of innovators in Professor Dinabandhu Sahoo of Department of Biology of Delhi University, who has developed algae based apparatus for carbon capturing and reusing the same as bio-fuel.

Sahoo, who tested over 1,000 algae strains, found a few strains that can capture carbon from vehicle’s tail pipe and around 40 % of the total fluid generated can be processed into a bio-fuel or other oils for different industries.

“The initial cost Rs. 20,000 to Rs. 25,000 can be recovered in three to four years,” Sahoo told HT at his laboratory in DU.

Sahoo installed a tank on his Maruti 800 car and filled it half with water having algae. The car’s emission pipe was connected to the tank. As he drove around Delhi, the carbon dioxide from his car was being captured by algae, resulting in less toxic emissions into Capital’s air.

Member of the global association of algae scientists, Sahoo, believes his experiment can work wonders if the government or oil companies promote algae for capturing dirty emissions. “It requires a complete supply chain mechanism where the used algae can be brought and processed to produce bio-fuels,” he said.

He believes that investing in algae based solutions make sense as India imports 70% of fuel oil and its dependence on imported fuel would increase in coming years. Algae also have advantage over jatropa as it can be grown in any temperature and in varied environmental conditions.

Orissa appears to have taken a clue and launched Rs. 95 lakh project to grow algae around polluting thermal power plants in Angul district of the state.

Such are the benefits of algae that the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has decided to use them to provide oxygen to solders in high altitudes in Ladakh in J&K.

Although India is now waking up to wonders of algae, countries like US, China, South Korea, Canada have invested heavily on technologies to capture carbon with help of algae and produce bio-fuels.
`Algal biofuels are no energy panacea` <- more about algae grown on land.
Green future for algae bio-fuel plant
‎The Reality Behind the Most Common Biofuel Myths

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Old July 2nd, 2012, 08:38 AM   #656
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Ministry of New and Renewable Energy official hints at possible measures to restrict Chinese solar equipment

Interview : Gireesh Pradhan secretary Ministry of New & Renewable Energy
India is bound to become a major hub for development of renewable energy technologies, manufacturing & R&D. In an interview with K R Sudhaman, Pradhan hints at possible measures to restrict unregulated flooding of Chinese equipment as done by the US. Excerpts:

What are the targets being set for renewable energy sector during 12th plan period? Is the government confident of achieving these targets?

The 12th five-year plan proposals are being finalised. But, we expect much higher level of deployment than that was achieved in the previous plan period. With around, 14 gw renewable power capacity additions done in the 11th plan, the present installed capacity has crossed 25 gw. It accounts for over 12 per cent total installed capacity of electricity. In addition, several million renewable energy household systems and devices have been provided cooking and lighting energy services. We have prepared ambitious plans for renewable power capacity addition and also a large number of off-grid and decentralised renewable energy systems during 12th plan.

Is there scope for wind energy companies to move towards renewable energy certificates (REC)-backed projects rather than relying on tax benefits like accelerated depreciation?

Accelerated depreciation that helped build a wind base in India has been withdrawn beginning April 1, this year. But, wind power investing companies will be eligible for 15 per cent, the rate applicable to plant and machinery. They are also likely to be eligible for a further 20 per cent available to power equipment. Thus, total depreciation benefit will be 35 per cent.

In other words, significant assets like wind turbine generators can be depreciated in three years. And in absolute terms, this is not a small benefit at all. Further, let us appreciate that wind sector has already achieved scale and the market has progressively been moving toward an independent power producer (IPP) model. IPP-based projects do not get accelerated depreciation benefits, instead they avail generation-based incentives (GBI).

The ministry is in the process of continuing this incentive scheme. The emerging situation is leading to a paradigm shift in approach for installation of wind energy wherein the incentive would be generation-linked instead of the installed capacity alone.

Further, where situation permits and the installations are over and above the states’ renewable purchase obligation (RPO) threshold, wind power developers can set up wind power projects under renewable energy certificate (REC) route.

Given the fact that EU markets are no more attractive, is the government planning any major policy measures to boost investments in solar sector?

The prevailing global financial market situation certainly provides investors a very good option to invest in solar energy in India. There is an assured market in terms of solar specific renewable purchase obligations, beginning with 0.25 per cent of total electricity next year, leading to three per cent by 2022. Firms are also eligible for fiscal incentives, depreciation allowance and other benefits.

Solar equipment makers have been raising concerns over Chinese imports. How would the government deal with this?

China is India’s second largest trading partner for identified renewable goods and equipments with strong imports by India. It is also a fact that many of Chinese imported solar panels are comparatively cheap vis-à-vis domestic ware. This has rendered many domestic solar energy firms uncompetitive. Recently, the US government has come out with a directive to impose anti-subsidy duties on imported photovoltaic products from China in the wake of complaints from US competitors that China provides manufacturers significant subsidies. We are taking a close look at the situation and our efforts are to create fair conditions for competition.

With Lok Sabha elections due in two years, there is a view that renewable energy industry may not be able to sustain its growth?

It is absolutely incorrect. There are strong sentiments in favour of larger role for solar energy in meeting energy requirements.

What needs to be done to develop strong indigenous solar cells and a module manufacturing base?

Indigenisation and local manufacturing are seen as very important tools to cut solar power costs and achieve energy security. The National Solar Mission is a policy-driven programme and contains government subsidies. It is seen as an opportunity to develop domestic manufacturing base for entire solar cell value chain. Domestic content condition provides equal opportunities for investment in setting up manufacturing units to both national and international developers.

The national clean energy fund raised a lot of hopes for the sector. But the resources are being diverted for purposes other than clean energy development?

Renewable energy projects have now started getting funding from the national clean energy fund. We are expecting a larger share in the coming years.

Has India missed the opportunity given the fact that China has grown leaps and bounds in wind capacity addition?

There is no comparison between India and China in economy and energy terms. Both countries have different sets of priorities. India’s wind sector is growing steadily and it accounts for around 70 per cent of the total renewable power installed capacity.

What is the update on REC? After completion of REC mechanism for one year, is RPO enforcement regulation in place for all states?

REC market has already started growing in value terms. Over 1.65 million RECs have been issued and around 1.5 million have been redeemed. We expect enhanced REC portfolio beginning this year.

When do you expect trading in solar RECs to take off?

Trading in solar RECs have already taken off. In June, India Energy Exchange traded 336 solar RECs at Rs 12,750 each. This was virtually the first year when solar grid and almost all plants were under one or other kind of power purchase agreement. We expect faster growth in solar REC market this year onwards.

How do you encourage newer and efficient technologies that would lead to cost moderation?

India’s renewable energy programme is confronted with a number of challenges. It is most important to create an ecosystem for developing renewable energy technologies indigenously and facilitate domestic manufacturing. Skewed global distribution of intellectual property rights (IPR) could represent an obstacle to speedier development of renewables. If adequate research and development platforms are established this situation could be alleviated by creating partnerships between IPR holders and local technology expertise. We are also encouraging targeted international technology collaboration.

By when would renewable energy projects become commercially viable and dependable?

We expect them to be fully cost competitive within a short time. Renewable energy is a variable source and if backed by appropriate storage it is quite dependable.

How close are we to using hydrogen from water as a major source of energy?

It is still at a research and development stage that is being vigorously supported by the MNRE.

Is storage a major problem for all these renewable energy products and how do we tackle this problem?

Storage is certainly a major issue. We are trying our best to get advanced storage techniques from across the world.
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Old July 3rd, 2012, 07:40 AM   #657
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Commercial establishments tap renewable energy for power

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M. SOUNDARIYA PREETHA


Solar panels installed at a showroom of Chennai Silks in Coimbatore. Photo:Special Arrangement

‘The concept of alternative energy is just catching on’ said M. Krishnan, President of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Coimbatore.

It is not just industries here that are going in for renewable sources, such as wind power, to meet their energy needs. Some of the retail outlets have also started exploring the green energy options.

Recently, Chennai Silks installed a stand-alone, rooftop wind and solar power plant to generate electricity to operate one division of a showroom here.

According to K. Kasthoorirangaian, president of Indian Wind Power Association, High Tension industrial consumers have gone in for wind mills on a large-scale in the State. Bigger retail outlets and commercial establishments can also look at the wind energy option for captive use.

One of the manufacturers of renewable energy equipment here says that there are enquiries from industries and commercial establishments for renewable energy plants. Smaller wind mills that can be erected on the roof tops of commercial buildings to meet the power needs of the building require wind at a specific velocity to generate energy. Solar panels need direct sun light for about six hours a day. Since, installation of these plants can be expensive, the Government subsidies should be disbursed directly and on time to encourage more commercial establishments to go in for renewable energy, says the manufacturer.

According to M. Krishnan, President of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Coimbatore, the association too organised a meeting to create awareness on renewable energy. The cost of these plants and the space required are the main challenges for commercial establishments. More technical information is needed to help the retailers and businesses go in for green energy. The industry and trade associations should initiate a joint programme so that those going in for these systems have cost benefit and guidance.

Most of the retail outlets and commercial establishments were now using generator sets when there is no power supply. The concept of alternative energy is just catching on. The individual efforts taken by some businesses can be expanded into an organised initiative with a joint programme, he says.
TH


‘It’s hard to believe we’re still subsidising fossil fuels’
Quote:
India ranked third on the renewable energy attractiveness index as per a recent Ernst & Young report - China topped the list. What's China doing differently?

The Ernst & Young index provides an indication. There are however many influences on economic activity and investors' decisions. Not all can be captured by readily available information. Continuity in policy framework is obviously a key factor for investors' decisions. Economic, energy and environmental policy frameworks need to provide certainty for renewable energy investments - maybe they are just a little less certain in India than in other parts of the world.
Should Indians Adopt a D-I-Y Approach to Electricity?

PV Opportunities in India
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Old July 3rd, 2012, 11:22 AM   #658
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South Western Railway to go green

South Western Railway plans to go the green way with selecting at least 30 stations where solar powered lights will be installed. These stations will be lit solely by the solar powered lights and the railway ministry, in this year’s railway budget, had announced plans to bring in several “green initiatives” in the Railways.

“The selected stations are in remote places and face frequent and long power cuts. In the next six months, these stations will completely depend on solar power for their lighting needs,” said a senior official from the Railway division. Some of the stations that will be included in the project are Devanahalli, Chikballapur, Peryanagathunai, Kelamangalam, Srirangapatna, Dodballapur, Yelahanka, Byatrayanahalli, Malur and Kengeri.

The project is slated to begin from July-end and will be completed by December. The initial investment is around Rs 10 crore as part of which, the railway division will use only solar-powered emergency lighting systems at level-crossing gates. “This will be on trial. If it proves successful, it will be implemented in other areas,” the officer said.

Bengaluru-Jolarpet, Bengaluru-Dharmavaram and Bengaluru-Tumkur sections have been selected for the pilot project. The budget has proposed to set up 72 mw-capacity windmill plants in the state, besides Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. There is a proposal to introduce mobile emission test cars to measure pollution levels of diesel locomotives. This will help research efforts in introducing environment-friendly practices, the officer said.
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Old July 3rd, 2012, 07:41 PM   #659
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Bioenergy so near, yet so far

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By Varun Dutt Jul 02 2012

Improving public understanding will go a long way in shaping policy on the use and adoption of bioenergy

India is likely to include a “national bio-energy mission” in the 12th five-year plan to boost power generation from biomass, says Farooq Abdullah, minister of new and renewable energy. According to him, the country has a total installed capacity of 3,000 mw bioenergy-based power generation and the government is working on doubling this capacity during the 12th plan period (2012-17).

Bioenergy is renewable energy generated from materials derived from biological sources (also called biomass). Biomass is any organic material that stores sunlight in the form of chemical energy. As a fuel, it may include wood, wood waste, straw, manure, sugarcane and byproducts from a variety of other agricultural processes. There are also agricultural products being grown specifically for bioenergy production. These include corn and soybeans in the US; sugarcane in Brazil; sorghum and cassava in China; and, a plant called ‘jatropha’ grown in India. By 2010, there was 35 GW of installed bioenergy capacity for electricity generation globally, out of which approximately 7 gw was in the US alone.

The Energy and Resources Institute (Teri) in a report on bioenergy in India estimated that out of all the non-commercial energy sources, fuel wood, chips and dung cakes predominantly contribute around 30 per cent of the total primary energy consumed in the country, which is second to the energy derived from coal. As many as 46 per cent of households using firewood and chips in rural India obtain these fuels at zero cash outlay. About 21.14 per cent of households depend on homegrown stock; and 23.7 per cent make cash purchases. In comparison, two-thirds of urban households using firewood need to purchase the same.

Yet, bioenergy does not figure in most energy analyses, as it is confined to “non-commercial” energy category. Given that most of the biomass used in households is not transacted in the market, bioenergy data is “inadequate and not up-to-date.” Yet if one were to go by the studies by Teri and others, biomass delivers nearly 90 per cent of energy used in rural households and about 40 per cent of energy used in urban households. However, the largest use of biomass energy in India is characterised by low efficiency and environmental degradation. Acco*rding to research estimates, unpro*cessed biomass is used mostly in traditional stoves and furnaces that have low efficiencies, of the order of 10 per cent to 15 per cent.

The first main use of bioenergy in India is as a cooking fuel in rural areas. Bioenergy has 10-15 per cent efficiency compared with 60 per cent efficiency in case of LPG. According to the 2007-2008 National Sample Survey (NSS) data, the primary source of cooking fuel in rural India is firewood, followed by LPG. During 2007-08, 77.6 per cent of India’s 159 million rural households used firewood/chips while only 9.1 per cent used LPG. Dung cake and kerosene is used by 7.4 per cent and 0.6 per cent of households, respectively. This consumption is in stark contrast to the use of LPG in urban areas and cities. For example, according to Teri, LPG is the primary cooking fuel in urban India, where 62 per cent of 63 million urban households use it as primary cooking fuel. Firewood and kerosene are used as primary cooking fuel by 20 per cent and 8 per cent of urban households, respectively. Only one per cent of urban population use dung cake as primary cooking fuel.

The next main use of bioenergy in India is in biogas, which can be burnt in a specially designed burner for clean cooking without indoor air pollution. According to Teri, a biogas plant of two cubic metre capacity is sufficient to provide cooking fuel to a family of five (standard family size in India as per Census of India, 2001).

It can also power gas lamps. For example, a gas lamp with equivalent power of 60 W needs 0.13 cubic metre of gas every hour. However, according to Teri, a significant percentage of the total 4.2 million biogas plants in India are non-functional. A study done at the IITs in 2002 estimated that only 77 per cent of total installed biogas plants were fully functional.

Another use of bioenergy is in biomass gasification, which involves incomplete combustion of biomass resulting in production of combustible gases consisting of carbon mono*xide, hydro*gen and tra*ces of methane. This mixture, also known as producer gas, could be used to run internal combustion engines and in generating power.

The essence of sustainability of bio*energy projects lies in how a community benefits from the project activity. According to Teri, the primary driving force for acceptance of such project activity from society’s viewpoint will most probably be job creation, contribution to regional economy and improvement of incomes. Recent research predicts that bioenergy is possibly the most labour-intensive energy source and there is little doubt that bioenergy development will bring about significant job creation for unskilled and semi-skilled labour in India, depending on the scale of production and degree of mechanisation. There is job creation potential in biogas as well. For example, according to Teri, the installation of a two cubic metre biogas plant requires 10 skilled and 40 semi-skilled mandays of labour.

However, bioenergy technology could also have potential drawbacks in India as well as abroad. For example, researchers have raised concern that rapid biofuel growth, mono-cropping practices and assured buyback of preferred energy crop varieties may lead to a reduction in agricultural biodiversity with negative repercussions on food security.

For example, biomass production could compete with food production on a local/regional scale and lead to regional food supply shortage in developing countries such as India. At present, India’s total land area is 328.7 Mha, out of which 42.5 Mha is not available for cultivation. The area not available for cultivation could be used for generating bioenergy. However, Teri says even the concept of “biofuel cultivation in wasteland” has been questioned in India because of the heavy reliance of rural people on these lands for collecting fuel wood, food, fodder, timber and thatch. However, such concerns are not applicable in the context of biogas and biomass gasification technology dissemination. Still, the provision of bioenergy needs planning so that our increasing dependence bioenergy does not lead to food shortages.

In addition, there are growing doubts on the efficacy of biofuels in reducing carbon emissions that directly affect climate change. One could assume that burning biomass merely returns the carbon dioxide that was absorbed as the plants grew, and as long as the cycle of growth and harvest is sustained, biomass burning is carbon-neutral. But this is not applicable as the universal truth for all forms of bioenergy and its varied production and usage mechanisms.

A recent research lists some factors that determine the carbon-neutrality (or otherwise) of bioenergy in comparison to fossil fuels, which are purported to be replaced by them. According to Teri, the lifecycle of carbon balance critically depends on the choice of feedstock, management of land resources when growing the feedstock, the kind of land use changes induced by cultivation, conversion and processing methods used in bioenergy production, the type of fossil energy carrier replaced by biomass and the efficiency of energy end-use.

Also, according to Teri, the efficiency in harvesting and combustion plays a role in determining the carbon implications of biomass burning. Hence, potential impacts of efficient (often translated to “intensive”) land usage will have direct impact on biodiversity, greenhouse gas emission, and degradation of soil and water bodies. Land usage has very high impact on carbon dioxide emissions.

Conversion of forest land, pastures and savannah-type land for bioenergy cultivation can cause higher carbon dioxide emission than what is abated by carbon dioxide emissions. Thus, there is a need to investigate the potential climate impact of adopting bioenergy as a sustainable option.

Finally, for the bioenergy option to become feasible in India in the long term, it is paramount that we attend to the current public knowledge, understanding and awareness of bioenergy technology and its potential. At present, there seems to be little or no research in this area. Also, it would be worthwhile to assess public perceptions of the risks of bioenergy technology to climate change in India and abroad. Improving public understanding about the benefits and risks of bioenergy technology will go a long way in shaping appropriate public policy on the use and adoption of bioenergy world over. zz

(The writer is on the faculty of Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi, and knowledge editor of Financial Chronicle)
mydigitalfc.com

Dublin Sumit India committed to low carbon growth: Farooq

Geospatial Mapping of Bioenergy Potential in Karnataka, India <-- Click for PDF file.
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Old July 4th, 2012, 06:24 AM   #660
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India’s Largest Solar HVAC System With Storage developed by Clique Solar Inaugurated at NTPC Energy Technology Research Alliance

Minister of Power, Mr. Sushil Kumar Shinde, recently inaugurated India’s largest solar HVAC system with storage installed at NETRA.

While leading the nation’s power generation capacity, NTPC’s focus has been on developing cutting edge technologies which will help in cost reduction and environment protection. To this end, NETRA has set up a Solar Energy Research Facility at Greater Noida. As part of this facility, Clique Solar, a Mumbai based Solar Thermal company, has installed India’s first and largest solar HVAC system with storage.

The Solar HVAC System consists of two large paraboloid solar concentrator dishes (ARUN® concentrator) providing dry saturated steam at about 200kg per hour to a 50 TR (i.e. about 175 kW of cooling) Vapour Absorption Machine (VAM). In turn, the VAM supplies chilled water at 7°C to the local cooling units installed in various rooms. The distinguishing feature of the system is the storage tank that can store up to 2 days of chilling. Offices are generally closed on weekends. To avoid wasting the solar energy, this 2-day storage facility has been included. The stored energy can be utilized to deliver cooling in late evenings or to cool a larger area.

“The ARUN® solar concentrator is the most efficient solar concentrator, both in terms of thermal efficiency as well as land usage. Till date, we have focused on supplying solar steam generating systems for industrial process heat & mass cooking to replace expensive fuels like Furnace Oil, LPG, Natural Gas, etc. However, solar cooling too has an immense potential due to the natural match between the cooling requirement and availability of the sun”, said Mr Ashok Paranjape, Managing Director of Clique Solar.

One ARUN®160 solar concentrator delivers about 1 ton of steam per day, while occupying ground area of less than 10 sq.m. It can deliver steam up to 25 bars pressure or thermic oil up to 400°C. At NETRA, ARUN®160 delivers 8 bar dry saturated steam to the VAM.

Dr Shireesh Kedare, Director and Head of R&D at Clique Solar said, “This project has been commissioned well in advance of the scheduled completion date. Credit goes to the experience our team has gained through the various installations across diverse applications like effluent treatment, milk pasteurization, degreasing process in automobile factory, mass cooking, etc over the last 6-7 years”.
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