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Old April 17th, 2011, 05:39 AM   #21
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Marathaman View Post
Indo-Islamic architecture is WAY too vast, diverse, and unique to included as part of that thread.
So watch this space, and enjoy the journey. This is just the first step!
LOL, so dismissive.
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Old April 17th, 2011, 04:30 PM   #22
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Quote:
Originally Posted by KWT View Post
Even though ProudArabian is a troll, I agree with him on this one.
Sure! and what stops you from forming them? There is no war of regions here.

I am sure Ottoman, Persian / Central Asian, Egyptian, and North-African Islamic architectures all deserve proper threads that chart their evolution through different periods and show their wonderful pictures!
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Old April 18th, 2011, 10:49 AM   #23
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Emperor Humayun's Tomb

The tomb of the second Mughal Emperor Humayun, one of the 23 World Heritage Sites in India, was the first of the monumental mausoleums to be built in the country. The chahâr-bâgh, or four-part paradise garden, is the earliest existing example of the Mughal garden tomb. The tomb and gardens are considered one of the precursors of the Taj Mahal.

Emperor Humayun was the son of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire. His tomb was built over nearly a decade beginning around 1565 (AH 973). The tomb contains over 100 Mughal graves.

Influenced by Persian architecture, the tomb stands on a platform 120 metres square and reaches a height of 47 metres. Its construction was probably overseen by the Emperor’s grieving widow, Haji Begum, during the reign of Emperor Akbar, at an estimated cost of 15 lakhs (1.5 million rupees). The architect, Mirak Mirza Ghiyas, was a Persian from Herat, in current-day Afghanistan. Built of rubble masonry, the structure is the earliest example of the use of red sandstone and white marble in such great quantities.

The gardens are laid out in classical chahâr-bâgh pattern. They are divided into quarters by raised causeways. The quadrants are divided, in turn, into eight plots, each with walkways. At the intersection of these walkways are octagonal or rectangular pools.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 11:01 AM   #24
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Emperor Humayun's Tomb

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Old April 18th, 2011, 01:19 PM   #25
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Afsarwala Tomb

The Asfarwala Tomb stands in the 'Asfarwala Complex' , a large walled enclosure southwest of Humayn's tomb in Delhi. The tomb was built by an officer in Akbar's court in 1566. It shares a platform with the small Asfarwala Mosque. Both are built in a simple, bold style, in red sandstone and white marble. The tomb is square in plan with beveled corners, topped by a dome.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 01:20 PM   #26
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Afsarwala Mosque

The Asfarwala mosque lies southwest of the tomb of Humayun and northwest of the Arab Serai neighborhood, in eastern Delhi. This is a trmukhi mosque, distinguished by three arches on the main facade, and standing on a plinth. It shares a platform with the Afsarwala Tomb (c.1566), which it predates, and is considered a 'funerary' mosque, standing in what is sometimes described as the 'grand necropolis' of Delhi.

The 3 broad arches on the facade are built in plastered-over rubble. The interior bears stucco decoration, with incised medallions, some of them painted. A single dome, square in plan, rests on an octagonal drum. It is decorated in red paint.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 01:30 PM   #27
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Isa Khan Niyazi Tomb

The Isa Khan Niyazi Tomb Complex in the Nizamuddin area of Delhi was built in 1547 for Isa Khan Niyazi, a noble in the court of two rulers of the Suri dynasty, Sher Shah Suri and his successor, Islam Shah Suri. The Suri dynasty (1540-1556) was founded by Sher Shah (1540-1545), a general from Bihar, who successfully challenged the Mughal court in 1540, after which the emperor Humayun fled India. Although their reign was short-lived, the Suris were prolific builders. Not only did the Suris establish road networks, sarai networks, and palace/fort complexes throughout the empire, they also developed a distinct style for funerary architecture.

Sher Shah’s own tomb in Sasaram (Bihar), built ca. 1545, became an important stylistic precedent, marking a development in methods of Afghan-style tomb construction from the Lodi and Tughluq dynasties. The octagonal ambulatory tomb-type was adopted, featuring the extensive use of chhatris and finials atop the superstructure and a walled garden enclosure around the tomb. The Tomb Complex of Isa Khan Niyazi belongs to this type: it consists of a walled octagonal garden, approximately 120 meters in diameter, with an octagonal domed tomb at its center. A three-bay mosque is built along the western edge of the octagonal garden periphery wall projecting outwards to the west in the direction of the qibla. The octagonal complex lies approximately 200 meters (656 feet) to the west of Humayun’s Tomb. The garden today consists of a well-maintained grass cover with a number of trees along its periphery. Since the complex predates Humayun's Tomb by approximately twenty years, its location can be explained by its proximity to the Sufi shrine of Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya.

Today, the Isa Khan Niyazi Tomb Complex is accessed from the forecourt of Humayun's Tomb Complex, south of the tomb garden of the unknown Bu Halima, through a monumental gate in the northern edge of its garden periphery wall. The tomb is mostly invisible from outside of this wall, because of the height of the wall and the trees surrounding it. The mosque itself is accessed from inside the enclosure. The garden wall, constructed of rubble stone masonry, is unornamented on the outside and rises to a height of approximately 4.6 meters. It is lined at the top with merlons and features projecting circular towers at each corner.


Raised to a height of 1.2 meters (4 feet), the complex is entered along a short flight of steps through an entrance portal in the northern gateway. Now mostly ruined, this gateway is a three-bay vaulted structure with the central bay free for access and the two side bays containing rooms. It protrudes slightly into the enclosed garden and rises up to a height of approximately 11.5 meters with the garden periphery wall, stepping up in four stages to meet its high vaulted structure. On the inside the garden periphery wall is lined by a series of vaulted cells recessed within its thickness. The wall forms an open elevated walkway at the top. The main tomb is raised a couple of steps on another low octagonal level extending approximately midway from the tomb to the entrance gate. A short parapet with a merlon-like pattern plastered in relief lines this plinth. It contains four breaks for entry in the four cardinal directions.


The tomb comprises an octagonal walled tomb chamber surrounded by an octagonal ambulatory or veranda. Each side of this octagonal ambulatory contains three pointed arches supported on rectangular piers with a slanting stone buttress at each corner. The arches are covered in a thick layer of stucco plaster, while the piers are composed of twin columns filled in between with bands of red and grey stone. The buttresses are built in dressed local grey quartzite stone blocks. A combination of vaults and domes span the ambulatory space. A large protruding chhajja (overhanging eave) supported on ornamental stone brackets rests on the arched superstructure. Atop the chajja cornice is a parapet lined with merlons.


The tomb chamber is capped by a large pointed dome supported on a high octagonal drum. The dome has a lotus finial and the drum has pinnacles with bulbous heads at each of its angles. Flanking the dome, at the center of each side of the octagonal ambulatory, above the chajja cornice, is a chhatri (domed pavilion). Each chhatri is octagonal in plan, comprising eight red sandstone columns supporting a small dome ornamented in incised plaster with a band of blue glazed tiles around its drum. The buttresses are also crowned with pinnacles. This composition of pinnacles and chhatris crowning the tomb structure places it within the Suri dynasty tomb-type, a designation further emphasized by the octagonal ambulatory around the tomb chamber.


The entire structure rests on an octagonal plinth with a protruding coping course. A short flight of steps on the west side of the tomb leads up to the ambulatory. The massive walls of the tomb chamber are entered through a rectangular doorway at the center of its west side. The doorway consists of two portals, one at the outer face of the massive wall; both are spanned by a stone lintel supported on either side by ornamental stone brackets. Above the lintel is a small arched window containing a screen carved in stone. Between the two portals is a series of steps leading up to the roof; these rise east within the thickness of the wall. The tomb chamber itself contains screened openings at the center of each side except the west, which contains the mihrab. Each opening consists of a low rectangular window and a smaller arched window above similar to the entrance doorway. The windows are also recessed into two planes. Small arched openings in the drum of the dome above allow light to enter the chamber. The dome is covered in a thick layer of incised stucco plaster. An inscription on the mihrab in the west wall of the tomb records the date of construction as 1547 by Masnad-I Ali Isa Khan, son of Niyaz Aghwan. The mosque within the tomb complex is believed to have been constructed at the same time.


The mosque is found along the western side of the garden's periphery wall, from which it protrudes. As with the tomb, it is preceded by a raised plinth (this plinth has a rectangular profile). The mosque consists of three equal bays and a single aisle. The space of the prayer hall is accessed through a three-arched façade towards the east opening up to the raised plinth. The broad, pointed arches are recessed in two planes, composed within a rectangular frame, and supported on stone pilasters. The arches are lined with blue and green glazed tiles and their spandrels contain round medallions of floral and arabesque patterns in intricately incised plaster. The central arch is composed within imposing rectangular frame in red sandstone that scales the height of the building well over the roof terrace. It contains a composition of small arched niches surrounding the archway. The top of this frame is lined with merlons with its two ends flanked by octagonal finials.


Directly above and behind this frame is the large pointed dome of the mosque, which is flanked on either side by chhatris marking the centers of the two side bays. The dome rests on a tall octagonal drum ornamented in bands of red and grey stone. The two side bays are comparatively plain, built in dressed grey quartzite stone blocks with a red sandstone chhajja shading the archways. The tops of these bays are lined by similar merlons. There is no chhajja over the central bay. The chhatris are octagonal and capped by domes that are smaller versions of the central dome.


At the south end of the mosque, a small rectangular doorway leads to a stairway up to the roof terrace. The entire mosque building serves as one prayer hall, although three distinct bays are clearly defined by the arches spanning the space in the east-west direction. The central bay is spanned by a single dome above small squinches, while the two side bays are vaulted. The roof is supported on a set of massive pointed arches recessed in two planes and spanning both directions of the prayer hall. Each bay in the west wall contains an arched mihrab of similar size, recessed in two planes and supported on twin pilasters, framed within a rectangular recess. The rectangular frame is lined at the top by a merlon-like pattern in relief. Above each mihrab is a small arched niche; small rectangular niches flank it on either side. The central mihrab contains more elaborate ornamentation of the arches and pilasters and a deeper niche covered by a half-dome. The spandrels of each of the mihrabs contain round ornamental medallions. The north and south walls have a central arched doorway of similar proportion to the mihrabs that leads to a stairway up to the roof.


Construction techniques in the tomb complex include stone masonry, decorative tilework, and plasterwork. The buildings are predominantly constructed with a rubble masonry core and faced in dressed local grey quartzite stone blocks. While the columns are monolithic stone, the arches and their spandrels are plastered. Red sandstone is used sparingly as for decorative accents such as the niches and chajjas, or as bands along the plinth and cornice. The exception to this is the imposing red sandstone framing the central bay of the mosque. A striking feature of the Tomb Complex are the chhatris and finials, of the kind found in the Tomb of Sher Shah at Sasaram, arranged around the dome.


The entire tomb complex is ornamented on the exterior with blue and green glazed tiles. The arches of the tomb and mosque are framed within a rectangle composed of light and dark blue glazed tiles. The outlines of the arches themselves are adorned in floral and arabesque patterns in blue glazed tiles. Bands of similar patterned tiles decorate prominent surfaces such as the parapet and the octagonal drums of the main dome and chhatris. These glazed tiles are often used in combination with intricately carved plaster. Spandrels of each of the arches have finely incised round medallions in plaster.


The interior walls of the buildings are faced in dressed grey stone blocks. Vaults and domes are plastered and their soffits adorned with incised floral motifs. The soffit of each chhatri dome contains eight large flower petals radiating out from the center, which itself has an intricately medallion carved into the plaster. Door and window jambs are carved in grey stone supporting ornamental brackets. The windows in the tomb contain exquisitely carved stone jaalis.


The Tomb Complex of Isa Khan Niyazi is, as a whole, one of the earlier examples in South Asia of the tomb-in-a-walled-garden type. The octagonal ambulatory type tomb is also an example of the Afghan style tombs built in Delhi since the Tughluq dynasty in the fourteenth century. The earliest tomb of this type is the Tomb Complex of Khan-i Jahan Tilangani, a noble in the court of Firoz Shah Tughluq, built in 1369 located in nearby Nizamuddin. It is believed that the ambulatory is specific to the ritual circumambulation that became popular at the time. These tombs also express the importance of nobles in the courts of Delhi sultans and the development of an elaborate bureaucracy for maintaining dynastic style in architectural works.

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Isa Khan Tomb

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Isa Khan Mosque

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Old April 18th, 2011, 01:39 PM   #28
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Barber Tomb

This small, square, sandstone tomb, comissioned by Akbar, is raised on a plinth within the garden of Humayun's tomb in eastern Delhi. It is built in the multipartite vault form, with four large intersecting ribs creating a central domed area, four squinches, and four rectangular spaces. The tomb is covered by a double dome with four chattris. It is popularly known as the 'Barber's tomb', although the true identity of the occupant is unknown.

Sources:
Tillotson, G.H.R. 1990. Mughal India. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 47.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 01:44 PM   #29
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Imam Zamin Tomb

The tomb of Imam Zamin stands in the Quwwatul Islam Shrine complex, in Delhi. Imam Zamin was a saint from Turkestan, who settled in India in around 1500. He built his own tomb, and was buried in it in 1538. It is a small, sandstone structure with a dome resting on an octagonal base. The interior is finished in polished white plaster, and contains fine, perforated jalis, or screens.

Sources:
Tillotson, G.H.R. 1990. Mughal India. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 33-4.
Nath, R. 1979. Monuments of Delhi. New Delhi: Ambika Publications, 47.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 01:48 PM   #30
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Adham Khan Tomb

The tomb is situated at the edge of Mehrauli village, to the west of the Quwwat ul Islam mosque complex. It was built by Akbar, and dedicated to Adham Khan, the son of one of Akbar's wet-nurses. Adham Khan was a successful courtier for a time, but when he assassinated Ataga Khan, Akbar's Prime Minister, Akbar had him thrown from the ramparts of the fort. Akbar built the tomb in the memory for Adham, and for his grieving mother.

The tomb stands on the wall of an ancient Rajput fortess, the Lal Kot. It is large and octagonal in plan, with a single, wide dome. The tomb at the time of its building would have represented a traditional, old-fashioned pattern of tomb-building, of the type developed under the Sayyid dynasty early in the 14th century.

Source:
Tillotson, G.H.R. 1990. Mughal India. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 36-7.
Koch, Ebba. 1991. Mughal Architecture. Munich: Prestel, 101.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 02:36 PM   #31
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Bara Gumbad Complex

The Bara Gumbad, or "big dome," is a large domed structure grouped together with the Friday mosque of Sikander Lodi and a mehman khana (guesthouse), located in New Delhi's Lodi Gardens. The buildings were constructed at different times during the Lodi era and occupy a common raised platform.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 02:42 PM   #32
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Sheesh Gumbad

Sheesh Gumbad is an ancient mosque located a few meters north of the Bara Gumbad near the famous Lodi garden in South Delhi. It is also known as Glazed Dome or Glass Dome. Sheesh Gumbad is smaller in size than Bara Gumbad. It displays typical Lodi architectural style and was built around the same time when Bara Gumbad constructed. It comes with glazed blue tiles, painted floral designs and Koranic inscriptions. Sheesh Gumbad contains the remains of some unknown family.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 04:16 PM   #33
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Khan-i-Khanan Tomb

The tomb of Abd al-Rahim Khan-i Khanan (d. 1626), a renowned general under Akbar and Jahangir, is situated near Humayun's tomb in Delhi. It is a large domed structure, square in plan, faced with red sandstone and white marble trim. Its style is reminiscent of tombs of an earlier era such as Humayun's tomb. The tomb was stripped of its facing in the 18th century, for use in the tomb of Safdar Jang. It once stood in a quartered garden, which has since disappeared.

Source:
Asher, Catherine. 1992. The New Cambridge History of India: Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press, 142-3.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 04:22 PM   #34
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Qila-i Kuhna Mosque

This mosque, found inside the Purana Qil'a of Delhi, was built by Sher Shah Sur (r. 1538-45) during the interval of Sur dynasty rule. It is a large, single-aisled mosque that would have served as the sultan's Jami, or Friday mosque. It is an early example of the extensive use of the pointed arch in the region. It is richly decorated, with calligraphy, colored stones, and elaborate carvings on both the exterior and interior surfaces. The mosque was greatly admired by the Mughals, who were to look to it for details of ornamentation and construction.

Sources:
Asher, Catherine. 1992. The New Cambridge History of India: Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press, 12-13, 33, 41-42, 50, 80.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 04:26 PM   #35
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Sher Mandal

Located at the highest point of the Old Fort in Delhi known as Purana Qil'a, Sher Mandal may have been built by Mughal emperor Humayun as an astronomical library and pleasure tower during his rule in Delhi between 1530 and 1556, which was interrupted for fifteen years by the Afghan Suri Dynasty. Some historians attribute it to Suri ruler Sher Shah Sur (reg. 1540-1545) based on vague references to the building in his biography Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi, commissioned by Mughal emperor Akbar in 1579. There is no epigraphical evidence to support either claim. In any case, Sher Mandal along with Qila-i-Kuhna Masjid, is one of two surviving structures within the fort ramparts from the mid sixteenth century.

The building is a two story octagonal structure crowned with a pillared and domed pavilion (chattri). Built entirely of local red sandstone, both stories are punctuated with deeply recessed arched niches on each side of the octagon. While the niches on the second story are connected to form a verandah around a central chamber, those on the lower story only allow for entry arches into the tower. The upper chamber is cruciform in plan and opens into a verandah through four doors. Continuous eaves (chajja) runs below the roof parapet.

Sources:
Asher, Catherine B. 1992. The New Cambridge History of India: Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 32-33.

Koch, Ebba. 1991. Mughal Architecture: An Outline of its History and Development (1526-1858). Munich: Verlag, 37-39.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 04:31 PM   #36
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Sikandar Lodhi's Tomb

Unlike other tombs of the Lodi period, which are based upon a square plan, the Tomb of Sikandar Lodi (1489-1517) is a revival of the earlier Sayyid type, with its octagonal plan, deep veranda and tall arches. The tomb stands at the center of an enclosed precinct entered from a monumental portal facing south. It is topped with a double dome without the more typical roof kiosks (chhatris).

Source:
Tillotson, G.H.R. 1990. Mughal India. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 46, 48, 138.
Nath, R. 1978. History of Sultanate Architecture. New Delhi, Abhinav Publications, 86-87.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 04:33 PM   #37
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Rajaon ki Baoli

Rajaon ki Baoli constructed in 1506 AD during Sikandar Lodhi's reign, Mehrauli Archaeological Park, Mehrauli

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Old April 18th, 2011, 04:40 PM   #38
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Jamali Kamali Mosque

The mosque is situated in the Mehrauli village district near the Quwwat ul Islam complex in Delhi. It was a private commission from a poet and saint of the early Mughal court, known by the pseudonym of 'Jamali'. The mosque is faced in red sandstone and white marble details, with sparse but delicately carved ornamentation on the main facade. A compound adjacent to the Mosque contains the tomb of is founder. 'Kamali' is the pseudonym of an unidentified companion who is buried with 'Jamali'.

Sources:
Tillotson, G.H.R. 1990. Mughal India. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 35-6.
Koch, Ebba. 1991. Mughal Architecture. Munich: Prestel, 138.

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Old April 18th, 2011, 04:45 PM   #39
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Moth-ki Mosque

Moth ki Masjid is a Lodi-era mosque located south of the residential colony of South Extension, part 2 in the village of Masjid Moth in Delhi. Translating to "Lentil Mosque," it was built in the first decade of the sixteenth century by Miyan Bhoiya, a prime minister under Sultan Sikander Lodi (reg. 1489-1517). Legend has it that the mosque was built from the proceeds of the plentiful harvests reaped from a single lentil that Sinkander Lodi had found at the Friday msoque and presented to Miyan Bhoiya in jest.

This mosque is considered the second example, after the Bara Gumbad Mosque at Lodi Garden, Delhi, of the new mosque type that developed during the Lodi period. Characterized by a smaller size, a more intimate scale, and intricate ornamentation compared to the large congregational mosques built during earlier sultanate dynasties. Its variant name, "Panchmukhi Mosque," refers to the five-bay arrangement of the prayer hall. This mosque served as a model for the Jamali Kamali mosque at Mehrauli, Delhi, built between 1528 and 1536.

www.archnet.org

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Old April 18th, 2011, 04:55 PM   #40
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Alai Gate

The Alai Darwaza is the only entrance remaining of four added to the Qutb Complex by Ala al-Din Khalji (reg. 1296 - 1316). Located on the southeastern edge of the complex, its elaborate treatment suggests that it may have been used as a gate to the city itself through the extension of the Qutb mosque.

In contrast to the existing Qutb Mosque, which was built with the spolia of the existing temples on the site, the Alai Darwaza was a new structure. The gate is square in plan: its exterior length is 17.22 meters, its walls are 3.3 meters thick, and its interior length is 10.6 meters. From its floor to its domed ceiling, its height is 14.3 meters. Its wide, shallow dome rests on an octagonal base, and the transition from the octagonal base to a circular dome is achieved with squinches (muqarnas). On the exterior, the dome is plastered.

Sources:
Asher, Catherine B. 1992. Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 6,7.

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