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Old October 4th, 2009, 03:45 AM   #1
ainttelling
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Ukrainian wooden architecture

Ukrainian Wooden Architecture

Notes:

- images are hosted by [Sky Palace] (best architectural web-site ever!!! Coincidently, it's mine );
- if images are not displayed it is only temporary;
- names of the buildings are given below images.

Sources:

[1] Галина Шевцова - ДЕРЕВ'ЯНІ ЦЕРКВИ УКРАЇНИ;
[2] Михайло Сирохман - П'ятдесят п'ять дерев'яних храмів закарпаття;
[3] Олена Крушинська - Сорок чотири дерев'яні храми ЛЬВІВЩИНИ;
[4] Віктор Вечерський - Украинская Деревянная Архитектура.



[] - Traditional House - Pirohiv Museum, Kyiv - [4]



[] - Traditional House - Pirohiv Museum, Kyiv - [picture source]



[] - Church of Khata Type - 1607 - Chernivtsi - [1]



[] - Church of St George - 1400-1711 - Lviv Oblast, Drohobych - [1]



[] - Church of St Nicholas - 1763 - Lviv - [picture source]



[] - Church of Archangel Michael - Prague (transferred from Ukraine) - [picture source]



[] - Church of the Feast of the Cross - 1600s (beginning) - Lviv Oblast, Drohobych - [1]



[] - Church of St Nicholas the Miracle-worker - 1600s, 1794 - Zakarpattia Oblast, Velykyy Bereznyi Raion, Chornoholova - [2]



[] - Church of St Paraskevi - 1724 - architect Ivan Khomyuk - Lviv Oblast, Zhovkva Raion, Krehiv - [1]



[] - Church of Archangel Michael - 1777 - Uzhhorod - [2]



[] - Church of St George - 1759 - Lviv Oblast, Kamianka-Buzka Raion, Batyatichi - [1]



[] - Church of the Resurrection of Christ - 2002-2006 - architect Vasyl Mandzyuk - Zakarpattia Oblast, Mizhhiria - [2]



[] - Church of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin - 1603 - Lviv Oblast, Horodok Raion, Klitsko - [1]



[] - Church of St Nicholas the Miracle-worker - 1600s - Zakarpattia Oblast, Khust Raion, Sokirnitsa - [1]



[] - Church of St Volodymyr and Olha - Lviv - modern copy of 1841 Lemko church from Kotan, Poland - [1]



[] - Church of Archangel Michael - 1588, 1759 - Zakarpattia Oblast, Svaliava - [1]



[] - Church of Archangel Michael - 1754 - Lviv Oblast, Horodok Raion, Komarno - [3]



[] - Church of Archangel Michael - 1600s - Rivne Oblast, Radyvylivskyi Raion, Plyasheva - [4]



[] - Church of St John the Theologian - 1800-1900 - Cherkasy Oblast, Katerynopil Raion, Sukha Kaligirka - [4]



[] - Church of Nicholas - 1900s - Lviv Oblast, Skole Raion, Oryavchik - [4]



[] - Church of the Transfer of the Remains of St Nicholas - 2005 - architect Mikhailo Kravchyuk - Zakarpattia Oblast, Velykyy Bychkiv - [2]



[] - Church of St Elijah - 1930 - Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Dora (near Yaremche) - [1]



[] - Bell-tower - 1700s - Lviv Oblast, Yasenitsa Zamkova - [4]
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Old October 4th, 2009, 03:46 AM   #2
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Bonus pics from «Віктор Вечерський - Украинская Деревянная Архитектура».





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Old October 4th, 2009, 03:48 AM   #3
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beautiful some of these churches have been built without nails just to let know the public...
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Old October 4th, 2009, 03:49 AM   #4
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Gallery of Drawings:

http://picasaweb.google.com/myronmyc...ianCarpathians
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Old October 4th, 2009, 09:59 AM   #5
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Quote:
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Brilliant!
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Old October 4th, 2009, 11:19 AM   #6
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Gorgeous Some look very east asian.
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Old October 4th, 2009, 05:13 PM   #7
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Delirium View Post
Gorgeous Some look very east asian.
Most of them look Scandinavian
I cannot agree on very east Asian.

Norway:
http://www.kookynet.net/media/05w25N...0%20640pix.jpg
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Old October 4th, 2009, 08:47 PM   #8
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Delirium View Post
Gorgeous Some look very east asian.
Talk about not been educated on architectural styles
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Old October 4th, 2009, 10:05 PM   #9
ainttelling
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Delirium View Post
Gorgeous Some look very east asian.
I consider that to be a compliment. So does Halina Shevtsova (the author of the book I borrowed the most photos from) - she wrote another book called "Україна-Японія: Дерев`яна архітектура" about how two cultures reached similar forms independently. Aleksandr Acov, a prominent researcher of the pre-Christian history of the Slavic peoples, had proposed that tier-type roofs date back to the times of proto-Indian unity.
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Old October 4th, 2009, 10:37 PM   #10
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Quote:
Originally Posted by VelesHomais View Post
Talk about not been educated on architectural styles
Some of them really remind me of pagodas.
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Old October 5th, 2009, 04:26 AM   #11
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Holy Trinity church in Novomoslovsk, Dnepropetrovs'ka oblast

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Old October 5th, 2009, 08:09 AM   #12
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Some more pictures from «Галина Шевцова - ДЕРЕВ'ЯНІ ЦЕРКВИ УКРАЇНИ»:

It takes a lot of hard work to cover the entire church in these little scales:



[] - Church of St George - 1759 - Lviv Oblast, Kamianka-Buzka Raion, Batyatichi



[] - Church of the Pentecost - Lviv Oblast, Zhovkivskyi Raion, Potelich



[] - Church of the Holy Ghost - 1804 - Lviv Oblast, Skole Raion, Verkhnyaya Rozhanka



[] - Church of St Paraskevi - 1440 - Lviv Oblast, Starosambirskyi Raion, Stara Sil



[] - Church of St Michael - 1863 - Lviv Oblast, Skole Raion, Tysovets



[] - Church of Archangel Michael - 1598 - Lviv Oblast, Zhovkivskyi Raion, Volya-Vysotska



[] - Church of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin - 1644 - Lviv Oblast, Drohobych Raion, Medenichi



[] - Church of the Protection of the Holy Virgin - 1794 - Zakarpattia Oblast, Volovets Raion, Kanora



[] - One more shot of the Church of Archangel Michael - 1588, 1759 - Zakarpattia Oblast, Svaliava



[] - Modern Hutsul Church - Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Verkhovynskyi Raion, Стаїще



[] - Church of the Holy Spirit - 1598 - Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Rogatin



[] - Podolia Church



[] - Church of St Basil - 1500s - Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Rohatynskyi Raion, Cherche



[] - Church of the Transfiguration of Our Saviour - 1851 - Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Kosivskyi Raion, Rozhniv

Last edited by ainttelling; October 6th, 2009 at 06:18 AM.
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Old October 5th, 2009, 08:16 PM   #13
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Wow, Amazing churches!!!!!!!
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Old October 7th, 2009, 03:33 AM   #14
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Introductory text from the album "Ukrainian Wooden Architecture" by Viktor Vechersky.

Since the time immemorial, the major part of present-day Ukraine has been covered with impassible woods. Even in the vast steppe expanses of Southern Ukraine, known in the old days as 'Dyhke Poleh' (Wild Field), the valleys of winding rivers were green with leafy groves. Wood, as the prevalent material, was used by Ukrainians' ancestors not only in construction but also in producing furniture, kitchenware, household equipment, agricultural and manufacturing tools as well as different means of transportation. They treated wood with due respect contemplating it as a living and spiritual substance salutary for human beings. As late as until the end of the XVIII'th century, everyone in Ukraine, from a poor peasant to an affluent magnate, was convinced that living in a brick construction was pernicious for human's health, while a wooden house or palace was the only suitable habitation. Centuries later, the same adamant belief played a mean trick on the nation. Stone mansions, castles and churches were scarce, while wooden constructions, which once had been in abundance, soon deteriorated and collapsed. Thus, Ukraine's historical and cultural heritage was artificially impoverished. Of how impressive our wooden constructions looked like is anyone's guess. However, their looks can be restored on the grounds of archeological finds, foreign travelers' rapturous descriptions of Ukrainian wooden architecture and few timber structures, which have miraculously survived through the ages.

Wooden premises construction was put on the mass production in Ukraine. Folk house architecture, which cherished thousand-year-old traditions, was both conservative and open to innovations. Construction techniques applied to folk architecture differed from those of modern building engineering. Unlike their present-day counterparts, which are first carefully designed, accommodation and utility premises were modeled after similar constructions, following the traditions of a particular region or village. These folk construction customs, like folk songs, were passed from generation to generation. Unfortunately, each year more and more samples of folk architecture disappear. Thus, visiting museums of folk architecture and rural life that feature the most accomplished examples of construction art is perhaps the easiest way to get acquainted with this unique phenomenon.

In Ukraine, houses for all-the-year-round habitation were called 'khata', while seasonal or temporary dwellings were known as 'kolyba' or 'kuren'. Utility premises, which constituted a typical peasant homestead and included a shed for storing valuables, a cellar, a stable, a cart-shed for storing carts and sledges, a cattle-shed, a pig-pen, hen-house, a well with a sweep and a barn for unhulled wheat, located outside the courtyard, were just as important. A typical farm comprised a so-called clean' and utility yard. An orchard and a kitchen garden were an integral part of each farm. The harsh natural conditions resulted in the development of a unique architectural phenomenon, a walled farm, known in the Carpathians as 'hrazhda'. Premises, confining a courtyard, formed a small castle with blank external walls and a gate. The 'hrazhda' became a vivid embodiment of the English proverb 'My home is my castle'.

A traditional Ukrainian 'khata' is an enduring masterpiece of architecture, distinguished by both an efficient construction design and high artistic value. Most 'khatas' consisted of one or two living quarters. One-room 'khatas' were adjacent to an inner porch and a shed, while two room buildings abutted on various utility premises, and in some cases to workshops. 'Khata' was of a rectangular shape covered with a hipped roof. It was easy to put up and maintain such a simple and efficiently designed construction, as well as it was easy to warm it up in wintertime. 'Khatas' were built of different wooden structural materials, including, logs, timber or blocks. Sometimes a wooden frame was filled up with sawdust, sprigs or clay mixed up with straw. Linden was considered the best tree for construction purposes. Roofs were covered with thatch, reed or thin wooden planks - shingles or clapboards.

Although elegant and diverse, the interior of Ukrainian wooden constructions was first of all distinguished for its efficient design - only the visible parts of the building were decorated and the method of color, shape, material and style contrast, which allowed achieving the highest artistic effect with the minimum techniques applied, was widely used.

Apart from traditional peasant constructions, the Ukrainian folk architecture is known for some fine examples of public buildings, including churches, schools, village councils, inns and large barns for storing grain. Utility premises - water and wind mills, saw-mills, fulling-mills, oil pressing mills, grits cutters and smithies - constituted an indispensable part of life and economy of a Ukrainian village.

Cheap and environment-friendly constructions that satisfied the needs of a Ukrainian farmer, traditional Ukrainian windmills are among some of the most ingenious inventions of engineering. The earliest mills known in Ukraine were water mills, while wind mills appeared only in the XVIII'th century. All the windmills fall into two main types: pole-like constructions with the whole body of a mill rotated by the wind, and polyhedral or Dutch mills, in which only the upper part of the mill together with the vanes is turned. In the old days, wind and water mills could be found in every village or town, while in larger settlements the amount of mills reached several dozens.

Yet, the highest peak of its development the Ukrainian wooden architecture demonstrates in church constructions. Among the enduring masterpieces of wooden architecture are large cathedrals and small chapels, parish churches and belfries, fences, gates and towers. And it is no wonder why. The church was not only a spiritual sanctuary for worshiping and meditations, but also played a focal part in public life.

First wooden churches had been built long before Christianity was officially introduced on the territory of Ukraine. With time, wooden church architecture gained popularity and adopted certain folk features. It was in constructing wooden churches that architects managed to preserve the forms and designs of ancient sacral edifices. Strange as it was, the same cherished old traditions laid foundation for developing new techniques in national architecture.

In building wooden churches, pine-tree, oak, hornbeam squared into four cants were among the most extensively used structural material. Other popular building materials were round logs or logs cut lengthwise. Wooden edifices were erected without a single iron nail or any other iron tools. And that was done not for the lack of iron or our ancestors' inability to use iron nails. This sophisticated technique was based on the observation that high humidity made iron construction tools, such as nails, rusty. And this very rust deteriorated the wood, thus making the construction rickety and insecure. If need be, iron joining material was substituted with pegs of strong wood (oak or beech).

Churches and belfries were supported by stumps of oak logs vertically dug into the ground under the construction. The tradition of putting up churches on stone or brick foundations originated in the Podillya region and by the end of the 18th century was caught up by the rest of Ukraine.

The durability of any wooden structure depends on the measures taken to protect it from rain and snow. The amount of precipitation in Ukraine and especially in the Carpathians is rather high. Thus, roofs were made high and steep for the rain water and snow to stream down from the hips. Among the most popular roofing material were shingles (thin, oblong pieces of wood used to cover the roofs and sides of houses, the so-called 'wooden tiles'), clapboards and thin planks. The lower parts of the walls were additionally secured from rain or snow by 'under-roofs' - a roof circumscribing the building and resting on columns or projecting lower rows of logs, also called corbels or protrusions.

All the architectural masterpieces featured in this album were created with the help of an axe and some other primitive tools. That is why they look more like sculptures, as if retaining the warmth of their creators' skillful hands.

All the Ukrainian wooden churches fall into to main types: three compartment and cross-like constructions. The prevailing type is definitely that of a three-compartment construction. Such churches consist of three main chambers - central chamber or nave, eastern chamber or altar and western chamber or narthex. Three-compartment churches are either one-roofed or three-roofed.

Cross-like churches are usually five or nine-compartment structures or have the shape of a Greek cross with arms of equal length. Such constructions are crowned by one, three, five or nine domes.

Whatever the type a wooden church belonged to, the uniting element for all the chambers was the central compartment or nave, which was made one tier higher than the side compartments. The dominating design of three-compartment churches comprised a rectangular or octahedral nave, a polyhedral altar and a polyhedral or rectangular narthex. In cross-like churches the central compartment, in most cases, was square with each side equal the width of side compartments. The height of churches differed from region to region.

Among the wide variety of elaborated architectural forms, there are churches of simple outlines, which look more like simple peasant houses or barns. At the same time, there are edifices, among them the famous Trinity church in Novomoskovsk, whose exquisite design and accomplished shapes place them far above the most renowned sacral constructions. Ukrainian wooden church architecture is as diverse as Ukraine's landscapes. Tall as poplar trees are churches in the Boikivschyna region, elegant in the Lemkivschyna region, harmonious in the Podillya region, somewhat heavyset in the Halychyna and Volhyn regions, or monumental like lighthouses in eastern regions.

An integral part of a sacral construction complex is a bell tower, which borrowed its architectural outlines from ancient watch or fortification towers. One of the remainders of this 'kinship' is a corbel gallery on the upper tier of multi-tiered bell towers, which theoretically allowed holding the defense against enemies.

All the wooden bell towers fall into two main types - framed structure constructions and log constructions. The type of the bell tower largely depended on the chiming techniques used, either the whole bell was swung or only its tongue. Swinging the whole bell to chime put additional dynamic load on the construction. Thus, the building had to be of a stronger, i.e. framed, structure. That is why framed bell towers prevail in western regions (Halychyna and Volhyn), where bell-swinging is the preferred technique. In other regions, most bell towers are of a log, or log and framed (the lower tier was made of logs, while the upper tier was framed) structure.

Researchers still dispute about the amount of regional wooden church architectural schools in Ukraine. However, a profound study of edifices of multifarious forms and designs made researchers agree that the similarities demonstrated by all the architectural schools underpin the unity of the Ukrainian nation and the unanimity in architectural and construction approaches.

Wooden constructions are the part of national heritage most susceptible to deterioration. They die of water, fire, bark beetles and shipworms, yet people's carelessness and ignorance remains their most dangerous enemy. Being an acute problem not only for Ukraine but for Europe in general, the issue of preserving wooden architectural monuments was raised back in the XIX'th century. Organizing open-air museums of folk architecture became one of the most popular and efficient ways of preserving wooden constructions.

Today, Ukraine boasts several open-air museums of folk architecture located in Kyiv, Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky, Lviv, Chernivtsy, Uzhhorod and the village of Krylos not far from Ivano-Frankivsk. Each museum presents a rich collection of masterpieces, revealing the achievements in folk wooden architecture. These exhibits are valuable 'bank deposits', which cannot be spent but only increased and multiplied.

Yet, no matter how much effort is made to preserve this part of national heritage, the time, the implacable enemy of art, takes away the best masterpieces. To study, guard and secure them for the following generations is the mission of modern researchers, architects and restorers. Presenting the rigid beauty of Ukraine's wooden architecture, the authors of this album pursue the same aim.

This fight should go on, until people learn to appreciate beauty, respect works of art and the remains of our once rich heritage.

Last edited by ainttelling; February 8th, 2010 at 08:53 PM.
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Old October 16th, 2009, 11:46 AM   #15
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wooden church in Oleksandrivka, 1753




Danylovo - St. Nicholas church, 1779




Baturyn stronghold (reconstruction)



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Old October 16th, 2009, 01:09 PM   #16
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Amazing buildings. Thx for sharing!
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Old October 16th, 2009, 01:12 PM   #17
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Wow, I allways considered the wooden churches typical for Maramureş, Romania. It's great to see it's a tradition on both sides of the border.


Surdesti, Romania



Bârsana, Romania



Călineşti Susani, Romania
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Old October 16th, 2009, 10:29 PM   #18
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Krainykovo - St. Michael’s church (1688)




Sokyrnytsia - St. Nicholas church (1704)

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Old October 22nd, 2009, 01:57 PM   #19
ainttelling
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Concrete Stereo View Post
Wow, I allways considered the wooden churches typical for Maramureş, Romania. It's great to see it's a tradition on both sides of the border.
Wooden architecture is prominent in all of the cultural sphere of influence of Byzantine-Rite Catholicism.
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Old October 23rd, 2009, 01:15 PM   #20
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Really awesome
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