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Old October 24th, 2009, 03:16 PM   #81
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Toraja People
Sulawesi Selatan Province


Toraja Girl

The Toraja are an ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous region of South Sulawesi (Sulawesi Selatan Province), Indonesia. Their population is approximately 650,000, of which 450,000 still live in the regency of Tana Toraja ("Land of Toraja"). Most of the population is Christian or have local animist beliefs known as aluk ("the way"). The Indonesian government has recognized this animist belief as Aluk To Dolo ("Way of the Ancestors").

The word toraja comes from the Bugis language's to riaja, meaning "people of the uplands". The Dutch colonial government named the people Toraja in 1909. Torajans are renowned for their elaborate funeral rites, burial sites carved into rocky cliffs, massive peaked roof traditional houses known as tongkonan, and colorful wood carvings. Toraja funeral rites are important social events, usually attended by hundreds of people and lasting for several days.


Smiling Toraja

Before the 20th century, Torajans lived in autonomous villages, where they practised animism and were relatively untouched by the outside world. In the early 1900s, Dutch missionaries first worked to convert Torajan highlanders to Christianity. When the Tana Toraja regency was further opened to the outside world in the 1970s, it became an icon of tourism in Indonesia: it was exploited by tourism developers and studied by anthropologists. By the 1990s, when tourism peaked, Toraja society had changed significantly, from an agrarian model in which social life and customs were outgrowths of the Aluk To Dolo to a largely Christian society.


Church of Toraja People

The Torajan people had little notion of themselves as a distinct ethnic group before the 20th century. Before Dutch colonization and Christianization, Torajans, who lived in highland areas, identified with their villages and did not share a broad sense of identity. Although complexes of rituals created linkages between highland villages, there were variations in dialects, differences in social hierarchies, and an array of ritual practices in the Sulawesi highland region. "Toraja" (from the coastal languages' to, meaning people; and riaja, uplands) was first used as a lowlander expression for highlanders. As a result, "Toraja" initially had more currency with outsiders such as the Bugis and Makassarese, who constitute a majority of the lowland of Sulawes than with insiders. The Dutch missionaries' presence in the highlands gave rise to the Toraja ethnic consciousness in the Sa'dan Toraja region, and this shared identity grew with the rise of tourism in the Tana Toraja Regency. Since then, South Sulawesi has four main ethnic groups, the Bugis (the majority, including shipbuilders and seafarers), the Makassarese (lowland traders and seafarers), the Mandarese (traders and fishermen), and the Toraja (highland rice cultivators).


Toraja Children

Family is the primary social and political grouping in Torajan society. Each village is one extended family, the seat of which is the tongkonan, a traditional Torajan house. Each tongkonan has a name, which becomes the name of the village. The familial dons maintain village unity. Marriage between distant cousins (fourth cousins and beyond) is a common practice that strengthens kinship. Toraja society prohibits marriage between close cousins (up to and including the third cousin) except for nobles, to prevent the dispersal of property. Kinship is actively reciprocal, meaning that the extended family helps each other farm, share buffalo rituals, and pay off debts.


Toraja Man in Tongkonan House


Funeral Ritual

Each person belongs to both the mother's and the father's families, the only bilateral family line in Indonesia. Children, therefore, inherit household affiliation from both mother and father, including land and even family debts. Children's names are given on the basis of kinship, and are usually chosen after dead relatives. Names of aunts, uncles and cousins are commonly referred to in the names of mothers, fathers and siblings.


Toraja Old Woman

Before the start of the formal administration of Toraja villages by the Tana Toraja Regency, each Toraja village was autonomous. In a more complex situation, in which one Toraja family could not handle their problems alone, several villages formed a group; sometimes, villages would unite against other villages. Relationship between families was expressed through blood, marriage, and shared ancestral houses (tongkonan), practically signed by the exchange of buffalo and pigs on ritual occasions. Such exchanges not only built political and cultural ties between families but defined each person's place in a social hierarchy: who poured palm wine, who wrapped a corpse and prepared offerings, where each person could or could not sit, what dishes should be used or avoided, and even what piece of meat constituted one's share.
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Old October 24th, 2009, 03:52 PM   #82
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Toraja People, Sulawesi Selatan Province


Welcome to Tana Toraja "Toraja Land"

In early Toraja society, family relationships were tied closely to social class. There were three strata: nobles, commoners, and slaves (slavery was abolished in 1909 by the Dutch East Indies government). Class was inherited through the mother. It was taboo, therefore, to marry "down" with a woman of lower class. On the other hand, marrying a woman of higher class could improve the status of the next generation. The nobility's condescending attitude toward the commoners is still maintained today for reasons of family prestige.


Toraja's Girl


Toraja's Cave Cemetery

Nobles, who were believed to be direct descendants of the descended person from heaven, lived in tongkonans, while commoners lived in less lavish houses (bamboo shacks called banua). Slaves lived in small huts, which had to be built around their owner's tongkonan. Commoners might marry anyone, but nobles preferred to marry in-family to maintain their status. Sometimes nobles married Bugis or Makassarese nobles. Commoners and slaves were prohibited from having death feasts. Despite close kinship and status inheritance, there was some social mobility, as marriage or change in wealth could affect an individuals status. Wealth was counted by the ownership of water buffaloes.


Toraja Village in Makale

Slaves in Toraja society were family property. Sometimes Torajans decided to become slaves when they incurred a debt, pledging to work as payment. Slaves could be taken during wars, and slave trading was common. Slaves could buy their freedom, but their children still inherited slave status. Slaves were prohibited from wearing bronze or gold, carving their houses, eating from the same dishes as their owners, or having sex with free women a crime punishable by death.


Toraja's Ritual

Toraja's indigenous belief system is polytheistic animism, called aluk, or "the way" (sometimes translated as "the law"). In the Toraja myth, the ancestors of Torajan people came down from heaven using stairs, which were then used by the Torajans as a communication medium with Puang Matua, the Creator. The cosmos, according to aluk, is divided into the upper world (heaven), the world of man (earth), and the underworld. At first, heaven and earth were married, then there was a darkness, a separation, and finally the light. Animals live in the underworld, which is represented by rectangular space enclosed by pillars, the earth is for mankind, and the heaven world is located above, covered with a saddle-shaped roof. Other Toraja gods include Pong Banggai di Rante (god of Earth), Indo' Ongon-Ongon (a goddess who can cause earthquakes), Pong Lalondong (god of death), and Indo' Belo Tumbang (goddess of medicine); there are many more.


Toraja's Cloth

The earthly authority, whose words and actions should be cleaved to both in life (agriculture) and death (funerals), is called to minaa (an aluk priest). Aluk is not just a belief system; it is a combination of law, religion, and habit. Aluk governs social life, agricultural practices, and ancestral rituals. The details of aluk may vary from one village to another. One common law is the requirement that death and life rituals be separated. Torajans believe that performing death rituals might ruin their corpses if combined with life rituals. The two rituals are equally important. During the time of the Dutch missionaries, Christian Torajans were prohibited from attending or performing life rituals, but were allowed to perform death rituals. Consequently, Toraja's death rituals are still practiced today, while life rituals have diminished.


Toraja's Girl


Toraja's Ceremony

In Toraja society, the funeral ritual is the most elaborate and expensive event. The richer and more powerful the individual, the more expensive is the funeral. In the aluk religion, only nobles have the right to have an extensive death feast. The death feast of a nobleman is usually attended by thousands and lasts for several days. A ceremonial site, called rante, is usually prepared in a large, grassy field where shelters for audiences, rice barns, and other ceremonial funeral structures are specially made by the deceased family. Flute music, funeral chants, songs and poems, and crying and wailing are traditional Toraja expressions of grief with the exceptions of funerals for young children, and poor, low-status adults.


Funeral Ritual "Rambu Solo"


Funeral Ritual "Rambu Solo"

The ceremony is often held weeks, months, or years after the death so that the deceased's family can raise the significant funds needed to cover funeral expenses. Torajans traditionally believe that death is not a sudden, abrupt event, but a gradual process toward Puya (the land of souls, or afterlife). During the waiting period, the body of the deceased is wrapped in several layers of cloth and kept under the tongkonan. The soul of the deceased is thought to linger around the village until the funeral ceremony is completed, after which it begins its journey to Puya.


Toraja's Coffee


Toraja's Coffee
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Old October 24th, 2009, 04:58 PM   #83
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Zorobabel View Post
Anyone have other pictures of Candi Muara Takus? High resolution would be nice. As far as I know, it's the only major surviving Sriwijaya temple in Indonesia.

Muara Takus Budhist Temple, Kampar - Riau province




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Old October 31st, 2009, 03:18 PM   #84
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Mentawai People
Sumatra Barat Province


Mentawai Women

Mentawai (also known as Mentawei and Mentawi) are the native people of the Mentawai Islands, West Sumatra (Sumatra Barat) Province, Indonesia. They live a semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle in the coastal and rainforest environments of the islands. The Mentawai population is estimated to be about 64,000. The Mentawai language belongs to the Austronesian language family. The people are characterised by their heavy spirituality, body art and their tendency to sharpen their teeth, a practice they feel makes one beautiful.


Mentawai Children

Mentawai, which is located on the islands of West Sumatra, consisting of the island Siberut, Sipora, North Pagai and South Pagai. Siberut Island is the largest, but at least a third compared with the other islands. Communication and transportation difficulties cause the island of Siberut somewhat retarded development. Mentawai Islands is separated from mainland Sumatra since 500,000 years ago in the Pleistocene period, by the increase in surface sea water. Since then, the island is isolated. The indigenous people of Mentawai are Proto-Malayan, like the Toraja of Celebes, Dayak of Borneo or Bataks of Sumatra, and arrived in the islands 5,000 years ago, during the Proto-Malayan
migration. But the Mentawai people remained the most conservative, with their patriarchal society, because of their isolation.



Mentawai Man

When the natural history of Mentawai still vague, so as to origin of the Mentawai people, have some views. Some experts have a certain ethnic group, including their old Malay or Malay Proto, some suspect that other nations in the Mentawai still enter the environment of the nation Polynesia. There are also people who think that is the Mentawai Proto-Malayan who migrated from the nearby locality, given some similarity and physical anthropology with kosmologinya Nias. The question becomes, why not in the dwelling they found the stone such as menhir, dolmen and stone? Could be due to the new location huniannya, or because the small units of population migrannya so that less energy to build artefacts, stone artefacts? Some of the hunting equipment and household of the stones, have long replaced the metal shipped from Sumatra. Meanwhile, the Mentawai people trust their own tradition said, that they come from the island of Nias. Who came to the West Coast Simatalu in Siberut.


Tattoo Working

The mentawai live in the traditional dwelling called the uma which is a longhouse and is made by weaving bamboo strips together to make walls and thatching the roofs with grass,the floor is raised on stilits and is made of wood planks. The main clothing for men is a loin cloth and they are adorned with necklaces and flowers in their hair and ears.Women wear the same thing except they wear a piece of cloth wound around the waist.Women wear small sleevless vests and they sharpen their teeth with a chisel.Tatooing is done with a needle and wood which is hammered on the needle.

Men hunt wild pigs and deer.women and children gather wild yams and other wild food.Small animals are hunted by women.The mentawai keep pigs and dogs and sometimes chickens.


Mentawai man hunt a pig

Livelihood Mentawai people, especially on the island of Siberut is gardening and farming on the edge of swampy forest-swamp. However, forests in the past certainly a source of livelihood with the hunt. Uma on the walls and loft, dozens of digantungkan skull wild pigs, monkeys and skin ibat sea (turtle), which indicates how many times the party was held in the uma. Social ties is evident when they get ravin, betitu also their patterns of consumption that does not directly keep the balance of nature. Once it arrived in the uma, obbuk and bolobok-like musical instrument from the wood-gathering to be pronounced sesuku sister. Ravin no meat should be divided according to the rules, violations can be considered to bring disaster: will be cursed crocodile, the symbol of greed. Thus, the number of prey also be limited according to needs. The ethical divide the meat they have to report the results to the neighboring tribe, if the distribution of prey in the environment of the meat of a tribe, the tribe neighbors.

Likewise, the social setting of the original and newcomers, are a tradition. In Siberut have pelapisan between the native (sibakkat laggai) and migrants (si toi). Ownership of customary land in the vicinity of the village is owned sibakkat laggai. Immigrants are allowed to exploit forest has not been opened in the village selitar, provided that he would like to pay tribute to some of the natives.


Traditional Greeting (1895)

Religion is a native Mentawai people Sabulungan who believe that all things have their spirit that is separate from raganya and roam freely in nature at large. Spirituality native began gradually replaced by Islam and Christianity. However there is also a fixed original confession or at least still believe about the existence of unseen spirits. This is reflected in the pattern of their day-to-day in close touch with punen (holy parties) and the conditions that must be done before establishing the home, hunting, and so open the cargo.


Mentawai Family


Mentawai People Sharpen Their Teeth

Men never walk on embers outside the ceremonies. When, at the insistence of outsiders, they made incomplete, improvised or fake ceremonies, they always got their feet burned. Only the trance state induced by the ritual develops an inner power that maintains the immunity of the organism in front of negative external stimuli.

The ceremonies are caused by major events in the life of the clan: a memorable hunt, the reconciliation between two families, the curing of a child and so on. The shamans, even if they use curative plants, they do not have real pharmaceutical knowledge. They do not know, but infer the curative properties of the plants. They walk through the forest, waiting for the message of the plant spirits.


Mentawai Beach

Still, the world of Siberut is changing. Intruders pay a lot of money for taking pictures of the houses of the indigenous people and the Flower People have started to know the meaning of the money and to pretend them. The local resin gaaru (like frankincense) is appreciated by the Arabs, who snuff it. The gathering of gaaru starts to have an increasing importance.
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Old October 31st, 2009, 03:43 PM   #85
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The Flower People

Mengenal Lebih Dekat Suku Mentawai
Sumber: Antara News



Lelaki Mentawai

Nenek moyang orang Mentawai mungkin datang ke Pulau Siberut sekitar 300 tahun yang lalu. Asal usul mereka belum diketahui, namun beberapa literatur dan peniliti mengarahkan dan menduga kuat, mereka berasal dari Batak Kuno, Sumatera Utara. Tipe kebudayaan ini mungkin menyebar di seluruh Indonesia pada masa lampau, tetapi telah dipengaruhi oleh kebudayaan lain (Hindu, Budha dan Islam yang datang dari daerah luar).


Pantai di Pulau Siberut

Sampai saat ini kebudayaan Mentawai masih cukup asli karena kepulauan Mentawai terpisah, dan orangnya tidak dipengaruhi oleh kebudayaan lain. Struktur sosial masyarakat Mentawai bersifat patrilinial dan kehidupan sosialnya dalam suku di sebut Uma. Struktur sosial tradisional adalah kebersamaan, mereka tinggal di rumah besar yang juga disebut Uma di tengah tanah suku mereka. Struktur sosial itu juga bersifat egalitarian, yaitu setiap anggota dewasa Uma mempunyai hak yang sama, kecuali "SIKEREI" (atau dukun) yang mempunyai hak lebih tinggi karena dapat menyembuhkan penyakit dan memimpin upacara kagamaan.


Wanita Mentawai dengan Tato di Tubuhnya

Makanan poko adalah sagu, pisang dan keladi. Makanan lainnya seperti buah-buahan, madu dan jamur dikumpul dari hutan atau ditanam di ladang. Sumber protein seperti rusa, burung dan monyet diburu, dan ikan dipancing dari kolam dan sungai. Secara tradisional Uma mempunyai wewenang tertinggi di Siberut. Tetapi karena pengaruh program permukiman pemerintah dan aparat pemerintah desa, mengharuskan perubahan organisasi sosial masyrakat Mentawai. Akibatnya, pola kehidupan tradisional berkurang dibeberapa daerah. Namun Uma masih mempunyai aspek yang penting sekali bagi masyarakat Mentawai.


Pawai Budaya Kabupaten Mentawai di Ibukota Provinsi, Padang

Menurut agama tradisional (Arat Sabulungan) seluruh benda hidup dan segala yang ada di alam mempunyai roh atau jiwa (simagre). Roh dapat memisah dari tubuhnya dan berjalan sendiri. Jika keharmonisan antara roh dan tubuhnya tidak dilestarikan roh akan pergi. Di samping itu dapat menyebabkan penyakit. Konsep kepercayaan ini berlaku dalam kehidupan sehari-hari di Siberut. Kegiatan sehari-hari dapat mengganggu keseimbangan dan keharmonisan roh di alam. Upacara agama dikenal sebagai punen, puliaijat atau lia harus mengikuti kegiatan manusia supaya gangguan tersebut berkurang.


Ibu dan Anak Mentawai

Upacara tersebut dipimpin oleh para Sikerei yang dapat berkomunikasi dengan roh dan jiwa yang tidak dapat dilihat orang biasa. Baik roh dari makhluk hidup maupun yang telah mati akan diberikan sesajian, dan makanan yang banyak disediakan untuk semua anggota suku. Rumah adat (uma) dihiasi, daging babi disediakan dan ada tarian (turuk) untuk menyenangkan roh, sehingga mereka akan mengembalikan keharmonisan. Selama upacara, hal-hal yang tabu (kekei) dilarang. Selama 3 abad terakhir ini, agama tradisional Mentawai khususnya "tabu" (ritual-ritual adat dan agama) dilarang, padahal hal itu bagi mereka adalah alat pengontrol pertambahan populasi penduduk.


Salah satu tarian adat Mentawai


Sekolah Anak-anak Mentawai

Pada momen-momen ini, kepala suku dan tetua-tetua adat bisa memantau jumlah penduduk dari jumlah mereka yang hadir. Jika terlihat sudah terlalu banyak, akan dikeluarkan kebijakan pengaturan kelahiran secara adat. Selain itu, lewat Tabu ini juga akan ada nasehat untuk tidak merusak dan eksploitasi hasil hutan secara berlebihan. Namun sekarang, tradisi itu sudah mulai hilang. Akibatnya, penduduk meningkat cepat dan sumber daya alam mulai dieksploitasi tanpa memperhatikan peraturan adat. (*)
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Old November 7th, 2009, 08:46 AM   #86
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Sasak People
Nusa Tenggara Barat Province


Sasak Girl

The Sasak people make up the majority of the people on the island of Lombok in the West Nusa Tenggara Province. Although they live all over the island, the most densely populated region is the central fertile rice-growing region south of famous Mount Rinjani.In the past anthropologists separated the Sasak people into two groups: Waktu Lima and Waktu Telu. The Waktu Lima lived more in the central plains and tended to be located near roads and trading centers. The Waktu Telu lived in the more remote villages of the south and in the mountainous areas of northwest, north and east Lombok.For years, Lombok was divided into a number of warring Sasak princedoms. This resulted in the Balinese conquest of Lombok, which reduced the Sasak to servitude. In 1894, the Dutch liberated the Sasak from the Balinese. This historic animosity between the Balinese and Sasak people remains to this day. Some divisions are also obvious between the honored noble class and the lower ordinary class of people.


Sasak People

To the newcomer the Sasak people can initially appear harsh and aggressive, but once you are a friend you will experience their cordiality and openness. They are primarily an agricultural people, but also engage in hunting, fishing, and making handicrafts. Some villages are quite skilled in weaving or pottery making. Many of these products are sold to tourists or exported to Western nations. Increasing numbers of Sasak are seeking employment in the larger cities of Lombok, Bali, East Java, and Kalimantan and in the nearby countries of Southeast Asia.The moral and ethical standards of the Sasak people are called tindih. They attempt to protect their high standards of solid friendships and proper etiquette within the family system, respecting their elders and observing proper manners when visiting other homes. In seeking a mate, many Sasak follow the custom of kawin-lari, a kind of elopement where a woman is willingly "abducted" and hidden. The man then initiates marriage negotiations with the woman's family. An official wedding ceremony follows shortly after the negotiations.


Perang Topat Games

The majority of Sasak are Muslims. Proportionately, a large number of Sasak perform the long and expensive obligation of Haj (pilgrimage) in Mecca each year. Many will save money for several decades or sell farmland or cars in order to afford this journey. Upon return these pilgrims will be honored in their families and villages for the rest of their lives.By and large, the Sasak people still revere sacred places like the gravesites of popular religious leaders and Mount Rinjani where the god Anjani is considered ruler. Many Sasak also venerate the spirits of their ancestors and the spirits who live in the forests, mountains and rivers.




Sasak Couple

Sasak language, especially the script (written language) is very close to his script of Java and Bali, the same as using the script Ha Na Ca Ra Ka but the pronunciation is quite close to Bali. According to Ethnologue, which collects all the languages in the world, is the Sasak language family (Languages Family) from the Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian (MP) Nuclear MP Sunda-Sulawesi and Bali, Sasak.


Sasak Girl

While if you look directly, Sasak language that developed in Lombok was very diverse, both dialects (pronounced way) as well as vocabulary. This is very unique and can show many influences in its development. When East Lombok regency government wants to make it Sasak Dictionary, they are overwhelmed with the diversity of languages in sasak east lombok, Though in general can be classified into: Kuto-Kute (Northern Lombok), Ngeto-Ngete (Southeast Section Lombok), Meno -Mene (Central Lombok), Ngeno-Ngene (Central Lombok), Mriak-Mriku (Southern Lombok).


Sasak Traditional Dance
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Old November 8th, 2009, 07:17 AM   #87
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Sasak

1865


1946


1920
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Old November 8th, 2009, 07:24 AM   #88
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Mentawai 1900

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Old November 8th, 2009, 07:40 AM   #89
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Toraja

Mapasa Ceremony 1937


Bate Manurun Cermony 1937


Ne' Lai' Ambun Ceremony 1937


Rice Barn 1937
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Old November 8th, 2009, 08:03 AM   #90
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Riau

Istana Siak Sri Indrapura 1905


Sultan Lingga, Soelaiman Badroe Alamsjah 1867
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Old November 8th, 2009, 09:27 AM   #91
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wow thanx dochan..welcome back ya
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Old November 8th, 2009, 10:20 AM   #92
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Suku Sasak
Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat


Sasak Traditional Games

Suku Sasak adalah suku bangsa yang mendiami Pulau Lombok dan menggunakan bahasa Sasak. Suku ini berasal dari Jawa dan Bali. Sebagian besar masyarakatnya beragama Islam, uniknya pada sebagian masyarakat Suku Sasak terdapat praktik agama Islam yang berbeda dengan Islam pada umumnya, yakni penganut Islam Wetu Telu (Bahasa Indonesia: Waktu Tiga). Wetu Telu yaitu praktik shalat hanya dalam tiga waktu, yaitu: Subuh, Dzhuhur, dan Isya. Konon praktik ini disebabkan pada saat penyebaran agama Islam di daerah yang bersangkutan, sang penyebar baru mengajarkan tiga jenis shalat. Dan sebelum ia sempat mengajarkan seluruh waktu shalat, ia meninggalkan Pulau Lombok dan sempat berpesan agar para pengikutnya tidak menerima ajaran dari siapa pun hingga ia kembali dan pesan itu tetap dipegang teguh oleh para pengikutnya. Saat ini para penganut Wetu Telu sudah berkurang dan hanya terbatas pada generasi tua, akibat gencarnya para pendakwah Islam dalam meluruskan praktik tersebut.


Sasak Wedding Ceremony

Masyarakat Suku Sasak umumnya menggantungkan hidup mereka dari hasil pertanian. Kegiatan bercocok tanam ini dimulai pada musim penghujan. Gabah dan semua hasil panen dimasukkan ke dalam lumbung padi besar, yang digunakan bersama oleh tiga sampai lima keluarga. Bentuknya pun sangat khas berupa bangunan tinggi beratap jerami. Rumah Suku Sasak hanya memiliki satu pintu berukuran sempit, rendah, dan tidak memiliki jendela. Atapnya terbuat dari jerami dan berdinding anyaman bambu.Lantainya dibuat dari tanah liat dicampur dengan kotoran kerbau dan jerami, campuran dari kotoran kerbau dan tanah liat ini membuat lantai mengeras seperti semen. Keunikan lain yang ditemukan dalam rumah Suku Sasak ini adalah, penggunaan kotoran sapi atau kerbau dalam membersihkan rumah. Caranya kotoran sapi atau kerbau yang masih segar dipungut dan dilumurkan ke lantai atau tembok, bau kotoran tersebut akan hilang setelah 32 jam. Pembersihan rumah dengan cara ini disebabkan karena lantai rumah tersebut terbuat dari tanah liat dan sudah menjadi tradisi secara turun menurun.



Kehidupan Suku Sasak sarat dengan aturan adat, termasuk dalam hal pernikahan. Sebuah acara pernikahan dalam Suku Sasak berawal dari memilih calon pasangan hidupnya yang disebut sebagai nyidang. Keunikan terasa di saat mengetahui bahwa seorang wanita di dusun ini biasanya memiliki teman pria lebih dari dua orang. Jika malam minggu tiba, pria-pria yang menaruh hati, secara bergiliran bertamu. Kesempatan bertamu ini, dipergunakan sebaik-baiknya untuk mengenal calon pasangannya. Jika telah menemukan pasangan yang cocok, pihak pria akan menyampaikan maksud hatinya kepada pihak wanita. Jika terjadi kecocokan, mereka bersepakat untuk menentukan hari yang tepat untuk kabur dari rumah. Hal ini disebut dengan merari, yaitu mengambil gadis tanpa izin orang tua. Hal ini merupakan kebanggaan bagi pihak keluarga wanita, jika anak gadisnya dibawa kabur. Ini berarti, anak gadisnya laku. Selama masa penculikan, si wanita dibawa ke rumah calon suami atau saudaranya. Paling lambat 3 hari, pihak pria harus segera memberitahu keluarga pihak wanita. Ini dikenal dengan istilah bersejati. Jika dilanggar, maka pihak pria dituduh menculik anak gadis orang, dan dikenakan denda sejumlah uang, yang diserahkan pada saat upacara pernikahan berlangsung. Selama 3 hari ini, dikenal pula istilah berselabor, yaitu pihak pria mengirim utusan ke pihak wanita, untuk memastikan bahwa keluarga wanita telah mengetahui anak gadisnya akan disunting orang. Selanjutnya pihak wanita mempersiapkan wali pernikahan. Puncak acara adat perkawinan Suku Sasak dikenal dengan istilah Sorong Serang Haji Kerama. Yaitu upacara penyerahan sejumlah barang dan uang, sebagai perlambang tanggung jawab seorang pria menikahi wanita. Nilainya disesuaikan kedudukan seseorang di mata masyarakat. Di sinilah makna pentingnya sebuah perkawinan bagi Suku Sasak, sebab perkawinan seseorang dianggap sah, jika Sorong Serah Haji Kerama telah dilaksanakan. Perkawinan yang telah berlangsung tidak dapat diganggu gugat ketika pemimpin upacara telah memutuskan seutas tali yang diikatkan pada sejumlah uang logam. Setelah itu, pengantin pria dan wanita kemudian diarak berkeliling, kira-kira sejauh 1 kilometer sebagai bentuk rasa sukacita, dua pasang manusia yang akan mengarungi kehidupan rumah tangga dan sebagai bentuk permohonan restu, kepada semua orang yang dijumpai di sepanjang jalan.


Sasak Culinary: Ayam Taliwang


Sasak-Lombok Culinary: Loude Puru

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Sejarah Suku Sasak


Sasak People (1911)

Era Pra Sejarah tanah Lombok tidak jelas karena sampai saat ini belum ada data-data dari para ahli serta bukti yang dapat menunjang tentang masa pra sejarah tanah Lombok.Suku Sasak temasuk dalam ras tipe melayu yang konon telah tinggal di Lombok selama 2.000 tahun yang lalu dan diperkirakan telah menduduki daerah pesisir pantai sejak 4.000 tahun yang lalu, dengan demikian perdagangn antar pulau sudah aktif terjadi sejak zaman tesebut dan bersamaan dengan itu saling mempengaruhi antarbudaya juga telah menyebar.

LOMBOK MIRAH SASAK ADI merupakan salah satu kutipan dari kitab Negarakertagama, sebuah kitab yang memuat tentang kekuasaan dan pemerintahaan kerajaan Majapahit. Kata Lombok dalam bahasa kawi berarti lurus atau jujur, kata mirah berarti permata, kata sasak berarti kenyataan, dan kata adi artinya yang baik atau yang utama maka arti keseluruhan yaitu kejujuran adalah permata kenyataan yang baik atau utama. Makna filosofi itulah mungkin yang selalu di idamkan leluhur penghuni tanah Lombok yang tercipta sebagai bentuk kearifan lokal yang harus dijaga dan dilestariakan oleh anak cucunya.


Sasak Children

Dalam kitab – kitab lama, nama Lombok dijumpai disebut Lombok mirah dan Lombok adi beberapa lontar Lombok juga menyebut Lombok dengan gumi selaparang atau selapawis.
Asal-usul penduduk pulau Lombok terdapat beberapa Versi salah satunya yaitu Kata sasak secara etimilogis menurut Dr. Goris. s. berasal dari kata sah yang berarti pergi dan shaka yang berarti leluhur. Berarti pergi ke tanah leluhur orang sasak (Lombok). Dari etimologis ini diduga leluhur orang sasak adalah orang Jawa, terbukti pula dari tulisan sasak yang oleh penduduk Lombok disebut Jejawan, yakni aksara Jawa yang selengkapnya diresepsi oleh kesusastraan sasak.


Sasak traditional house

Etnis Sasak merupakan etnis mayoritas penghuni pulau Lombok, suku sasak merupakan etnis utama meliputi hampir 95% penduduk seluruhnya. Bukti lain juga menyatakan bahwa berdasarkan prasasti tong – tong yang ditemukan di Pujungan, Bali, Suku sasak sudah menghuni pulau Lombok sejak abad IX sampai XI masehi, Kata sasak pada prasasti tersebut mengacu pada tempat suku bangsa atau penduduk seperti kebiasaan orang Bali sampai saat ini sering menyebut pulau Lombok dengan gumi sasak yang berarti tanah, bumi atau pulau tempat bermukimnya orang sasak.


Sasak People in Ceremony

Sejarah Lombok tidak lepas dari silih bergantinya penguasaan dan peperangan yang terjadi di dalamnya baik konflik internal, yaitu peperangan antar kerajaan di Lombok maupun ekternal yaitu penguasaan dari kerajaan dari luar pulau Lombok. Perkembangan era Hindu, Budha, memunculkan beberapa kerajaan seperti selaparang Hindu, Bayan. Kereajaan-kerajaan tersebut dalam perjalannya di tundukan oleh penguasaan kerajaan Majapahit dari ekspedisi Gajah Mada pada abad XIII – XIV dan penguasaan kerajaan Gel – Gel dari Bali pada abad VI. Antara Jawa, Bali dan Lombok mempunyai beberapa kesamaan budaya seperti dalam bahasa dan tulisan jika di telusuri asal – usul mereka banyak berakar dari Hindu Jawa hal itu tidak lepas dari pengaruh penguasaan kerajaan Majapahit yang kemungkinan mengirimkan anggota keluarganya untuk memerintah atau membangun kerajaan di Lombok.
Pengaruh Bali memang sangat kental dalam kebudayaan Lombok hal tersebut tidak lepas dari ekspansi yang dilakukan kerajaan Bali sekitar tahun 1740 di bagian barat pulau Lomboq dalam waktu yang cukup lama. Sehingga banyak terjadi akulturasi antara budaya lokal dengan kebudayaan kaum pendatang hal tersebut dapat dilihat dari terjelmanya genre – genre campuran dalam kesenian. Banyak genre seni pertunjukan tradisional berasal atau diambil dari tradisi seni pertunjukan dari kedua etnik. Sasak dan Bali saling mengambil dan meminjam dan terciptalah genre kesenian baru yang menarik dan saling melengkapi.


Sasak woven cloths

Gumi sasak silih berganti mengalami peralihan kekuasaan hingga ke era Islam yang melahirkan kerajaan Islam Selaparang dan Pejanggik. Islam masuk ke Lombok sepanjang abad XVI ada beberapa versi masuknya Islam ke Lombok yang pertama berasal dari Jawa masuk lewat Lombok timur. Yang kedua pengIslaman berasal dari Makassar dan Sumbawa ketika ajaran tersebut diterima oleh kaum bangsawan ajaran tersebut dengan cepat menyebar ke kerajaan–kerajaan di Lombok timur dan Lombok tengah.
Mayoritas etnis sasak beragama Islam, namun demikian dalam kenyataanya pengaruh Islam juga berakulturasi dengan kepercayaan lokal sehingga terbentuk aliran seperti waktu telu, jika dianalogikan seperti abangan di Jawa. Pada saat ini keberadaan waktu telu sudah tidak kurang mendapat tempat karena tidak sesuai dengan syariat Islam. Pengaruh Islam yang kuat menggeser kekuasaan Hindu di pulau Lombok, hingga saat ini dapat dilihat keberadaannya hanya di bagian barat pulau Lombok saja khususnya di kota Mataram.


Sasak is smiling people too like Balinese

Silih bergantinya penguasaan di Pulau Lombok dan masuknya pengaruh budaya lain membawa dampak semakin kaya dan beragamnya khasanah kebudayaan sasak. Sebagai bentuk dari Pertemuan(difusi, akulturasi, inkulturasi) kebudayaan. Seperti dalam hal Kesenian, bentuk kesenian di lombok sangat beragam.Kesenian asli dan pendatang saling melengakapi sehingga tercipta genre-genre baru. Pengaruh yang paling terasa berakulturasi dengan kesenian lokal yaitu kesenian bali dan pengaruh kebudayaan islam. Keduanya membawa Kontribusi yang besar terhadap perkembangan ksenian-kesenian yang ada di Lombok hingga saat ini. Implementasi dari pertemuan kebudayaan dalam bidang kesenian yaitu, Yang merupakan pengaruh Bali ; Kesenian Cepung, cupak gerantang, Tari jangger, Gamelan Thokol, dan yang merupakan pengaru Islam yaitu Kesenian Rudad, Cilokaq, Wayang Sasak, Gamelan Rebana.

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Old November 8th, 2009, 11:40 AM   #93
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Mumpung masih deketan antara Bali dan Lombok

Aksara Bali


Origin
The Balinese alphabet or Carakan descended ultimately from the from Brahmi script of ancient India by way of the Pallava and Old Kawi scripts. The oldest known inscriptions in the Balinese alphabet date from the 11th century AD, but they are thought to be reproductions of texts originally written on palm leaves at an earlier date.

The Balinese alphabet is still used to this day, although very few people are familiar with it and it is mainly used for religious works. Generally a version of the Latin alphabet known as Tulisan Bali is used instead, though what little Balinese printed material exists in the Latin alphabet consists mainly of school books, religious works and a few books of stories. Although Tulisan Bali is a required subject in Balinese primary schools, most people promptly forget it afterwards.

Notable features
Type of writing system: syllabic alphabet / abugida.
Each consonant has an inherent vowel. Other vowels can be indicated using diacritics which appear above, below, in front of or after the consonant. If the vowels appear in the middle of a word, the vowel signs are attached to the syllable ha. Independent vowel letters are used when a word begins with a vowel.
Each consonant has an appended form (Pangangge Akśara) which is used when one consonant follows another without a vowel in between.
Direction of writing: left to right in horizontal lines.
There are no spaces between words.
Used to write
Balinese (Basa Bali), an Austronesian language spoken by about 3 million people mainly on the Indonesian island of Bali and in western part of the neighbouring island of Lombok. Balinese is also spoken in Nusapenida, Java and Sulawesi.

Balinese consonants (Akśara Wreşāstra)


The appended forms (Pangangge Akśara) are shown in red.

Additional Balinese consonants (Akśara Şwalalita)
There consonants are used for writing words from the Kawi (Old Javanese) language.



The final consonants are shown in red.

Balinese vowels (Akśara Suara)


Balinese vowel diacrtics



Balinese semi vowels



Balinese sound killers (Pangangge Tengenan)
These symbols are used at the ends of syllables to add a consonant sound or to mute the inherent vowel.



Balinese numerals



Balinese punctuation



Sample text in Balinese (Balinese alphabet)



Transliteration
Akeh akśarane, 47, luir ipun: akśara suara, 14, akśara wianjana, 33, akśara suara punika talĕr dados pangangge suara, tur madrĕwe suara kakalih, kawāśt,anin: suara hrĕswa miwah dīrgha

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Old November 8th, 2009, 04:52 PM   #94
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Lontara and Makasar scripts

Origin
The Lontara and Makasar scripts are descended from the Brahmi script of ancient India. The name lontara derives from the Malay word for the palmyra palm, lontar, the leaves of which are the traditional material for manuscripts in India, South East Asia and Indonesia.

Notable features
Type of writing system: syllabic alphabet/alphasyllabary
Direction of writing: left to right in horizontal lines
In common with other Brahmi-derived syllabic alphabets, each consonant has an inherent vowel [a], other vowels are indicated by adding diacritics above or below a consonant.
Used to write:
Bugis or Buginese, Makasar and Mandar, Austronesian languages spoken on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi.

Both scripts were once used to write laws, treaties, maps, etc in Bugis, but are now only used for marriage ceremonies. The Makasar script is still widely used to write Makasar, although the Latin alphabet is officially favoured.

Lontara consonants


Makasar consonants


Vowel diacritics


Sample text in the Lontara script


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Old November 9th, 2009, 06:19 PM   #95
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Balinese Alphabet




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Balinese Alphabet used in Sasak-Lombok too


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Lontara Alphabet used in Bugis-Makassar




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Old November 9th, 2009, 06:36 PM   #96
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Batak alphabet
Origin
The Batak alphabet, or surat batak, is descended ultimately from the from Brahmi script of ancient India by way of the Pallava and Old Kawi scripts.

Notable features
Batak is a syllabic alphabet - each consonant (aksara) has an inherent vowel. Other vowels or the absence of vowels can be indicated using diacritics which appear above, below or after the consonant letter.
Batak is traditionally written from bottom to top in vertical columns running from left to right on strips of bamboo held together with string.
Used to write:
The Batak languages of northern Sumatra - Karo Batak, Toba Batak, Dairi Batak, Simalungun/Timur, Angkola and Mandailing Batak, and occasionally Malay. In most Batak communities, only the datu (priests) are able to read and write the Batak alphabet and they use it mainly for calendars and magical texts.

There are slight variations in the letters and vowel diacritics used to write each language.

Karo Batak syllabic alphabet
Karo Batak is an Austronesian language with about 600,000 speaks in the central and northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.



Vowel diacritics with ka



Toba Batak syllabic alphabet
Dairi Batak, which is also known as Batak Toba and Batta, is an Austronesian language spoken by about 2 million people in the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.



Vowel diacritics with ka



Simalungun/Timur syllabic alphabet
Simalungun, which is also known as Timur and Simelungan, is an Austronesian language spoken by about 800,000 people in the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.



Mandaling Batak syllabic alphabet
Mandaling Batak or Batta is an Austronesian language with about 400,000 speakers in the northern part of the Indonesian island of Sumatra.



Vowel diacritics with ka

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Old November 10th, 2009, 11:36 AM   #97
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interesting....
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Old November 10th, 2009, 05:07 PM   #98
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Batak Script


Batak Alphabet in Tarutung Town


Batak Alphabet in unicode computer
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Old November 10th, 2009, 06:59 PM   #99
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Sundanese (Basa Sunda)


Sundanese is a Polynesian language spoken by about 27 million people on the Greater Sunda island and the western third of Java in Indonesia. It is also the third most-spoken language in Indonesia.

Sundanese is used as a medium of instruction in elementary and junior high schools.

Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda)
Sundanese is normally written with the Latin alphabet, however the Sundanese script is still used to some extent. The Sundanese script developed from the Old Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda Kuna), which was used between the 14th and 18th centuries, and was standardized during the 1990s. Sundanese has also been written with a version of the Arabic script.

Vowels (Aksara Swara)



Diacritics (Rarangkén)



Consonants (Aksara Ngalagena)



Numerals


Sample text in Sundanese



Transliteration
Sakumna jalma gubrag ka alam dunya teh sifatna merdika jeung boga martabat katut hak-hak anu sarua. Maranehna dibere akal jeung hate nurani, campur-gaul jeung sasamana aya dina sumanget duduluran.

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Old November 10th, 2009, 07:07 PM   #100
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Redjang/Kaganga alphabet


Origin
The Redjang or Kaganga alphabet is descended ultimately from the from Brahmi script of ancient India by way of the Pallava and Old Kawi scripts. Some linguists claim that there is are connections between the Redjang alphabet, Egyptian hieroglyphs and various Semitic languages such as Hebrew.

Notable features
Redjang is a syllabic alphabet - each letter has an inherent vowel /a/. Other vowels can be indicated using a variety of diacritics which appear above or below the consonants.
Used to write:
Redjang/Rejang, an Austronesian language spoken by about a million people in Sumatra. The Redjang alphabet is used mainly to write magic spells and medical incantations and some poetry.

Consonants



Vowel diacritics with ka



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