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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:45 AM   #1
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BRAZIL

GENERAL INFRASTRUCTURE THREAD


Also visit URBAN TRANSPORTATION
This thread will only include Highlights of Urban Transportation, detailed info is posted on specific thread.


MAP



TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS

official Multimodal Brazilian Infrastructure map

ENERGY PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION

EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE

RELATED ECONOMIC NEWS

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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:46 AM   #2
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BRAZIL | General Infrastructure Thread

INFRASTRUCTURE OVERVIEW


Official Brazilian Government PDF on Infrastructure

Official Infrastructure Maps

Morgan & Stanley 2010 Report

Infrastructure Report

TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE IN BRAZIL AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF DEVELOPMENT FAILURE

PDF on urban mobility, focusing on ownership and use of private motor vehicles. Circa 60% of Brazilian households have either a car or a motorcycle, or both.

Major projects for the Santos region (Sao Paulo port)

MAIN PROJECTS PLANNED & UNDER WAY

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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:48 AM   #3
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RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION
















viaduto Pesseguinho






viaduto Paulo de Frontin







DETAILED RAILROAD MAP IN PDF

Total existing railroad network: 28,300 km
Total railroad network in use: 22,800 km


Expansion: around 4,500 km of new railroads under construction. High-Speed rail link planned between São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (2030s?)

Broad gauge - 1.600 m: 4,057 km
Standard gauge - 1.435 m: 202.4 km
Metric gauge - 1.000 m: 23,489 km
Mixed gauge - 1.600(1.435)/1.000m : 336 km


Great VALEC video on current andn future railroad expansion nationwide






links: Revista Ferroviária

VALE COMPANY ORE RAILROADS

EFVM - Estrada de Ferro Vitória a Minas - operated by mining giant Vale, world's second largest mining company



EFC - Estrada de Ferro Carajás - also operated by Vale, links São Luís in Maranhão to the deep mining area of Carajás in the Amazon (Pará state)








Railroads under construction/expansion

FREIGH RAILROADS



TRANSNORDESTINA





length: 1730km
status: under construction since 2006; partly fuctional since 2016, full completion by 2022/2024


detailed map



Ef-151 - NORTE-SUL











South section (Goiás-São Paulo) video
Andrade Gutierrez (Contractor) video
status: under construction since 1987(!), 1,500km operational out of 4,500 planned; expected completion within the 21st century.


FERRONORTE





status: under expansion towards Rondonópolis (expected to open by April 2013) and vague plans for reaching Cuiabá and further northwest.


EF-334 - FIOL (FERROVIA INTEGRAÇÃO OESTE-LESTE - WEST-EAST RAILROAD

Connecting the North-South railroad in Tocantins to the Atlantic Port of Ilheus, in Bahia, the first section was expected for 2014, now frist section for 2020/2022, second section from Bahia to Tocantis (connecting the railway to the Norte-Sul railway) is only a plan as as of 2018 has no budget or tender process.

Construction of bridge (early 2018)







EF-354 - FICO - West-Central Brazil



Ferrovia de Integração Centro-Oeste - Midwest Integration Railroad - from Rondonia to the North-South railroad in Goiás.
detailed map
R$ 6,5 billion
First section - Campinorte (Gioás, at North-South railroad) to Lucas do Rio Verde (Mato Grosso state) 1040 km long
Includes 2.5km Railroad-Highway bridge (Ponte Rodoferroviária) on the Araguaia River
Section section, from Lucas do Rio Verde to Vilhena (Rondonia state) will be 600 km long, R$2.3 billion

This project is on hold as of 2018.

EF-267 FERROVIA DO PANTANAL



From Panorama (connection with North-South railroad) to Porto Murtinho, at the Paraguayan border in Mato Grosso do Sul state.


BELO HORIZONTE-SALVADOR




SÃO PAULO RAILRING (FERROANEL)





status: works supposed to start by 2013/2014, North Section is priority, by 2022/2024, following the ringroad. Awaiting bidding.


EF-280/499/498 – CORREDOR FERROVIÁRIO DE SANTA CATARINA

Santa Catarina state, crossing the state from West to coast. No concrete deadlines. No tender or work in progress as of 2018




EF-188 RIO - VITÓRIA




PASSENGER RAILROADS


"Litorina" train Curitiba-Paranaguá

Passenger service was virtually abolished during the privatizations in the 1990's, but even before that, since the late 1970's, passenger trains had slipped into virtual irrelevance and very low quality due to decades of underinvestments and the rise of the bus, the car and the airplane.

Currently there are only two regularly scheduled passenger trainn services in Brazil, both operated by mining giant Vale Company along its own railroads. The most important one connects Belo Horizonte (Brazil's third largest metropolis) to Vitória (capital of Estpirito Santo state) along the Estrada de Ferro Vitória a Minas (Vitória to Minas Railroad, EFVM), taking approx. 13 hours.

Belo Horizonte-Vitória daily train:












The other Vale train service connects São Luís (capital of Maranhão state, in the Northeast) to the Carajás iron ore mine area in Pará state (Amazon).

Passenger train from São Luís (Maranhão state capital) to Carajás/Marabá (Pará state, Amazon region)











Other passenger rail is Brazil are eventual touristic services, most notably the Curitiba-Paranaguá "Litorina" service down the breathtaking Serra do Mar (Atlantic range).

Curitiba-Paranaguá touristic service:








Serra da Mantiqueira train (Campos do Jordão, Sao Paulo state)




Sao Paulo city touristic trains, operated by CPTM












Trem do Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul state




Rio Grande do Sul state touristic heritage "Wine Train"


Rio de Janeiro Corcovado mountain train



Minas Gerais - Ouro Preto - Mariana historical cities train - both modern diesel and heritage steam loco services






Serra Verde Express, Espirito Santo state





There are a number of projects being discussed since the year 2000:


High Speed Rail HSR (TAV) São Paulo - Rio de Janeiro



The São Paulo - Rio High Speed Rail (TAV - Trem de Alta Velocidade), which has been under serious discussion since 2007. Financial and political difficulties have delayed bidding and no contracts have been awarded as of late 2013. The whole project was put in the freezer by 2014 and it's not expected to be resurrected in the near future. Cannot be expected to start construction before mid/late 2020s, may be replaced with a simpler slower railroad type.


São Paulo State Intercity Trains





Proposals to link São Paulo city to neighboring large cities are under serious discussion by the State Government. The proposed links are Sorocaba to the West, Santos to the South, and Jundiaí to the North (in parallel to the proposed Campinas link of the HSR). The easiest and most likely link to be built is the Sorocaba link, and the second most likely to be built is the Santos link, given the huge demand for travel to the coast, in spite of the huge difficulty of traversing the 750 m downhill to the coast.[General statewide plans PDF] [Santos Regional Rail PDF]



Maringá-Londrina train ("Trem Pé-Vermelho") - Paraná state



152km, serving 13 cities, 20,000 p/day, funds for project approved in 2014. New rail line to be built in parallel to existing line. Probably diesel.


Brasilia-Goiania train (Expresso Pequi)



Electric passenger train in Brazil's third richest urban region
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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:48 AM   #4
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HIGHWAYS


SP-21 highway, Sao Paulo


SP-65 highway, Sao Paulo

[IMG][/IMG]
BR-448 highway, Rio Grande do Sul


Road Connection between BA-526 and BA-099

[IMG][/IMG]
BR-101 section in Paraíba state


DF-047 highway, Brasília


Bandeirantes, one of Sao Paulo state's main highways


Castelo Branco highway (Sao Paulo-Sorocaba)


road in somewhere very distant in Brazil


Sao Paulo Rodoanel (roadring) - West section


Total road network: circa 2 million km (4th largest network in the world)
Total paved network: 230,000 km
Total divided dual highways (duplicated): 16,000km (2017) (from 11,000km in 2011)


A recent Federal Government concession package (2013-2015) is transfering care and expansion projects of 10,000km of federal highways to private concessionaires. Some 6,800km are being transformed into divided highways/ dual carriageways. This package will dramatically increase highway quality throughout the country.

The map below shows a different proposal, but illustrates what the Brazilian National & State highway system may look like in 5-10 years (late 2020s)




Automobile rate: 1 per 4 inhabitants
Automobile fleet: circa 45 million (2014)
Trucks, buses, motorcycles and other commercial vehicles: circa 30 million
Total motorvehciles (2014): 84 million
(automobile includes cars, SUVs and small pick-up trucks) - source)



Map of highways by quality



Map of Brazil's dual carriageway highways shown (completed, u/c and planned)



source (excellent PDF with proposals for road duplication)

original map

Sao Paulo state's dual carriageway system



another map



CNT National Highway Quality Survey 2012 (PDF)

Graphic - highway quality by state & nationwide, 2013, CNT


source




Major ongoing projects

SÃO PAULO RINGROAD (RODOANEL MÁRIO COVAS) - 75% operational, final conclusion 2016



South section over dam




North Section under construction in 2017 (delivery expected for 2019)


Conceived to divert highway through-traffic away from the city's congested highways and the "old ringroad" already engulfed by urban development. The West section opened in 2002, the South section in 2010. The East section opened in July, 2014. The North section started construction in 2012 and is expected to open by 2016.
Video

Map


ANHANGUERA COMPLEX - Sao Paulo

Series of projects to modernize Anhanguera Highway, connecting Sao Paulo city to interior










RIO DE JANEIRO HIGHWAY ARC





Opened almost entirely in mid 2014, a small section remains to be built


BELO HORIZONTE BELTWAY



North section to be built between 2015 and 2019, other sections still in planning stage



SANTOS-GUARUJÁ TUNNEL (TÚNEL SUBMERSO SANTOS_GUARUJÁ)

Descriptive PDF







BR-116

length: 4,500km



The most important highway in Brazil, nationwide from north to south, fully paved. Each major section between large cities has different names.

BR-116 - São Paulo-Rio section (Dutra) - The most important section, being the main link between Brazil's two largest metropolitan regions.



The section hilly section near Rio (Serra das Araras) is due to be modernized, with a new 10km long viaduct/tunnel section in place of the current winding trajectory built in the 50s/60s. Thread.



São Paulo-Curitiba (Régis Bittencourt) - The second most important part, being the main link between the South and the rest of Brazil. A 25km single-road section on Serra do Cafezal forest was finally twinned in 2017. That former two-lane section was one of the worst bottlenecks in Brazilian infrastructure. The expansion required tunnels and bridges.

Video on expansion project:


pictures of 2015:








AMAZONIAN ROAD PAVING AND CONSTRUCTION

BR-230 TRANSAMAZONIAN





The Transamazônica (Transamazonian Highway) is being paved through the Tapajos river, though no schedule for full pavement has been revealed.






BR-319

The highway from Porto Velho to Manaus is 860km long but was poorly built in the 80s and eventually fell into disrepair. Currently usable only in extremities, full restoration is schedule to end by 2017(?).

2015 pics of new bridges










Federal Government page on Private Federal Highway Concessions




SP-99 - Tamoios (Eastern Greater Sao Paulo - Northern coastal SP state)

Already twinned on highland section, the hill section and the rings around Sao Sebastiao and Caraguatatuba will be ready by 2018/2019





SP-160 - Imigrantes Highway, from Santos region to Sao Paulo city. First section (Santos-Sao Paulo) completed in 1976, second section (Sao Paulo-Santos) completed in 2002










BR-040 (RIO - BELO HORIZONTE section)





This national highway connects Rio to Belo Horizonte to Brasilia and beyond. The hilly section between Rio and Petropolis is being twinned and will include Brazil's longest highway tunnel, with about 4km. The remainder to Belo Horizonte has already been almost fully twinned. The BH-Brasilia section is also being fully twinned.


BR-163






source

Main section connects Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso and Pará states. Granted in concession in 2014, it is being twinned in its southern sections and paved / twinned in its Amazonian section (Cuiabá-Santarém) providing an alternative route for central Brazil's gargantuan agrarian production, which today has to be funneled to the Southern ports.


Rio Grande do Sul highway status chart



"Freeway" in Rio Grande do Sul state


BR-448 bridge near Porto Alegre (Estrada do Parque)



BR-101 (FLORIANOPOLIS - PORTO ALEGRE section)







Being fully duplicated, one of the biggest highway projects in the country right now. Includes Anita Garibaldi bridge (Laguna bridge) 2,8km long.











BR-101 (ESPIRITO SANTO SECTION)



Being twinned


SP-160 SP-050 Access to Santos Port / Cubatão Petrochemical Complex - reformulation of Cubatão intersections, Sao Paulo state

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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:49 AM   #5
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PORTS AND WATERWAYS

Largest Ports

Santos (São Paulo) - Brazilian thread[/B] - International thread



Brazil's largest port by any measure, responding for over 30% of Brazil's foreign trade. It serves Sao Paulo city & state and much of Brazil's Center-West. By most accounts, it is also Latin America's largest and busiest port.

Official Presentation video







Other main ports

Paranaguá - serves Paraná state, Curitiba city, 5% of Brazil's foreign trade




Itajaí - serves Santa Catarina state, 6% of Brazil's foreign trade

Rio Grande - Rio Grande do Sul state, 6.5% of Brazil's foreign trade

Rio de Janeiro - 5% of Brazil's foreign trade

Vitória (Espirito Santo) - 4%

Sao Francisco do Sul (Santa Catarina state) - 3.5%

Suape - 3.5% of Brazils foreign trade

Manaus - 3.5%

Itaguaí (Rio de Janeiro state) - 1.7%

Port of Natal




WATERWAYS

Hidrovia Tietê-Paraná - connects Sao Paulo state to the Paraná river, which meets the Atlantic near Buenos Aires










Hidrovia Tocantins-Araguaia

Tucuruí river lock, one of the world's largest (75 meters in height), completed in 2010.





Institutional video


Inaugural trip



XINGÓ CANAL - irrigation and anti-drought project

Over 300km long canal in Bahia and Sergipe state, in project phase as of 2015


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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:50 AM   #6
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AIRPORTS AND AIRTRAVEL

Quote:
Originally Posted by RobertoBancrofth View Post
World cities by annual airport passenger traffic, 2017

1. Londres → 170.982.770 (+7.926.392)
2. Nova Iorque → 135.514.082 (+4.058.775)
3. Tokyo → 126.277.169 (+7.703.517)
4. Xangai → 111.912.705 (+5.477.705)
5. Los Angeles → 108.057.042 (+5.426.401)
6. Paris → 105.160.006 (+3.991.140)
7. Atlanta → 103.902.992 (-355.132)
8. Chicago → 102.479.419 (+1.840.831)
9. Pequim → 101.739.883 (+1.760.495)
10. Dubai → 100.512.627 (+5.810.384)
11. Bangkok → 99.160.461 (+8.997.550)
12. Istambul → 94.804.603 (+5.107.653)
13. Moscou → 89.489.719 (+13.013.031)
14. Seul → 87 183 179 (+4.374.694)
15. Miami → 82.904.818 (+2.850.816)
16. Dallas → 82.815.841 (+1.582.406)
17. San Francisco → 81.384.995 (+5.994.262)
18. Washington → 73.063.535 (+2.376.784)
19. Hong Kong → 72.868.000 (+2.366.000)
20. Jacarta → 70.949.870 (+7.212.089)
21. São Paulo → 69.126.443 (+2.310.853)
22. Amsterdam → 68.461.214 (+4.815.014)
23. Frankfurt → 66.948.498 (+3.537.206)
24. Guangzhou → 65 776 088 (+6.043.941)
25. Délhi → 63.451.503 (+7.820.118)
26. Singapura → 62.219.573 (+3.521.534)
28. Kuala Lumpur → 61.435.213 (+5.975.978)
29. Denver → 61.379.396 (+3.112.881)
30. Houston → 54.131.888 (-392.876)
31. Madrid → 53.402.506 (+2.981.923)
32. Taipei → 50.821.856 (+2.382.089)
33. Barcelona → 50.254.280 (+3.617.213)


Air network in Brazil


Aircraft maneuvering at Brasilia International Airport


Brazil has the third largest domestic aviation market, after the USA and China. There are 4000 active airoports in the country, 35 of which are international.


São Paulo International Airport (Franco Montoro, Guarulhos - GRU) - Brazil's largest, handling over 37% of passenger traffic in the country. Termimal 1 opened in 1985, Terminal 2 opened in 1992, Terminal 4 in 2010, Terminal 3 in 2014. Privatized in 2012.















Construction of Terminal 3 (completed in 2014 for the World Cup) dramatically increased capacity and quality. Annual traffic: 40 million passengers (2014 estimate), 50 million/year are expected for 2018. It is the 24th busiest airport in the world.



Capacity:
Terminals 1 & 2 = 26 million;
Terminal 3 = 12 million
Terminal 4 = 2 million
Terminal 5 (planned 2018/2020)


Regular CPTM Line 13 train service opened in 2018, connecting the airport to the city's heavy rail network





Sao Paullo Domestic Airport - Congonhas (CGN) - it was the city's only major airport (including international) until 1985, when Guarulhos/Cumbica opened, and it remained as a domestic flight hub. Brazil's third busiest airport.








20 million passengers/year


Rio de Janeiro International Airport - Antonio Carlos Jobim - Galeão - 18 million passengers/year. It was privatized in concession in 2014 and will be extensively modernized before the 2016 Olympics.







Brasília International Airport "Juscelino Kubitschek" - second busiest airport in Brazil












Viracopos Airport, near Campinas, Sao Paulo state, Brazil's fifth largest airport, with major plans to make it much bigger in the near future.




Recife International Airport "Gilberto Freyre"






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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:51 AM   #7
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ELECTRICITY

Total installed capacity: 158.148.123 kW (2018) (source)


Installed capacity in 2001: 75GW


Actually generated electricty (2013)
Hydro: 75-80%
Gas/Coal: 10%
Oil: 5%
Wind: 4%
Nuclear: 2-3%
Wikipedia article


Official graphic on installed capacity by source

Quote:
Originally Posted by Ferraz/RBR View Post
Consumo de energia elétrica em 2011 (TWh) e variação em relação a 2010

1. China 4.207 (15,8%)
2. Estados Unidos 3.882 (-0,1%)
3. Japão 983 (-1,2%)
4. Russia 869 (1,3%)
5. Índia 757 (8,4%)
6. Canadá 551 (3,1%)
7. Alemanha 537 (-1,2%)
8. Brasil 481 (3,5%)
9. Coreia do Sul 472 (4,9)
10. França 447 (-5,7)


Capacidade Instalada de geração elétrica em 2011 (GW)

1. China: 1082
2. Estados Unidos: 1.030
3. Japão: 261
4. Índia: 233
5. Alemanha: 148
6. Brasil: 117
7. Itália: 96
8. França: 93
9. Reino Unido: 88
10. Espanha: 27


Capacidade Instalada Hidrelétricas em 2011 (GW)

1. China: 231
2. Brasil: 82
3. Estados Unidos: 78
4. Canadá: 74
5. Rússia: 47
6. Índia: 42
7. Noruega: 28
8. Japão: 22
9. França: 18
10. Turquia: 17






The 2011 decadal plan indicates that Brazil will need to add 70GW of installed capacity in its electrical system by 2020, reaching 180-190GW, most of which is planned to come from new hydro.

HYDRO

Brazil and Its Hidroelectric Powerplants (O Brasil e suas Usinas Hidrelétricas)


National Geographic Incredible Projects - Itaipu Powerplant


Megadams in operation

Itaipu - 14.20GW - (Paraná state) Largest hydro powerplant in the world by actual generation (second largest by installed capacity). Operational since 1982.


Tucuruí - 8.37GW - (Pará state) Third largest hydro in the world by generation and installed capacity. Completed in 1984.




Xingó - 3.16GW (Alagoas/Sergipe states)


Ilha Solteira / Jupiá Paraná River (4GW)



Furnas (Minas Gerais) (1.2GW)




Major projects


1 - BELO MONTE HYDROELECTRIC POWERPLANT (Pará State)
Capacity 11.23 GW
Capacity factor 40%
Largest hydroelectric powerplant under construction outside China today, it will be operational by 2016.
Official thread















2 - JIRAU AND SANTO ANTONIO HYDROELECTRIC POWERPLANTS (Rondonia State)
On the Madeira River, Southern Amazon
Joint capacity 6,45GW
Partly operational since 2012.







Videos








ABB videos - the world's largest electric transformers ever were built and delivered for this project by ABB


TAPAJÓS RIVER COMPLEX - COMPLEXO DO TAPAJÓS

A series of large hydro plants to be built on the Tapajós River, totalling 11-13GW of installed capacity, the first units to be licensed by 2014 and start construction by 2015-2016. Most units are just vague plans.

Units:
UHE São Luiz do Tapajós
UHE Jatobá
UHE Jamanxim
UHE Cachoeira do Caí
UHE Cachoeira dos Patos

OTHER PROJECTS

Usina de Teles Pires (Teles Pires river, Mato Grosso state) - 1.8GW - completion 2015 - (wiki)






SOLAR AND WIND

In 2013 wind provided roughly 4% of Brazil's electricty, and expansion is very rapid.

Brazil's Wind Potential Map





Largest generating unit in Brazil is in Rio Grande do Norte state (1,2GW)





NUCLEAR

Brazil currently operates two commercial nuclear reactors, both at the Angra dos Reis facility, between Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The first power plant Angra I became operational in 1982, the second Angra II became operational in 2002. Angra III is under construction for operations by 2018.

Current capacity is around 2GW, Angra III will add another 1,2GW to the complex. Further plans for around 7 nuclear powerplants in Brazil have existed since the 70s, but are currently on hold.







NATURAL GAS & COAL

Pecém Energia powerplant near Pecém Port, Ceará state. Largest coal-fired thermal powerplant in Brazil, 720GW




Uruguaiana natural gas powerplant (450MW)
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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:51 AM   #8
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FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOFUELS

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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:52 AM   #9
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PETROLEUM AND REFINERIES



Refap (Alberto Pasqualini) Refinery in Rio Grande do Sul


https://www.statista.com/statistics/...nery-capacity/


Thesis on petroleum refining in Brazil


**CANCELLED** PREMIUM I REFINERY (Macabeira, Maranhão state) - most expensive infrastructure project in Brazil today (R$40 billion, US$20 billion)

It will be the 5th largest refinery in the world, handling 1/3 of Brazil's petroleum production



Official PAC webiste

Quote:
General Information

Premium I is being built in the city of Bacabeira, 60 km from São Luis (MA). It, which will be our biggest refinery, will produce high-quality fuels. In its first phase, the new facility will have a throughput of 300,000 barrels/day. Once work has been fully completed this figure will reach 600,000 barrels/day.

Location:
BR 402, Km 01 - Bacabeira - MA
CEP: 65143-000

Phone:
(98) 3217-3327

Technical Features

First phase throughput will be 300,000 barrels/day. Upon completion of the works, it will be 600,000 barrels/day.

The Premium I refinery will produce diesel fuel, jet fuel, petrochemical naphtha, LPG (cooking gas), bunker (fuel for ships) and coke.

Brief status of the works

The Premium I Refinery project is at the assessment stage. A hundred percent of the earthwork has been completed in the southern area of the plot, within the project's schedule.

The refinery is in our 2014-2018 Business and Management Plan bidding portfolio. Invitations were issued to the market relating to the hydrogen generation and water and wastewater treatment units in March. The first stage of Premium I is expected to come on stream in 2018.
Production to start by 2017, completion by 2022. Diesel, cooking gas, kerosene, naphtha.


**CANCELLED** Premium II Refinery to be located in neigboring Ceará state

Quote:
A Petrobras assinou nesta sexta-feira, 22, em Fortaleza, o termo de compromisso indígena da Refinaria Premium II, dentro do processo de licenciamento para as obras de construção da usina. Com a assinatura, a Petrobras compromete-se a reembolsar a metade das despesas do governo do Ceará com a compra de terreno, pagamento de indenizações, construção de infraestrutura para a realocação das comunidades e criação da reserva indígena. O reembolso por parte da estatal será limitado a R$ 15 milhões.

A Refinaria Premium II será construída em Caucaia (CE), a 50 quilômetros da capital cearense, no Complexo Industrial e Portuário de Pecém, e terá capacidade de processar 300 mil barris de petróleo por dia, abastecendo o mercado nacional de derivados com baixo teor de enxofre. O termo de compromisso foi assinado pela Petrobras, governo do Estado, Fundação Nacional do Índio (Funai), Ministério Público Federal (MPF), Superintendência do Patrimônio da União (SPU) e comunidades indígenas e tornará viável a criação da reserva Taba dos Anacés.

Refinaria Abreu Lima (Ipojuca, Pernambuco state) - construction started in 2007, originally budgeted at US$ 2 billion, now costs are estimated at US$20 billion. It will be the first major refinery built entirely with Brazilian technology. It entered operational stage in 2014, and will have an ultimate capacity of 250,000 barrels/day in 2017.






Comperj - major refinery under construction in Rio de Janeiro. Expected to open in 2016. Capacity 165,000 barrels/day.




EXISTING

Paulínia Refinery, Sao Paulo state - largest refinery in Brazil, capacity 450,000 barrels/day




Presidente Bernardes Refinery, operational since 1955, Santos/Cubatão (Sao Paulo state) - cappacity 178,000 barrels/day




Most of Brazil's oil comes from off-shore platforms, such as P-55

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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:52 AM   #10
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WATER, SANITATION

São Paulo's Rivers Decontamination

Projeto Tietê

Phase I and II complete, phase III to be complete by 2025. By 2018, 100% of the city's waste waters will be treated, but 30% of the pollution comes from air pollution and dirty rain waters.




Percentage of households with collected and treated sewage, by state, 2010

Quote:
Originally Posted by JPMagalhães View Post

São Paulo - 90,74%
Distrito Federal -87,87%
Rio de Janeiro - 85,30%
Minas Gerais - 77,49%
Santa Catarina - 75,59%
Rio Grande do Sul - 73,59%
Espírito Santo - 72,90%
Paraná - 64,16%
Pernambuco - 53,31%
Bahia - 49,58%
Sergipe - 48,93%
Paraíba - 47,93%
Goiás - 47,84%
Rio Grande do Norte - 44,15%
Roraima - 42,26%
Ceará - 42,23%
Amazonas - 40,24%
Mato Grosso do Sul - 37,68%
Mato Grosso - 35,40%
Acre - 33,54%
Alagoas - 31,29%
Pará - 29,15%
Piauí - 28,65%
Tocantins - 28,22%
Maranhão - 25,08%
Amapá - 22,30%
Rondônia - 22,18%

Percentage of municipalities with sewage treatment

Quote:
Originally Posted by JPMagalhães View Post

1-Distrito Federal - 100,0%
2-São Paulo - 99,8%
3-Espírito Santo - 97,4%
4-Rio de Janeiro - 92,4%
5-Minas Gerais - 91,6%
6-Pernambuco - 88,1%
7-Paraíba -73,1%
8-Ceará -69,6%
9-Bahia - 51,3%
10-Mato Grosso do Sul - 44,9%
11-Paraná - 42,1%
12-Alagoas - 41,2%
13-Rio Grande do Sul - 40,5%
14-Roraima - 40,0%
15-Rio Grande do Norte - 35,3%
16-Santa Catarina - 35,2%
17-Sergipe - 34,7%
18-Amapá - 31,3%
19-Goiás - 28,0%
20-Acre - 27,3%
21-Mato Grosso - 19,1%
22-Amazonas - 17,7%
23-Tocantins - 12,9%
24-Rondônia - 9,6%
25-Maranhão - 6,5%
26-Pará - 6,3%
27-Piauí - 4,5%

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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:54 AM   #11
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SOCIAL SECURITY, HOUSING & LAND REFORM

National Geographical Institute 2013 Social Development Report (Síntese de Indicadores Sociais IBGE)

Federal Social Housing Project (Minha Casa Minha Vida)
Official website

PDF on housing deficit

420,000 homes donated to low-income houses as of April 2013
Over 300,000 homes sold on subsidized credit
Over 1 million homes to be built and sold on subsidized credit in the next few years
In total 1,4 million homes delivered by the project as of late 2013, abother 700,000 to be delivered in the next few years


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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:55 AM   #12
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hhhhh

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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:56 AM   #13
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SÃO FRANCISCO RIVER DIVERSION

The São Francisco river is one of Brazil's three major river basins, after the Amazon and the Paraná, and the only to be entirely within the country's borders. About 2% of the river's water will be diverted into canals for irrigation and human consumption in a number of drought-stricken areas of Brazil's rural Northeast.

This river diversion program is one of the largest infrastructure works under construction. Originally scheduled to be completed by 2012, construction delays have postponed the opening to 2017, when only part of the project was put in operations.



http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/infogra...desviada.shtml











News video from 2012
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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:56 AM   #14
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BRIDGES

Current:

Rio-Niteroi bridge - 14km - 1974 - longest bridge in Brazil





Historical video


Manaus-Iranduba bridge - Manaus (North) - 3.5km - 2011
image hosted on flickr



Kubitschek bridge - urban - Brasília - 2002


João Alves - Aracaju (Sergipe state, Northeast)


Pará-Manituba bridge - Belém (Pará state, North)



Newton Navarro bridge - Natal (Rio Grande do Norte state, Northeast) - 2,7km - 2007



Highway bridge access to Santa Catarina island, in Florianopolis


Vitória-Vila Velha bridge - Vitória (Southeast) -




Ponte Rodoferroviária (1998 - Paraná river, border Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul states) - part of Ferronorte Railroad that links the Midwest to Sao Paulo's port of Santos





Francisco de Sá railroad bridge over the Paraná river, some 250km south of the bridge above




Porto de Alencastro bridge (2003, Mato Grosso do Sul - Minas Gerais)




Hercílio Luz bridge (1926, Florianópolis - Santa Catarina state) - closed and eternally under renovation




Brazil-Peru border bridge




Golberto Amado bridge, 2002, links Bahia and Alagoas states



Dutra railroad bridge over Paraguai river, 1947, part of Noroeste railroad




Pedro II bridge near Paulo Afonso hydro plant, Bahia



Paulo Afonso hanging bridge




Benjamin Constant bridge, 1897, Manaus (Amazon)





U/C and planned:

Salvador-Itaparica bridge - 12km - construction start: 2014/2015

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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:57 AM   #15
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URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE

SAO PAULO


Tietê Marginal Freeway - reputed the world's second busiest urban freeway (after Toronto's 401)








Marginal Pinheiros Freeway





Octavio Frias Bridge (2008)




May 23rd/South Corridor - Downtown-South urban freeway







Itaquera World Cup Stadium freeway and overpasses





Radial Leste (East Side Freeway)






For Sao Paulo's metro system, please visit the Sao Paulo Public Transport thread

Barra Funda intermodal station (metro, suburban rail, bus)



Brás station


Luz station


Sé station




RIO DE JANEIRO


International Airport Freeway (Estrada do Galeão)





Linha Vermelha (Red Freeway)






Joá Elevated - linking South Side with Barra da Tijuca (West Side)




Avenida Brasil





Rio de Janeiro metro, suburban rail, BRT - please visit the BRAZIL URBAN TRANSPORT COMPILATION thread

Central do Brasil station


Metro station, Line 1


BRT system

International Airport BRT station



Salvador urban freeway and overpasses




Recife "Via Mangue" freeway







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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:58 AM   #16
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INDUSTRY, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Brazilian Economy by sector




Geographic distribution of Brazil's industrial output




Scientific production in Brazil went up several positions in the past 20 years.



Map of steel industry in Brazil. Brazil is the 8th largest producer of steel in the world.




Map of automobile factories in Brazil




Sao Paulo state is the undisputed center of Brazil's industrial and scientific sectors.

Brazil today produces over 3.5 million vehicles a year.

VW plant in Sao Paulo producing the Gol, Brazil's best selling car:


historical picture showing Volkswagen Gol generation I production in the early 80s



Bombardier Monorail factory in Sao Paulo




Sao Paulo state is also the home of Embraer, the world's 3rd largest manufacturer of airplanes





Jetfighter AMX:




Military cargo airplane KC390






BRASKEM headquartered in Sao Paulo is the world's 4th largest chemicals manufacturer





DELL manufactures notebooks in Sao Paulo (Hortolândia) and Rio Grande do Sul state




AMSTAD-MAXXION locomotive factory




MARCOPOLO (Rio Grande do Sul) is one of the world's largest manufacturers of buses





WEG in Santa Catarina is one of the world's largest manufacturers of electric motors





in Sao Paulo state, Tecsis is one of the world's largest producers of blades for wind power generating units







Shipbuilding today is concentrated in Rio de Janeiro and Pernambuco states












Oil platforms are also produced in Brazil, most of Brazil's oil comes from offshore wells







Brazilian Multinational Corporations







ZONA FRANCA DE MANAUS - Free Zone of Manaus. Established in the 1970s to develop the Amazon, the Free Zone is an industrial area of Manaus city (pop 2 million) where the manufacture and assembly of industrial consumer products (electronics, white line, motorcycles and light commercial vehicles) can be done with little or no taxation. From the 60s until the early 90's, consumer products could not be directly imported to Brazil, so most consumer electronics in the country were manufactured/ assembled in Manaus and than shipped to other regions.






SPACE PROGRAM

Brazilian suborbital sounding rockets. Brazil's first suborbital launches took place in the 1970's.



The orbital program has failed to orbit the VLS vehicle in two attempts.


The failed launch attempt of VLS 2


Currently the Brazilian-Ukrainian joint venture Alcantara-Cyclone is posed to launch an orbital vehicle from Northeastern Brazil before 2016. (CANCELLED due to meltdown in Ukraine and problems in Brazil)

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Old April 3rd, 2013, 08:59 AM   #17
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MINING AND AGRICULTURE

Brazil is the fourth largest producer of agricultural products and the second largest exporter









In 2012 Brazil surpassed the USA as the largest exporter of soybeans






Brazil also leads the world in oranges and orange juice

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Old April 3rd, 2013, 09:00 AM   #18
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ETHETURTUJRYJTYKUK
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Old April 3rd, 2013, 09:01 AM   #19
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MILITARY AND DEFENSE







The Brazilian Navy operates 1 aircraft carrier, the Sao Paulo





Brazilian Nuclear Submarine under construction (slated for 2026?)




Brazilian diesel submarine


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Old April 3rd, 2013, 09:01 AM   #20
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HISTORICAL MATERIAL

Transamazonian Highway (1970)


Belém-Brasilia Highway (1962)


Ferrovia Mogiana


Urubupungá Paraná River Hydroelectric Powerplant Complex, built in the early 1970s, back then the second largest powerplant complex on Earth (after Krasnoyarsk), GW


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