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Old April 23rd, 2019, 12:22 PM   #361
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Tom_Green View Post
Would be a fact based study be approved in our times, that climate changes has more advantage, than disadvantage?

I read on wikipedia, that the desert was a savanna during warmer periods. Ice is also not very friendly to plants and animals. And reservoir slower the sea level rise. Just something that makes you think.
I would not think there would be an objection to produce a credible study (maybe lack of funding, but there would be indifference to the proposal). I'm a not a climate change denier or apologist by the way.

Saying that...

We have 7.7 billion people, and we may reach 11 billion by 2100. We need a stable food supply chain in the coming decades. Climate change would disrupt that.

Moreover, many of our cities, which have taken centuries to build and shelter a significant share of humans, lie on the coasts, and will face water encroachment that will cause mass migrations.

One last point, many people are projected to die earlier with global warming due to hotter summers.


EDIT: Most, if not all, actions have benefits and costs. Climate change does so too, but the costs will outweigh the benefits.

Last edited by womfalcs3; April 23rd, 2019 at 12:54 PM.
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Old April 23rd, 2019, 12:29 PM   #362
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Originally Posted by crazyevildude View Post
The planet has been significantly warmer in the past and life flourished in those times so in the very long term yes, I'm sure it would flourish again. However, nature responds slowly to change, and whenever rapid changes to the environment have happened in the past they have coincided with mass extinctions. Complex life is typically what suffers most during extinction events; we may find ourselves more vulnerable to extinction than we like to think but even if our species in smart enough to survive, do we want to be responsible for a mass extinction event we could see coming?
I don`t think so. Life is much stronger than that. Without Adaption, events like the eruption of Krakatoa or Tombora would be much worse for life on this planet. Also it looks like some close by supernovas could have affected the planet. But life just adapted without mass extinction.
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Old April 23rd, 2019, 01:48 PM   #363
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Originally Posted by Tom_Green View Post
I don`t think so. Life is much stronger than that. Without Adaption, events like the eruption of Krakatoa or Tombora would be much worse for life on this planet. Also it looks like some close by supernovas could have affected the planet. But life just adapted without mass extinction.
Oh, Life finds a way. It's not like a complete collapse of the biosphere is imminent. Individual species, on the other hand...
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Old April 24th, 2019, 02:47 PM   #364
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visiting first time, this thread, positive and informative discussion thread
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Old April 30th, 2019, 11:23 AM   #365
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America's renewable energy set to surpass coal for the first month ever

https://edition.cnn.com/2019/04/29/b...9bqaQE5erY4Z0s

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America's clean energy revolution is on the verge of a tipping point.

The renewable energy sector is projected to generate more electricity than coal during the month of April, according to a recent report published by the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis. That's never happened before.
Coal, long the king of the power sector, has already been dethroned by natural gas, a much cleaner burning fossil fuel. Now, coal is facing intensifying pressure from wind and solar power.
"Five years ago this never would have been close to happening," Dennis Wamstead, research analyst at IEEFA, said in an interview. "The transition that's going on in the electric sector in the United States has been phenomenal."
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Old May 9th, 2019, 12:35 AM   #366
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In 2018, CO2 emissions in the EU decreased compared with 2017

In 2018, CO2 emissions in the EU decreased by 2,5%
compared with 2017


https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/docume...0-b2b00c531d2b


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Largest falls in CO2 emissions in Portugal and Bulgaria, highest increases in Latvia
According to Eurostat estimates, CO2 emissions fell in 2018 in a majority of EU Member States, with the highest
decrease being recorded in Portugal (-9.0%), followed by Bulgaria (-8.1%), Ireland (-6.8%), Germany (-5.4%),
the Netherlands (-4.6%) and Croatia (-4.3%). Increases were registered in eight Member States: Latvia (+8.5%),
ahead of Malta (+6.7%), Estonia (+4.5%), Luxembourg (+3.7%), Poland (+3.5%), Slovakia (+2.4%), Finland
(+1.9%) and Lithuania (+0.6%).


source : Eurostat
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Old May 24th, 2019, 09:51 PM   #367
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Old June 6th, 2019, 01:05 PM   #368
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Old June 10th, 2019, 02:19 PM   #369
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It's not only much more environmentally friendly to eat plant-base, but as the example shows better for your body. The Beyond Meat meat patties have higher nutritional value than beef patties and no antibiotics or cholesterol.

https://ecohungry.com/beyond-burger-vs-beef-burger/

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Old June 12th, 2019, 04:50 PM   #370
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Indonesia plans permanent moratorium on new forest clearance: minister

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JAKARTA (Reuters) - Indonesia’s moratorium on new forest clearing for palm plantations or logging operations, which has been regularly extended since 2011, will become permanent, the environment minister said on Wednesday.

Indonesia has one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world, with more than 74 million hectares of rainforest - an area nearly twice the size of Japan - logged, burned or degraded in the last half century, according to Greenpeace.

The moratorium covering more than 60 million hectares (231,661 square miles) of primary forest and peatland was introduced in 2011 in an effort to reduce emissions from fires caused by deforestation.

“I have decided to keep the moratorium instead of renewing it every two years,” Forestry and Environment Minister Siti Nurbaya Bakar told reporters.

Indonesia is prone to outbreaks of forest fires during dry seasons, often blamed on the draining of peatland forests and land clearance for agriculture.

The resulting choking smoke often blows across to neighboring countries such as Singapore and Malaysia, slashing visibility and causing a health hazard.

President Joko Widodo last year also put in place a three-year moratorium on new permits for palm plantations, and said there will also be a review of unused long-standing plantation permits.

Planters, especially smallholders, are instead being pushed to optimize the yield from existing areas under cultivation instead of expanding such areas.

The World Bank has estimated that 2.6 million hectares of land in Indonesia was destroyed during 2015 forest and peat land fires, causing damage worth $16 billion.

Indonesia and Malaysia, the world’s two biggest palm oil producers, have faced pressure over the crop’s environmental toll after the European Commission said palm oil should not be considered a renewable transport fuel, albeit with some exemptions.
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-i...-idUSKCN1TD17R
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Old June 15th, 2019, 10:01 AM   #371
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What happened with the rainforest in Indonesia (not only Sumatra but Borneo and the other islands) is a crime against humanity. When citizens of a country refer to this (e.g: in Brazil) that it's an internal matter - no it's not, the forests belong to each and every human on Earth.
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Old June 15th, 2019, 10:21 AM   #372
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What happened with the rainforest in Indonesia (not only Sumatra but Borneo and the other islands) is a crime against humanity. When citizens of a country refer to this (e.g: in Brazil) that it's an internal matter - no it's not, the forests belong to each and every human on Earth.
There's still a vast area of wilderness in Indonesia, and luckily various local conservationist groups succeed in pressing the government on the moratorium to protect it. Less forest and peatland fire happened in this year compared to the years before. The new motorway will be equipped with animal crossing bridges or tunnels. Larger and larger marines area also protected and prohibited from large fishing vessel activity. A hard stance against illegal fishing (which mainly perpetrated by China and developed countries) with the risk of overfishing, Indonesia was the first country in the world to publicly share the positions of its fishing fleets on the public online platform Global Fishing Watch. Even there is a debate on whether to close Komodo National Park temporarily for the tourists or to put a quota system. On the other hand, if you are part of the government, you are pressed to lift millions of people out of poverty as fast as possible, which is not an easy task. We don't have that magic wand which suddenly turns everyone rich or a colony to exploit to become prosper relatively fast. Or maybe you prefer to kill all the poor, which also a crime against humanity.

It's better to find the solution for everyone, whether human or animal, than blaming somebody.
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Old June 16th, 2019, 09:43 AM   #373
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This is apparently from the BBC. It says that the engines on the 2024 release of AF1 will “emit 16 tons less co2 per trip” than the current model. I don’t think a current Boeing 747 emits more than 1 ton of CO2 per 10-hour trip, let alone the higher than 16 required to emit 16 tons less.

I think they got units wrong. Like 16 tons of CO2 per year.


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Old June 16th, 2019, 10:11 AM   #374
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Originally Posted by womfalcs3 View Post
This is apparently from the BBC. It says that the engines on the 2024 release of AF1 will “emit 16 tons less co2 per trip” than the current model. I don’t think a current Boeing 747 emits more than 1 ton of CO2 per 10-hour trip, let alone the higher than 16 required to emit 16 tons less.

I think they got units wrong. Like 16 tons of CO2 per year.
Nope, I'm afraid the article got the numbers right. Jet fuel is mostly hydrocarbons, where carbon atoms make up the bulk of the weight. Each combusted carbon atom will combine with two (even heavier) oxygen atoms to form CO2, so the mass of emitted CO2 is around triple the mass of fuel spent. A 747 spends four tons of fuel on the takeoff alone.
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Old June 16th, 2019, 12:07 PM   #375
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Quote:
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Nope, I'm afraid the article got the numbers right. Jet fuel is mostly hydrocarbons, where carbon atoms make up the bulk of the weight. Each combusted carbon atom will combine with two (even heavier) oxygen atoms to form CO2, so the mass of emitted CO2 is around triple the mass of fuel spent. A 747 spends four tons of fuel on the takeoff alone.
This source, albeit is not a peer-reviewed paper, says:

https://www.carbonindependent.org/sources_aviation.html

The CO2 emissions from a Boeing 747 at typical conditions are 92 kg CO2/hr. However, since the effect of CO2 emissions is different between sea level and flying altitude, that figure is corrected to be 180 kg CO2/hr.

But even when you correct for everything, they have 0.25 ton CO2/hr, which comes to 2.5 tons CO2 for a 10-hour flight. I still don't see how the "16-tons of CO2 less per trip" claim can be true.

Last edited by womfalcs3; June 16th, 2019 at 12:13 PM.
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Old June 16th, 2019, 12:40 PM   #376
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Quote:
Originally Posted by womfalcs3 View Post
This source, albeit is not a peer-reviewed paper, says:

https://www.carbonindependent.org/sources_aviation.html

The CO2 emissions from a Boeing 747 at typical conditions are 92 kg CO2/hr. However, since the effect of CO2 emissions is different between sea level and flying altitude, that figure is corrected to be 180 kg CO2/hr.

But even when you correct for everything, they have 0.25 ton CO2/hr, which comes to 2.5 tons CO2 for a 10-hour flight. I still don't see how the "16-tons of CO2 less per trip" claim can be true.
From your source, that calculation appears to have been done per passenger on a commercial airliner. That's the figure you have to use when comparing CO2 intensities between different modes of travel, which seems to be the purpose of that website. But it says nothing about the plane's total fuel consumption unless you add the number of passengers together.

Of course, the original infographic is inaccurate here, since it doesn't specify the length of a trip, and the amount of fuel saved is very directly related to that number. But your source mentions that a 747 uses 60 metric tons of fuel for a 5600 km flight, and that each gram of fuel produces 3.15 grams of CO2. That would suggest 190 tons of CO2 emitted from such a flight, of which "16 tons less per trip" would make an improvement of slightly below 10 % compared to the 1991 model. That seems fully believable to me.
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Old June 16th, 2019, 12:52 PM   #377
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Quote:
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From your source, that calculation appears to have been done per passenger on a commercial airliner. That's the figure you have to use when comparing CO2 intensities between different modes of travel, which seems to be the purpose of that website. But it says nothing about the plane's total fuel consumption unless you add the number of passengers together.

Of course, the original infographic is inaccurate here, since it doesn't specify the length of a trip, and the amount of fuel saved is very directly related to that number. But your source mentions that a 747 uses 60 metric tons of fuel for a 5600 km flight, and that each gram of fuel produces 3.15 grams of CO2. That would suggest 190 tons of CO2 emitted from such a flight, of which "16 tons less per trip" would make an improvement of slightly below 10 % compared to the 1991 model. That seems fully believable to me.
You're right. It's 101 g per passenger-km multiplied by 910 km per hour, which is 92 kg of CO2 per passenger per hour, not (technically) 92 kg per hour. My mistake.
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Old July 2nd, 2019, 08:21 AM   #378
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According to BP's Statistical Review of World Energy, CO2 emissions attributed to Saudi Arabia declined by 3.4% in 2018 compared to 2017.

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Old July 14th, 2019, 01:39 PM   #379
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'Just a matter of when': the $20bn plan to power Singapore with Australian solar

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Known as Sun Cable, it is promised to be the world’s largest solar farm. If developed as planned, a 10-gigawatt-capacity array of panels will be spread across 15,000 hectares and be backed by battery storage to ensure it can supply power around the clock.

Overhead transmission lines will send electricity to Darwin and plug into the NT grid. But the bulk would be exported via a high-voltage direct-current submarine cable snaking through the Indonesian archipelago to Singapore. The developers say it will be able to provide one-fifth of the island city-state’s electricity needs, replacing its increasingly expensive gas-fired power.
https://www.theguardian.com/environm...stralian-solar
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Old July 17th, 2019, 01:01 PM   #380
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Device could bring both solar power and clean water to millions

Device could bring both solar power and clean water to millions

Researchers say one invention could solve two problems for people lacking basic resources

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A device that can produce electricity from sunlight while simultaneously purifying water has been produced by researchers, an invention they say could solve two problems in one stroke.

The researchers say the device is not only a source of green energy but also offers an alternative to current technologies for purifying water. These, they add, often consume large amounts of electricity and require infrastructure beyond the reach of many communities that lack basic access to safe drinking water – a situation thought to affect more than 780 million people worldwide.
source : theguardian
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