A history of architecture and cities in Andalusia - SkyscraperCity
 

forums map | news magazine | posting guidelines

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > World Forums > Architecture > European Classic Architecture and Landscapes

European Classic Architecture and Landscapes All related to historical buildings and landscapes of the old world.


Global Announcement

As a general reminder, please respect others and respect copyrights. Go here to familiarize yourself with our posting policy.


Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old March 31st, 2019, 04:49 PM   #1
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

A history of architecture and cities in Andalusia

Note: this is about historical architecture in the modern region called Andalusia, not about architecture in al-Andalus. See the note after the asterisk below for more info.


I've been looking for a topic to create a blog-type thread in order to practice written English, and I've come up with this ambitious idea of doing a history of architecture in my region... I confess I'm inspired by the splendid threads (this and this) done by fellow forumer buho for the neighboring region of Castile, to the north; don't miss them. But I'll do it by periods instead of cities and towns (and probably in a more superficial way than buho's forensic study of Castile). Feel free to make your contributions, besides the narrative line I'll develop.

Andalusia[*] is a particularly interesting region regarding architecture because:
1) of the diverse influences it received along its history, both from Europe and the Near East and North Africa region, as we we'll see, which combined in a hybrid local tradition (this contact is visible all over the Mediterranean and mudéjar kind of styles can be found in other Iberian regions, but it perhaps reaches its culmination in Andalusia);
2) it was probably the most influential region for the Spanish American building tradition, as everything that got to that part of the world went through the Andalusian filter, since the harbours connecting the Old World with that part of the new one were located in this region.

The combination of European architectural influences with the need to adapt to the Andalusian subtropical climate is perhaps another interesting factor.


[*] Notice that Andalusia is a modern region, comprising most of Southern Spain (roughly coinciding with the Guadalquivir basin and its adjacent Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines, what the Romans called the Baetica region). Despite the similarities of their names, Andalusia isn't supposed to mean the period of Muslim Spain, whose proper name would be al-Andalus; and also notice that al-Andalus spans the whole Iberian peninsula under muslim control, not just modern Andalusia. Equally, the denonym Andalusian should be used to mean something related to the modern region; the denonym used for al-Andalus in this thread will be that of Andalusi instead. This is not, therefore, a history of Andalusi architecture.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Reference map, click to expand


Source: IECA. Andalusian government

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Index

1- A brief look at ancient times (circa 4000 B.C. - 500 A.D.)
2- Al-Andalus (711-1492)
__________________

franciscoc, EvanG, Highway89, Pistolero liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; July 12th, 2019 at 07:41 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Sponsored Links
Advertisement
 
Old March 31st, 2019, 04:50 PM   #2
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

1- A brief look at ancient times

Let's look at architecture and urbanism from the first settled communities to Roman times.

1.1. From the late Neolithic to the Bronze Age (circa 4000-1000 B.C.)


1.1.1. Megalithic structures

Andalusia is a land specially rich in megalithic structures, mostly burial places built during the 4th and 3rd millenium B.C. (late Neolithic and Copper Age). In the outskirts of the town of Antequera, in the center of the region, there's an area that hosts up to three different structures, all of which have been declared a World Heritage Site recently.

There're different typologies of these burials:

Near Seville there's the Pastora tholos. This is its long corridor access.



By J.C. Cazalla, IAPH. https://www.juntadeandalucia.es/cult...y-matarrubilla


In the calcolithic village of Los Millares, near Almería, of which we'll talk later, there's a number of tholoi. This one has some interesting round frames along the corridor, as circular gates into the chamber (perhaps a symbol of transition between the world of the dead and that of the living). Notice the trunk originally used to support the top of the false dome in this miniature.



By J.Mª. Yuste in Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...s_Millares.jpg



https://www.auladehistoria.org/2015/11/comentario-cueva-tholos-de-los-millares.html



By Eamand in Wikimedia Commons https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Mi...una_tumba..jpg
__________________

franciscoc liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 5th, 2019 at 12:32 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old March 31st, 2019, 04:51 PM   #3
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

1- A brief look at ancient times / 1.1. From the late Neolithic to the Bronze Age (circa 4000-1000 B.C.)

1.1.2. Examples of settlements from the arid southeast

In the semi-arid southeast region, in modern Almería province and surrounding areas, we have some interesting remains of full settlement, that represent very well both the calcolithic and the bronze age cultures (with a change between both periods that seems related to the arrival of the new cultural complex of the horse-riding, bronze-using people from Central Europe, which apparently caused a huge genetic shift in the region by this period). Here I'm showing recreations, only.

Perhaps, as happened in the Near East, the harsh arid conditions forced the formation of concentrated settlements in this part of the Iberian peninsula. This is the semi-desertic area we're speaking about:



By Baldomorejon in Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/C...abernas_02.JPG

The calcolithic town of Los Millares, with an interesting defensive system (several lines of walls and watchtowers around the town) as well as a megalithic necropolis (the rounded mounds), one of whose tombs was commented previously.



In Wikimedia Commons: Jose Mª Yuste, de la fotografía (Tuor123). Miguel Salvatierra Cuenca, autor de la ilustración - Own work




By Eamand in Wikimedia Commons. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archiv...C3%ADnea_I.jpg



In the same region developed the Bronze Age culture of El Algar, where there're perched towns built on terraces (with an obvious defensive function) stabilized by masonry slopes. You can see the change from round houses to orthogonal ones in these recreations.



https://www.historiaeweb.com/2014/08...-peninsular-i/


With the arrival of the Bronze age cultures, incineration spreads as a method for burial and so megalithic structures gradually become rarer.
__________________

franciscoc, Pistolero liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 6th, 2019 at 11:47 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Sponsored Links
Advertisement
 
Old April 1st, 2019, 01:20 PM   #4
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

1- A brief look at ancient times

1.2. Pre-Roman protohistorical period (circa 1000-200 B.C.)


1.2.1. Phoenicians and Tartessos, first half the 1st millenium BC

In the early historical period (from the 10th to the 3rd c. B.C., the latter century is when Carthaginian and subsequent Roman conquests take place) the region is divided between different cultural influences. In the first half of the first millenium B.C., those would be:
  • Phoenician colonists in the coast, who bring “civilization” from the Eastern Mediterranean, arrive by the beginning of the 1st millenium, founding the colony of Gadir (modern Cádiz, through Latin Gades and Arabic Qadis), on a group of islands in the Atlantic, close to the strait of Gibraltar. They are looking for metals, which are abundant in the Sierra Morena mountains to the north; the fact that they settle in islands reveals their intention to stay close but away from natives, from which they will get the products they want. Cádiz becomes so the first proper city ever built in Western Europe.

    This is a modern aerial view of the island (now united to the mainland through a sand tombolo) of Cádiz.



    From Wikimedia Commons by Hispalois: https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archiv...ahia_Cadiz.JPG


    We don't have many architectural remains from ancient Cádiz, but one of the most interesting ones is this proto-Eolic capital, an ancient cousin of Ionic capitals.



    From Museos de Andalucía http://www.museosdeandalucia.es/web/...ras-singulares

    And of course a lot of foundations, which can be visited in a surprisingly entertaining interpretation center created some years ago. I've never been there, but the place has amazing reviews in TripAdvisor.



    By the way, I'm not focusing on other pieces of art because this thread is about architecture and cities, but you should check the Phoenician sarcofagi found in Cádiz.

  • There're evidences of the presence of Greek merchants in the region too, but whether they founded cities is dubious.

  • Under the influence of Phoenicians at the mining region (copper and precious metals) of the SW, a native group named Tartessians (according to Greek sources) developed according to Eastern Mediterranean influences. We have some cool artifacts from them, but very few settlements or buildings; although there's some controversy about whether those artifacts are really a native product or just Phoenician-made.

    The closest thing to a building by this culture is this sanctuary (Cancho Roano) and it's not even in Andalusia but in neighboring Extremadura.



    https://lugaresconhistoria.wordpress.com/2013/03/07/cancho-roano-badajoz/

    Within the Andalusian territory there're remains of walled towns, but not much besides that.




    https://huelvabuenasnoticias.com/2016/11/09/el-enorme-potencial-de-tejada-la-vieja-un-yacimiento-del-que-aun-quedan-por-excavar-al-menos-cinco-hectareas/


    Notice that Gadir (Cádiz) wasn't the only Phoenician settlement but the headquarters of their presence in these lands. In this map you can see in green the cities with some Phoenician presence, while in red you can see the native settlements of the "Orientalizing" (as Tartessos is known among archaeologists) culture influenced by them. In blue there's an hypothetical (known by written sources but not found phisically) Greek colony.



    Source: Atlas hª territorio de Andalucía. Consejería de Obras Públicas.

  • Indoeuropean speaking tribes (Celtic and pre-Celtic) are found at the northern mountains, towards the Iberian plateau, increasingly so as the centuries past. Semi-nomad pastoralists, they left no architectural remains.
__________________

franciscoc, Pistolero liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 2nd, 2019 at 02:00 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 1st, 2019, 01:20 PM   #5
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

1- A brief look at ancient times

1.2. Pre-Roman protohistorical period (circa 1000-200 B.C.)


1.2.2. Iberian peoples, second half the 1st millenium BC

Under the influence of Eastern Mediterranean people, between the 6th and the 2nd centuries B.C. a new cultural complex appeared, that of so-called Iberians, who flourished along the whole Eastern and Southern part of the peninsula (the one closer to the Mediterranean) with a huge load of Greek cultural influence. From them we have some architectural remains, specially the burial chamber of Toya, in Jaén province (north-east of the region), from the 4th c. BC



From andalucia.org. http://www.andalucia.org/es/turismo-...toya-y-hornos/





http://apuntes.santanderlasalle.es/arte/hispania_antigua/iberico/arquitectura/tugia.htm

Another similar tomb, in this case under a mound, would be the one at Tutugi:

__________________

franciscoc liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 6th, 2019 at 11:50 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 1st, 2019, 01:21 PM   #6
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

1- A brief look at ancient times

1.3. Roman period (circa 200 B.C. - 500 A.D.)


1.3.1. Still-standing cities of Roman Baetica

During the 3rd c. BC, the result of the First Punic War between Rome and Carthage made the latter invade the Iberian peninsula in order to profit from its metallic riches (with which they would pay the compensations demanded by the victorious Romans after the war). Iberia would be the place where the Second Punic War started, the Carthaginian base for the invasion of Italy (you know, Hannibal and his elephants) and, finally, part of Rome's booty after winning the war (first territory they control out of Italy). From that moment (end of the 3rd c. BC) on, these lands would always be somehow Roman.

The Romans would implement their territorial logic: arrival of Italian migrants (colonies founded for war veterans) along with a redistribution of land (centuriations), new cities, new economic connections and functions and a system of infrastructure (specially roads).

Modern Andalusia broadly corresponds (except in the easternmost part) with the former Roman province of Baetica (after the name of river Baetis, modern Guadalquivir – an Arabic name), one of the most urbanized of the western Roman dominions. It's difficult to say why, a combination of a developed pre-Roman urban system along with a greater number of Romans attracted by the fertility of the region might be the reasons, both related to the same factors.



Source: Atlas hª territorio de Andalucía. Consejería de Obras Públicas.


Here you can check the concentration of cities with a status of colony in the Roman empire by the end of the 2nd c. AD.



https://es.quora.com/Cu%C3%A1l-fue-l...Imperio-Romano

Most of ancient Roman cities are located below modern cities, so little has survived from them because of the past of time and the recycling of materials, and it's difficult to excavate the cities under which the remaining stuff lies. Here below you have a collection of occasional remains found in modern capitals (click on pictures to expand):





Key:
Temple columns in Seville – City remains in Seville (Antiquarium museum) – Theater in Málaga
Theater in Cádiz – Amphitheater in Carmona
Necropolis (cemetery) in Carmona - Remains of a temple in Córdoba (the foundations and some of the basals and capitals, not the shafts)
Mausoleum in Córdoba (these mausolea were flanking the roads out of the city walls, there're several of them).

Sources: linked at the pictures.
__________________

franciscoc liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 1st, 2019 at 06:58 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 1st, 2019, 01:22 PM   #7
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

1- A brief look at ancient times

1.3. Roman period (circa 200 B.C. - 500 A.D.)


1.3.2. Corduba, the provincial capital. Gades

The capital of this urban province that generated quite a lot of notable people in Roman history was Corduba, or Córdoba. Corduba was the hometown of Seneca (famous philosopher), the poet Lucan or the christian theologian Ossius of Cordoba (one of the fathers of the church, who presided the council of Nicaea in the 4th c.). As it was the provincial capital, the city hosted two fora (a municipal and a provincial one).

Skip to 2:00 to see a city-wide view.



It also hosted an impressive palace at its outskirts, built by the end of the 3rd century for Maximian, one of the tetrarchs. Only foundations left.




The former Phoenician colony of Gadir became Gades, modern Cádiz. Gades was the birthplace of famous agronomic author Columella and the Balbi family, the first provincials ever to become members of the Roman senate. Not far from here, in a town on the strait of Gibraltar, was born Pompenius Mela, first Roman geographer.



Source: Cádiz de la Constitución, 1812. Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía.
__________________

franciscoc, snot, skymantle liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 1st, 2019 at 06:59 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 1st, 2019, 01:23 PM   #8
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

1- A brief look at ancient times

1.3. Roman period (circa 200 B.C. - 500 A.D.)


1.3.3. Italica, city of emperors

One of the most singular cities in the province was Italica, founded near the site of the battle of Ilipa (which marked the end of the Iberian campaign of the Second Punic War) for the veterans of the war by the Scipios themselves, and the first colony ever to be founded by the Romans far from Italy (hence its evocative name). Populated by Roman colonists, Italica was an aristocratic city that was the birthplace of Trajan (first provincial emperor) and Hadrian (or at least his family).



Long historical explanation:

Quote:
Italica was located on the banks of the Baetis (Guadalquivir) river, just like Corduba and just like nearby Hispalis (modern Seville); this was a native (or perhaps Phoenician) founded town, located at the last crossing point of the river before the huge shallow stuary (lacus Ligustinus, now turned into marshes, some of which have in turn been dried up artificially to become fields). Hispalis would soon become a huge commercial city thanks to its more accessible port, rivalizing with the capital Corduba in the late imperial period; centuries later, in the Early Modern period, Seville would enter a period of decline, favoring the port of Cádiz, because of the problems to navigate the river upstream, as the sedimentation process continued. Silting was a problem for everyone here, since it was also the reason for the decay of Italica itself, as it caused a shift in the course of the river, which flew away from the city (which also depended on a port), getting finally abandoned in the Middle Ages.
Since Italica was abandoned, there should be no town on top of its ruins (which would be used as a quarry for Seville buildings for centuries, anyway). Only a monastery would later be built in the 14th c. But this monastery would yield some of its lands to some villagers that had lost their houses near the river during a huge flood in the 17th c. And that's how a new town, Santiponce, emerged on top of the ruins of Italica... Thankfully, the town was always small and it only covers part of the former Roman city. Specifically, it's on top of the Vetus Urbs (old town), because Italica has an urban peculiarity: Hadrian gifted his hometown (or that of his family) with a great urban expansion, the Nova Urbs, including new facilities among which there was an amphitheater with a capacity that was more than twice the size of Italica's population (some 25k spectators vs 10k inhabitants; we must assume that the spectacles here might attract a lot of people from the surroundings, though).

This is an aerial view of the Nova Urbs. In red you can see the theater, belonging to the older part of the Roman town between the houses of modern Santiponce.



https://atenea-nike.webnode.es/historia-de-roma/restos-arqueologicos/hispania/italica/

And these are the remains of the amphitheater, one of the largest of the whole empire. You might recognize it as the dragonpit of Game of Thrones.



Source: http://www.andalucia.org/es/turismo-...co-de-italica/

Notice the fossa bestiaria (the place where the animals used in the spectacles were kept) in the middle of the arena. That would be covered with wood boards and sand.



From Wikimedia Commons by Diego Delso https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/It%C3%...45_PAN_HDR.JPG

The amphitheater's corridors. Notice the materials: bricks for the walls, concrete for the vaults. Stone was used for exterior walls.



From Wikimedia Commons by Diego Delso https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...-06,_DD_09.JPG
__________________

franciscoc liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 1st, 2019 at 10:30 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 1st, 2019, 01:24 PM   #9
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

Continuation of Italica

In the theater we have a reconstruction, with some original materials, of the external main façade of the building, at the other side of the scene, which is unusual. It's a "Greek" kind of theater, since it takes advantage of a slope to build the stands.




From Wikimedia Commons by Diego Delso https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/C...-06,_DD_46.JPG / https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/C...-06,_DD_01.JPG

The remains of some domus (house). In Italica we can also see the floors of lots of houses, many of which have mosaics, but that's something we'll see later on.



By FlissJ in Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...%C3%A1lica.jpg

Finally, one of the most interesting remains of the city is its sewage system.



https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Italica?uselang=es#/media/File:Cloacas_It%C3%A1lica.jpg
__________________

franciscoc, J Simpson Br liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 5th, 2019 at 07:51 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 5th, 2019, 12:27 PM   #10
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

1- A brief look at ancient times

1.3. Roman period (circa 200 B.C. - 500 A.D.)


1.3.4. Other abandoned cities

As said before, abandoned cities like Italica are the best source to know ancient cities (since continously-settled places happen to have their remains under modern cities that cannot be easily excavated). There's nothing else like Italica's Nova Urbs, but some remains of other minor cities do exist.

For example, Baelo Claudia, near the strait of Gibraltar on the Atlantic coast. A seaside little town, with a well-conserved theater, forum and houses. It specialized in the elaboration of the garum sauce (made from fermented fish). You can see some kind of big round sinks among the ruins, those would be the recipients for making this product.



View of the Temple of Jupiter, part of the Capitolium, the three tetrastyle temples dedicated to the Capitoline Triad (Jupiter, Minerva, Juno), most probably built in the second half of the 1st century AD, Baelo Claudia, Baetica, Spain by Carole Raddato, en Flickr



In Wikimedia Commons by Falconaumanni https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F..._Teatro_12.JPG




In Wikimedia Commons by Anloza https://es.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch...LO_CLAUDIA.jpg

On top of a mountain to the north of the previous town, near Ronda, there was this small city, Acinipo, of which there isn't much left but there's the interesting sight of the ancient theater, with a well-conserved scene.



In Wikimedia Commons by Jan Hazevoet https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F..._panoramio.jpg
__________________

franciscoc liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 5th, 2019 at 01:01 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 5th, 2019, 12:28 PM   #11
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

1- A brief look at ancient times

1.3. Roman period (circa 200 B.C. - 500 A.D.)


1.3.5. Mosaics

Mosaics, used by the Romans to decorate the floors of their houses (either the domus, urban houses, or the villae, rural ones), endure the past of time very well and for that reason we have dozens of them left. Here's a selection of them:

-From the city of Italica



From deposit photos by estellez


Mosaic in Casas de los Pajaros by ctj71081, en Flickr



In Wikimedia Commons by Diego Delso https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italic...6,_DD_17-2.JPG

This one was reused for the courtyard of a house in Seville:


Palacio de la Condesa de Lebrija by Anita Gould, en Flickr

-From Écija, in the local museum



In Wikimedia Commons by Ángel Felicísimo https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/C...456529114).jpg


-From Cordoba, in the local museum too



In Wikimedia Commons by Jorge Cancela https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/C...476289727).jpg


-From Castulo, an important mining town in the upper Guadalquivir valley region (Jaén province).



In Wikimedia Commons by Ángel Felicísimo https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/C...%C3%ADsimo.jpg

I couldn't find any licence-free image, but few years ago an amazing mosaic that extended into the walls of a well was found in the town of Cantillana, near Seville. Check the pictures here if you're interested.
__________________

franciscoc, J Simpson Br, Pistolero liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 5th, 2019 at 03:53 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 5th, 2019, 12:29 PM   #12
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

1- A brief look at ancient times

1.3. Roman period (circa 200 B.C. - 500 A.D.)


1.3.6. Bridges

Romans were notable for their engineering and particularly their bridges (for both roads and aqueducts). The road network was the nervous system of the Roman empire, capable of transporting troops and goods all over their territory; and that made them erect a lot of bridges.

The problem is: two millenia have passed since the rule of Augustus. Many of those bridges are either lost or simply so heavily remodelled they don't look like the original Roman structure anymore. But there're some exceptions in abandoned or minor roads, some cases in which a more modern bridge was built next to the Roman one that was anyway respected and other cases in which the original bridges have reached us. Notice that in Spain (I guess it's the same in other countries) every stone bridge is supposed to be Roman and every iron bridge was designed by Eiffel, so don't always believe what locals say.

Some examples of these scattered relics:




Source of the three pictures: IAPH. The last one by J. Carlos Cazalla.


In this bridge in Carmona you can see a distinctive trait of many Roman bridges: there's no water flowing under them anymore.



In Wikimedia Commons by Rebeco https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carmona01.jpg



By Carole Raddato in Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...663720141).jpg



By RLG in Wikimedia Commons https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archiv..._(Granada).png
__________________

franciscoc, J Simpson Br liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 5th, 2019 at 03:37 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 5th, 2019, 12:29 PM   #13
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

Continuation of Roman bridges

Anyway, some of the great old stone bridges of the region, usually in or near a city, have indeed Roman foundations and much of the original structure is conserved within them. One famous example would be the Roman bridge of the city of Cordoba over the Guadalquivir river:



By Emarinizquierdo Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...%B3rdoba_2.jpg



By shaorang in Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...y_mezquita.jpg



By Fundación Córdoba Capital Europea de la Cultura in Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/C...890667192).jpg



Source: Google Maps

The bridge over the same river at the city of Andújar (Jaén province)



By Carole Raddato in Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...409052470).jpg

The bridge over the Tinto river at Niebla (Huelva province):



By Ildefonso Grados in Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/C...a,_Huelva.jpeg
__________________
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 5th, 2019, 03:33 PM   #14
franciscoc
Registered User
 
Join Date: Feb 2012
Location: Madrid
Posts: 972
Likes (Received): 3234

impressive thread of the most monumental region of Spain
__________________

Nolke liked this post
franciscoc no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 5th, 2019, 04:47 PM   #15
keepthepast
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2009
Location: San Francisco, CA
Posts: 1,245
Likes (Received): 2361

deleted

Last edited by keepthepast; April 5th, 2019 at 04:54 PM.
keepthepast no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 5th, 2019, 04:53 PM   #16
keepthepast
Registered User
 
Join Date: Oct 2009
Location: San Francisco, CA
Posts: 1,245
Likes (Received): 2361

Yes, agree. Nolke, you really did a huge effort to present a comprehensive and interesting review of this area. Very nice! Thank you.
__________________

Nolke liked this post
keepthepast no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 5th, 2019, 06:27 PM   #17
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

Thanks to you (two). This has just begun, though
__________________

EvanG liked this post
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 11th, 2019, 10:02 PM   #18
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

2- Al-Andalus


Even before the fall of the Roman empire, its authority in much of Hispania was mediated (and later simply replaced) by their Barbarian allies, the Visigoths (actually, other Barbarian groups had stormed into the country by the beginning of the 5th c., but the Visigoths under Roman orders expelled them; particularly, the Baetica region was settled by the Vandals, who had to migrate to North Africa because of that campaign against them). Originally centered around modern southern France, the Visigoths were finally pushed into the Iberian peninsula by the Franks by the beginning of the 6th c. We barely have remains of the Visigothic domination period (6-7th c.) in Andalusia (this rural church in ruins and not much more).


By El Pantera in Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/C...e-p1020186.jpg

Southern Spain was also part of the expansionist plans of the emperor Justinian in the 6th c. and it was a Byzantine province for some time. We barely have any Byzantine architectural remain.

The Visigoths had a complicated political system with an elective monarchy. By the end of 7th c. there was chaos over who should be king and, perhaps taking advantage of this situation (this episode is surounded by a lot of legends), the Islamic caliphate, that had been expanding from Arabia since more than one century before, decided the invasion of the Iberian peninsula from their recently conquered territories in NW Africa; as in other regions, they didn't find much resistance: locals simply accepted the shift in power, the muslims would respect their traditions in exchange for a tax.



From Wikimedia Commons by US government https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/C...of_Caliphs.png

The muslims called Hispania al-Andalus (of unknown meaning). It was part of the Ummayad caliphate of Damascus until the Abassid revolution in 750 ended with that dinastic family killed except for one member who escaped; that boy would find his way into al-Andalus, where he would defeat the forces loyal to the Abassids and founded a politically independent state centered in the city of Cordoba, an emirate, that would later become a caliphate in the 10th c. at the heyday of Andalusi power. And so Cordoba would become the most prosperous and largest city (perhaps reaching some 200-400k by the year 1000) in Western Europe during the period between the 8th and 10th centuries. This is a recreation of the city during that period; notice the walls, which mark the extension of the former Roman city, and how the city has expanded way beyond them.



Source: Córdoba califal. Año 1000. Consejería de Medio Ambiente, 2013.


This is a map showing the urban surface of Andalusi cities in modern Andalusia. The data are mostly for the 13th c., except for the cities of Cordoba (the Ummayad capital), Madinat al-Zahra (the Ummayad caliphs palatine city) and Almería (the Ummayad period main commercial port), that correspond to the 10th c. which is their respective heyday (in fact, the palatine city of Madinat al-Zahra wouldn't survive the 11th c., as it was destroyed before it was one century old).



Source: Atlas hª territorio andaluz. Consejería de Obras Públicas


Seville (Ishbiliya in Arabic) became the center of the most important taifa kingdom after the dissolution of the unified Ummayad state in the early 11th c. and later it would become the Almohad Andalusi capital, which would turn it into the biggest Andalusi metropolis in the 12th c. The christian conquest of the Guadalquivir river valley, culminating (although not ending) with the fall of Seville in 1248 would mean that the lands of the mountains to the southeast, centered around the city of Granada and its splendorous irrigated valley, would be the last islamic realm of the Iberian peninsula. That would imply a great demographic concentration (as muslims from the conquered lands migrated there) and the development of a great last muslim city in Granada from the 13th to the 15th centuries.



In Wikimedia Commons by Progress of the Reconquista (718–1492) - ru.svg: Kaidor https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...1492)_-_es.svg
__________________

franciscoc, Pistolero liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 12th, 2019 at 03:22 AM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 11th, 2019, 10:03 PM   #19
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

2- Al-Andalus

2.1. Ummayad and Taifa periods

2.1.1. Great mosque of Cordoba

We don't have that many elements left from that period, but the most significant one is surely the great mosque of Cordoba, a product of continous expansions during this period. Every significant emir/caliph had to make a contribution to it. Then the christians would subsequently do theirs (including not one but two cathedrals in the middle of the hypostile hall of the mosque, among other additions and modifications) until the 18th c.

The best video of the history of the building I've found is in French:



Overall exterior views of the great mosque, now cathedral.



In Wikimedia Commons by Toni Castillo Quero https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...pa%C3%B1a).jpg


That wall with arches (which are a christian addition) is the wall of the qibla.



In Wikimedia Commons by Alonso de Mendoza https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...la_quibla..jpg
__________________

franciscoc, AbidM liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; April 11th, 2019 at 10:25 PM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old April 11th, 2019, 10:05 PM   #20
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,451
Likes (Received): 6160

Continuation of the great mosque of Cordoba


The Ummayad boy who escaped the slaughter of his family in Damascus was Abd al-Rahman I, the first emir of al-Andalus. He was the one who decided to create a great mosque on the site of a former christian church in a place near the palace (in fact, the mosque and the palace would later be connected through an overground private passage). Notice that the majority of the population in al-Andalus by this time were still christians; they would convert to Islam gradually for almost 300 years, although many of them wouldn't do that, choosing to migrate north, to the consolidating christian kingdoms, instead.

The choice for that first mosque, with a peculiar qibla looking south instead of East in direction to Mecca (which would set a precedent for other mosques in al-Andalus), would mark the history of the building, particularly the design of the hypostyle hall (haram), with double arches, the ones below in horseshoe shape, forming eleven aisles (which would be extended to the current number of 17 at the end of the 10th c.) set perpendicularly to the qibla. Notice that horseshoe arches were actually a trait of native Iberian architecture (visible in Hispano-Roman buildings), regardless of the fact that Near-Eastern architecture at the time also featured it occasionally. The columns (reused from Roman buildings) would turn into pillars at their upper part through a corbel decorated with rolls; from that pillar the upper arch develops. But the most peculiar trait visually is the alternation of white stone and red bricks in the arches[*]; that would become a decorative symbol of the period. The overall result is among the most unique in the history of architecture.



In Wikimedia Commons by Tibor Kovacs https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/C...163342467).jpg

(*) that was perhaps a way to avoid the structural problems of poorly shaped voussoirs in the arches, as bricks can deform more easily and this building was thought to be built rapidly. That's just a hypothesis, but an interesting one. Of course that only explains why brick was used, the alternance with stone must be understood as having a decorative purpose indeed.


Mezquita Cordoba 12 by Tony Hisgett, en Flickr

This would be the older part of the hypostyle hall, the original mosque by Abd al-Ramhan I. Notice the ceiling and the lamps here reflect the look of the original building much better.



From Wikimedia Commons by diego cue https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...oramio_(1).jpg

And this is the gate of San Esteban, as the christians later called it; part of the original 8th c. mosque. Very deteriorated... But You can still notice the alfiz surrouding the arch, typical of Andalusi architecture.



By J.Luis Filpo in Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...pa%C3%B1a).jpg
__________________

Last edited by Nolke; April 12th, 2019 at 03:13 AM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Sponsored Links
Advertisement
 


Reply

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off


Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Ουρανοξύστες και Ψηλά Κτίρια στην Αθήνα 3 | Athens Skyscrapers and Highrises 3 gm2263 Αθήνα | Athens 2589 August 16th, 2019 01:26 PM
FRANKFURT | Projects & Construction Patrick City/Metro Compilations 1392 July 14th, 2019 11:12 AM
Rio named as the 1st World Capital of Architecture by UNESCO Cauê Architecture 9 February 1st, 2019 04:17 PM
MADRID TODAY - MONOGRAPH OF ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT CITIES OF EUROPE Castor_Game Cityscapes and Skyline Photos 519 October 18th, 2018 09:48 PM
WEBSITES LISTING - A comprehensive list of LINKS to Local/Newcastle Area Websites Newcastle Historian Newcastle Metro Area 21 June 29th, 2010 03:04 PM


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 02:28 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.11 Beta 4
Copyright ©2000 - 2019, vBulletin Solutions Inc.
vBulletin Security provided by vBSecurity v2.2.2 (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2019 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2019 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us