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Old August 13th, 2013, 01:33 AM   #21
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One of the most advanced centres for Ion Beam Therapy and Research in Europe is currently being built in Wiener Neustadt: MedAustron. The radiation therapies applied will use protons and carbon ions. Test runs will take place from 2013 onwards and the first patient treatments are planned in 2015. In the full operational phase,1400 people are expected to benefit from the international first class medicine offered by MedAustron. This exciting new project will give many cancer patients a new opportunity for effective treatment using ion beam therapy.



Johannes Gutleber, CERN staff member and senior research scientist, discusses an ion beam cancer therapy center and research facility created in cooperation with CERN and based on CERN Large Hadron Collider technology. The facility features NI PXI instruments to control the acceleration of ion particles and apply the ion beam to a tumor.

http://www.medaustron.at/en/
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Old August 16th, 2013, 12:49 AM   #22
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Scientists unlocking cancer’s secrets



Cancer kills around 1.7 million people in Europe every year, yet little is known about its exact origins.

This is why the latest breakthrough in research is being hailed as one of the most significant.

A team of international scientists at the Sanger Institute in Britain has unlocked the DNA secrets behind 30 of the most common types of the disease.

“This study is first of all the largest study to date, of cancer genomes, 7,000 cancer genomes aggregated for analysis and this is the first comprehensive overview of the mutational signatures that are operative in human cancer,” said Mike Stratton of the Sanger Institute.

Cancer is caused by the mutations triggered by chemicals, radiation or ageing – scientists have managed to identify the signatures the cancer mutations leave behind.

Ludmil Alexandrov at the Sanger Institute explained: “We can examine the genome of a cancer cell like an archaeological record. So looking at the cancer genome could allow us to understand the mutational processes during the lifetime of the patient.”

Though the breakthrough will not lead directly to new treatments, the implication for patients is that now the fight against cancer can focus more on early detection and prevention.

SOURCE: http://www.euronews.com/2013/08/15/s...ncer-s-secrets
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Old August 24th, 2013, 12:47 AM   #23
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Smartphone-based kit makes eye tests cheap and portable



A new smartphone-based portable eye examination kit called Peek is aiming to bring hope to people suffering from eye problems who live in remote parts of the world. Besides being portable and easy to use, system makes it possible to perform complex eye tests with no need for expensive equipment.



The Peek eye-testing system consists of a mobile app and clip-on hardware that turns an Android smartphone into a portable, affordable examination and diagnostic suite. It is enabled with many features, including geo-tagging, which makes it easier to locate a patient, and several eye tests such as visual field, acuity (clearness of vision), color vision, contrast sensitivity, lens imaging for cataracts, retinal imaging and image grading. The researchers say they are working on several other applications including an autorefractor, front of the eye imaging, and a suite of pediatric-centered examination tools.

The project is being developed in London by a team of researchers that includes Dr. Andrew Bastawrous, an ophthalmologist and research fellow at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, and Stewart Jordan, co-founder of Golden Gekko, one of the largest mobile application developers in Europe. They are currently in Kenya, field-testing the Peek app to adjust it to local conditions.

The Peek team says that 285 million people in the world are visually impaired, with 39 million of these people actually blind. The good news is that 80 percent of blindness is avoidable, although 90 percent of those people live in low-income countries where treatment is not always available.

Once a patient is visited by a Peek-using health worker, who can move more freely without bulky gear, data from the eye exam is recorded on the phone and can be shared with experts anywhere in the world, such as Moorfields Eye Hospital in London. Google Maps helps in locating the patients, as the phone guides health workers to them. Once the patient is diagnosed, treatment can then be arranged.

The system is also being tested by members of the Coldest Journey expedition in Antarctica, led by Sir Ranulph Fiennes, which set sail in March. The expedition is said to be the first-ever attempt to take the dangerous 2,000-mile (3,219-km) journey across Antarctica in winter. Equipped with an early version of Peek, the team is using it to test their eyes as they are subjected to extreme weather conditions, and find out how their eyes and vision change as a consequence of prolonged exposure to cold and darkness.

The Peek researchers are planning on performing a range of studies and are open to suggestions and collaborations.

SOURCE: http://www.gizmag.com/peek-eye-testi...rtphone/28764/
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Old August 24th, 2013, 09:01 PM   #24
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Heart attack damage repaired using gene therapy

Scarred heart tissue can be transformed into beating cells using a cocktail of five genes, according to a new study.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/he...e-therapy.html


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Old September 5th, 2013, 05:02 PM   #25
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HIV/AIDS vaccine passes Phase 1 clinical trial in humans

Evan Ackerman
Wednesday, September 4, 2013 - 7:05pm

Pharmaceutical company Sumagen Canada announced yesterday the successful completion of a Phase 1 Clinical Trial of SAV001-H, a vaccine against HIV and AIDS. The trial ran for over a year, from March 2012 through last month, and was designed to test the "safety, tolerability and immune responses" of the drug in real live human subjects. Phase 1 trials are the point at which researchers go from seeing whether their drugs work in animals to making sure that they don't do weird and bad stuff to people, so the stakes are obviously very high. SAV001-H passed flawlessly: in the randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled study of HIV-infected, asymptomatic men and women, there were "no serious adverse event[s]," meaning that Phase 2 trials (seeing how well the vaccine actually works) can come next.

http://www.dvice.com/2013-9-4/hivaid...l-trial-humans


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Old September 5th, 2013, 08:50 PM   #26
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I'm worried once there's cures for all the things we deal with now as a Species, there will be 'new' ones following suit.

Funny how the 'old' diseases were eradicated in a much earlier time in our medical history without too much time being spent on a cure (or anti-serum).
Now we've spent trillions on trying to cure other things with technology that is trillions of times more sophisticated than before...(still no available cures for many things)

Makes me wonder where 96% of the money really goes.
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Old September 7th, 2013, 09:57 AM   #27
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Money goes into the pockets of researchers who promise results and conclude their work by "we need more funds for more research", which also keeps employment up and the economy stimulating.
- cancer researcher
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Old September 8th, 2013, 03:22 AM   #28
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Originally Posted by Oaronuviss View Post
I'm worried once there's cures for all the things we deal with now as a Species, there will be 'new' ones following suit.

Funny how the 'old' diseases were eradicated in a much earlier time in our medical history without too much time being spent on a cure (or anti-serum).
Now we've spent trillions on trying to cure other things with technology that is trillions of times more sophisticated than before...(still no available cures for many things)

Makes me wonder where 96% of the money really goes.
There's a reason they were cured cheaper and faster, because it's easier to cure. AIDS/HIV has only been around since the late 70's and 80's and we're close to a vaccine. Stop being a pessimist.
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Old September 8th, 2013, 11:50 AM   #29
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Cancer risk in 680 000 people exposed to computed tomography scans in childhood or adolescence: data linkage study of 11 million Australians

Abstract

Objective: To assess the cancer risk in children and adolescents following exposure to low dose ionising radiation from diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans.

Design: Population based, cohort, data linkage study in Australia.

Cohort members: 10.9 million people identified from Australian Medicare records, aged 0-19 years on 1 January 1985 or born between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2005; all exposures to CT scans funded by Medicare during 1985-2005 were identified for this cohort. Cancers diagnosed in cohort members up to 31 December 2007 were obtained through linkage to national cancer records.

Main outcome: Cancer incidence rates in individuals exposed to a CT scan more than one year before any cancer diagnosis, compared with cancer incidence rates in unexposed individuals.

Results: 60 674 cancers were recorded, including 3150 in 680 211 people exposed to a CT scan at least one year before any cancer diagnosis. The mean duration of follow-up after exposure was 9.5 years. Overall cancer incidence was 24% greater for exposed than for unexposed people, after accounting for age, sex, and year of birth (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.24 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.29); P<0.001). We saw a dose-response relation, and the IRR increased by 0.16 (0.13 to 0.19) for each additional CT scan. The IRR was greater after exposure at younger ages (P<0.001 for trend). At 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15 or more years since first exposure, IRRs were 1.35 (1.25 to 1.45), 1.25 (1.17 to 1.34), 1.14 (1.06 to 1.22), and 1.24 (1.14 to 1.34), respectively. The IRR increased significantly for many types of solid cancer (digestive organs, melanoma, soft tissue, female genital, urinary tract, brain, and thyroid); leukaemia, myelodysplasia, and some other lymphoid cancers. There was an excess of 608 cancers in people exposed to CT scans (147 brain, 356 other solid, 48 leukaemia or myelodysplasia, and 57 other lymphoid). The absolute excess incidence rate for all cancers combined was 9.38 per 100 000 person years at risk, as of 31 December 2007. The average effective radiation dose per scan was estimated as 4.5 mSv.

Conclusions: The increased incidence of cancer after CT scan exposure in this cohort was mostly due to irradiation. Because the cancer excess was still continuing at the end of follow-up, the eventual lifetime risk from CT scans cannot yet be determined. Radiation doses from contemporary CT scans are likely to be lower than those in 1985-2005, but some increase in cancer risk is still likely from current scans. Future CT scans should be limited to situations where there is a definite clinical indication, with every scan optimised to provide a diagnostic CT image at the lowest possible radiation dose.


Full paper is open access at: http://www.bmj.com/content/346/bmj.f2360
I wonder if only x-ray and higher frequency waves are the only ones that can see through humans. What about radio waves? They can go through concrete (that's why televisions and radios can have indoor antennae. Maybe they could pass through us.
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Old September 8th, 2013, 12:01 PM   #30
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Someone knows if there exists a table with wavelenghts and materials that are transparent to them?

For example, glass is transparent to visible light but is opaque to infrarred or UV; concrete is opaque to visible light but transparent to radio waves; diskettes are opaque to visible but transparent to infrarred; and so on.
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Old September 8th, 2013, 02:57 PM   #31
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I wonder if only x-ray and higher frequency waves are the only ones that can see through humans. What about radio waves? They can go through concrete (that's why televisions and radios can have indoor antennae. Maybe they could pass through us.
No point applying it if its just gonna pass through - some part has to not pass through in order to make any observation, as is the case with X-ray. Low frequency waves will go through as well.
Radio waves are an integral component of the MRI. Problem is with ionizing devices; they'll cause oxidative stress that causes errors in cellular signalling which may develop into cancer.

Last edited by _BPS_; September 8th, 2013 at 03:03 PM.
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Old September 8th, 2013, 06:13 PM   #32
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No point applying it if its just gonna pass through - some part has to not pass through in order to make any observation, as is the case with X-ray. Low frequency waves will go through as well.
Radio waves are an integral component of the MRI. Problem is with ionizing devices; they'll cause oxidative stress that causes errors in cellular signalling which may develop into cancer.
It just takes a little variation on transparency of flesh and bone to be able to measure it.

I don't understand yet how magnetic resonance imaging works but I'd read about it.
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Old September 9th, 2013, 03:30 AM   #33
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The Star Trek Tricorder is here
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You'll soon be able to embrace your inner Bones McCoy. Decades after "Star Trek" made the small device that could scan for vital signs famous, the medical tricorder is ready for prime time.
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Old September 10th, 2013, 12:16 PM   #34
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It just takes a little variation on transparency of flesh and bone to be able to measure it.
I don't understand what you're trying to say.
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Old September 13th, 2013, 01:10 AM   #35
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New Promise for Stem Cells

Advance May Lead One Day to Way to Repair Tissue in Humans



Researchers in Spain have transformed mature cells into a primitive, stem-cell state inside the bodies of mice. If the approach can be refined for humans, it may be possible to treat diseases such as diabetes and heart ailments by creating fresh tissue inside a living patient.

The long-term dream of stem-cell science has been to transplant lab-made tissue into patients, but despite years of experiments the quality of such tissue remains poor. An alternative approach is to make the fresh tissue inside the bodies of patients instead.

That isn't easy to pull off. Converting cells in a mature, living body into stemlike cells "means turning back the clock when everything in the environment favors the opposite," said Manuel Serrano, a researcher at the Spanish National Cancer Research Center and lead author of the study. "We were shocked" that the experiment worked.

But the research also yielded a Frankenstein-like outcome: stem-type cells created in this manner went on to produce spheres similar to a mouse embryo.

"It's really quite striking," said George Daley, a stem-cell researcher at Children's Hospital Boston, who wasn't involved in the study. "It means that every cell in the body may have the potential to regenerate a new organism."

The results were reported Wednesday in the journal Nature.

Scientists in the past have managed to change one type of mature cell in a mouse's body into another, albeit in a modest way. Pancreatic cells involved in digesting food have been turned into cells that produce insulin. One type of blood cell has been turned into another. Cells vital to the structure of the heart have been turned into those that beat.

But the new research went further. Dr. Serrano and his colleagues began with mice that had been genetically engineered to produce four genes that are known to convert mature cells to an embryonic-like state. The genes normally are dormant, but when the mouse consumes an antibiotic they are activated.

Activating the genes in the mouse body led to dramatic transformations—specifically the creation of disorganized masses of cells called teratomas in the stomach, intestine, pancreas and kidney. A teratoma, which can become all tissue types in the body, essentially is a failed attempt to make an embryo. But the formation of teratomas indicates that reprogramming has occurred—mature cells have lost their identity and become embryonic-like stem cells.

However, there was a surprise. When the mouse-grown stem cells were isolated from the mouse blood and cultured in a lab dish, they turned out to have features akin to primitive totipotent cells, which can become all cell types including placental tissue. Placenta cells sustain an embryo's growth.

What is striking is that totipotent-like properties aren't seen in stem cells derived from actual embryos, or in embryonic-like stem cells concocted in a lab dish.

The next stage of the Spanish experiment led to the Frankenstein-like result. When the totipotent-like stem cells were placed in the abdominal cavity of mice, they generated embryo-like structures. This suggests that these cells may have the potential to self-organize into a complete organism—without the need for sperm and an egg.

"They have the [requisite] three layers of cells organized in the right order," said Dr. Serrano. And, like natural mouse embryos, "they are spherical, hollow, filled with liquid and have membranes."

It would be dangerous and unethical to try these exact experiments in people; teratomas are a type of tumor. But it may be possible to adapt the technique for human benefit.

One idea is to turn back the clock on a living patient's mature cells, but not all the way back. For example, cells in the pancreas that don't produce insulin could be transformed just sufficiently to produce insulin and thereby treat diabetes.

The challenges are enormous. The main one, according to Dr. Daley: "Is the process controllable, or will it form only tumors?"

Dr. Serrano is about to find out. He plans to induce tissue damage in mice, and then briefly activate the genes that reprogram the mature cells. He hopes that by tweaking the activation process by the right amount, he can avoid the formation of teratomas—while creating fresh tissue that can heal the damage.

Whatever happens, Dr. Serrano's approach has added another twist to one of the most surprising biological discoveries of recent times: the extreme malleability of mammalian cells.

SOURCE: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB1000...552958592.html
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Old September 13th, 2013, 03:11 AM   #36
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Wow - there is so much we have yet to learn - but that is a good thing, a great thing! The cells forming embryos - organisms without sperm or egg is just mind blowing.
Exciting times on earth - and in space
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Old September 24th, 2013, 12:35 AM   #37
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Scientists take big step towards universal flu vaccine

Researchers have created a "blueprint" for a universal flu vaccine which they say could be available within five years.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-24175030


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Old October 2nd, 2013, 10:27 PM   #38
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When Will Gene Therapy Come to the U.S.?

Several gene therapies are or will soon be in late-stage human trials. One of them could be the first to get FDA approval for sale in the U.S.

http://www.technologyreview.com/news...ome-to-the-us/


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Old October 3rd, 2013, 01:10 AM   #39
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When Will Gene Therapy Come to the U.S.?
I hope that when Gene therapy is available for life extension it doesn't get banned by the government for some imbecile reason.
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Old October 4th, 2013, 09:53 AM   #40
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Body clock 'reset button' found

Drugs that rapidly tweak the body clock in order to avoid jet lag and the pains of shift work have moved a step closer after research in Japan.

The team at Kyoto University have found the clock's 'reset button' inside the brain.

Their study, published in the journal Science, showed the button could be used to switch the clock to a new time zone in a single day.

Experts said the team was "close to the money" in the hunt for a jet lag cure.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-24387491


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