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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:05 AM   #61
Srdjan Adamovic
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Scupi

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Scupi is an archaeological site located between Зајчев Рид (Rabbit hill) and the Vardar River, several kilometers from the center of Skopje, in Macedonia. It was a Roman colony founded in the time of Domitian (81-96 A.D.) and it was abandoned in 518 A.D. after an earthquake completely destroyed the city.

Scupi grew up as colony of legionnaires, mainly veterans of the Legio IIV Claudia in the time of Domitian (81-96 A.D.), even though it is presumed that a camp of two legions, IV Scythica and V Macedonica existed from 168 B.C. when the Romans conquered Macedonia serving as a base for further conquering of Moesia. Scupi was included in Moesia Superior after the province was formed in 6 A.D. From 272 A.D. it was colony inside the Roman province of Dardania after Dardania was established. Scupi was ravaged several times by barbarians, in 269 A.D. by the Goths, in V century A.D. by the Huns and finally in the year 518 A.D. was completely destroyed by an earthquake. The life in Scupi stopped after the earthquake and it is assumed that the people from Scupi moved to live on Kale, a hill in the center of Skopje. Coordinates: 42.0166,21.3920733

The moving of the city is often connected with the founding of Justiniana Prima. Justiniana Prima was a legendary city founded by Justinian I, who reigned with the Byzantium (the Eastern Roman Empire) in 527-565. The connection is based on the assumption that the village Taor which is located near Skopje is Tauresium, Justinian I's birthplace, and by the description of Justininiana Prima by Procopius that suits Skopje's fortress (Kale), the Old Bazaar and the aqueduct which are still landmarks of Skopje.

The excavations on the archaeological site started in the period between the two World Wars. Radoslav Gruić discovered the early Christian basilica in 1925 and the most important discovery was made by Nikola Vulić, a Serbian archeologist, when he found the antique Roman theater. Nikola Vulić was the archeologist that published most about Scupi.
Excavations on the site were done in 1959-61 by Duje Rendić-Miočević that were published in 1981 and by Ivan Mikulčić published in 1971 and 1973.

The Museum of the City of Skopje begun new excavation and conservation works on the site from 1966 led by Milutin Garašanin. From 1980 the responsible for the excavation and conservation works on the site is Dušanka Koraćević.

In July 2008, a well-preserved statue of the Roman goddess of love, Venus was found. The statue measures 1.7 meters in height

There are four building periods. The first is the time of the alleged camp of two legions from 168 B.C. The second is the foundation of the Roman coloniae that ended with the Goths invasion in 269 A.C. The third period is most distinguished and represented by the remains of one civil basilica, complex of baths (thermae) and one townhouse. The last, the fourth period that begins roughly after the Ostrogoths invasion from 472 or 489 A.C. is represented by remains of an early Christian basilica and a townhouse with apse. Scupi is completely destroyed in 518 A.C.
Today, only the early Christian basilica, the civil basilica, the baths and townhouses along the road are recognizable. The Roman theatre is completely withered.

The theater is estimated to be built in the II century A.C. by the signs Colonia Scupi Aelia on the seats. It is assumed that the theater was built for Hadrian, the Roman emperor, who was visiting the Balkan cities. The decoration of the Roman theater was on the highest level, comparable to the world metropolis from that time. Ivan Mikulčić writes that in the 1000 years of the antique period in Macedonia there is no building that has reached the refined level of art as it is in the Roman theater in Scupi.
Nikola Vulić claims that the theater in Scupi is larger than the one in Stobi and Duje Rendić-Miočević claim that is the largest on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. The theater was used only for theater performances, comedies and tragedies. There is no architectural proof that the theater was used for gladiator games as it is the case in the theater in Stobi.


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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:07 AM   #62
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:08 AM   #63
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:12 AM   #64
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Stone Bridge

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The Stone Bridge is a bridge across the Vardar River in Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Macedonia. The bridge is considered a symbol of Skopje and is the main element of the coat of arms of the city, which in turn is incorporated in the city's flag. Most evidence suggests that the bridge was constructed in the 15th century. The Stone Bridge connects Macedonia Square, in the center of Skopje, to the Old Bazaar.

The Stone Bridge is built of solid stone blocks and is supported by firm columns that are connected with 12 semicircular arcs. The bridge is 214 m (702 ft) long and 6 m (20 ft) wide. The guardhouse has recently been reconstructed.

Throughout the centuries, the Stone Bridge was often damaged and then repaired. There is historical evidence that it once suffered during the great earthquake of 1555 which heavily damaged or destroyed four pillars. In 1944, explosives were placed on the bridge by fascists. When Skopje was liberated, the activation of the explosives was prevented and the bridge was saved from a destruction. Many executions have also taken place on this bridge, such as the execution of revolutionary Duke Karposh, King of Kumanovo, in 1689.
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:19 AM   #65
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Skopje Fortress

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The Skopje Fortress, commonly referred to as Kale Fortress, or simply Kale (from kale, the Turkish word for 'fortress'), is a historic fortress located in the old town of Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Macedonia. It is situated on the highest point in the city overlooking the Vardar River. The fortress is depicted on the coat of arms of Skopje, which in turn is incorporated in the city's flag

The first fortress, according to research and available data, is believed to have been built amidst the 6th century A.D., on land that had been inhabited during the Neolithic and Bronze ages or roughly 4000 B.C. It was constructed with yellow limestone and travertine and along with fragments of Latin inscriptions, assert the idea that the fortress originated from the Roman city of Skupi, which was completely destroyed by an earthquake in 518.

The fortress is thought to have been reconstructed during the rule of emperor Justinian I and constructed further during the 10th and 11th centuries over the remains of emperor Justinian's Byzantine fortress which may have been destroyed due to a number of wars and battles in the region, such as that of the uprising of the Bulgarian Empire against the Byzantine Empire under the rule of Peter Delyan. Not much is known about the Medieval fortress apart from a few documents which outline minor characteristics in the fortress' appearance.

In late 2006 and early 2007, research and excavation of the Skopje Fortress funded by the Macedonian government had finally commenced. Researchers discovered woodwind instruments and clay ornaments dating as far back as 3000 BC. Excavation of the main fortress also revealed houses below the fortress' visible level. The discoveries are believed to have belonged to inhabitants of Skupi on which the fortress was built. Archaelogical excavations continued in 2009.

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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:23 AM   #66
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:25 AM   #67
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:27 AM   #68
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That chateau, fortress is looking very nice
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:43 AM   #69
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Old Bazaar

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The Old Bazaar in Skopje is one of the largest bazaars in the Balkans and the largest in Macedonia. Situated on the eastern bank of the Vardar River, the bazaar has been the city's centre for trade and commerce since at least the 12th century.It rapidly grew and reached its peak during Ottoman rule, evidenced by over 30 mosques, several caravanserais, and other Turkish buildings and monuments. Although Islamic architecture is predominant, there are several churches as well.

Today, the Old Bazaar falls within the borders of Čair Municipality.

Archaeological evidence found at Kale Fortress suggests that Skopje's Old Bazaar could have been inhabited as early as 4,000 BC, while the earliest historical records suggest that it was first inhabited in the 6th century BC, perhaps by Paeonians.

Byzantine Emperor Justinian I constructed Kale Fortress in the 6th century, on a hill located in what would eventually become the Old Bazaar.

The area became a major trading centre in the 12th century.

In 1392, Macedonia was conquered by Ottoman Turks and named Skopje Üsküp. It was under the Ottoman Empire that the Old Bazaar reached its peak of significance and became an important economic centre.

The city soon became predominantly Muslim and the cityscape changed accordingly; countless mosques, caravanserais, hamams, and other Islamic buildings sprang up in the city. Many pre-existing churches were seized and converted to mosques. An earthquake in 1555 caused much destruction. The city, however, continued to grow

Several of the historic buildings of the Old Bazaar are now used as museums.

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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:47 AM   #70
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:52 AM   #71
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:57 AM   #72
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 10:59 AM   #73
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 11:07 AM   #74
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 11:12 AM   #75
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 11:14 AM   #76
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 11:35 AM   #77
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 11:36 AM   #78
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French military cemetary

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Old May 2nd, 2010, 01:16 PM   #79
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Museum of the City of Skopje

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Museum of the City of Skopje is a cultural institution located in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Founded in 1949, it is located in a former railway station that was partly destroyed in the 1963 earthquake. The museum is home to permanent еxhibitions representing the history of Skopje, from the first recorded settlements around 3000 BC to present.
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Old May 2nd, 2010, 01:21 PM   #80
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