A history of architecture and cities in Andalusia - Page 5 - SkyscraperCity
 

forums map | news magazine | posting guidelines

Go Back   SkyscraperCity > World Forums > Architecture > European Classic Architecture and Landscapes

European Classic Architecture and Landscapes All related to historical buildings and landscapes of the old world.


Global Announcement

As a general reminder, please respect others and respect copyrights. Go here to familiarize yourself with our posting policy.


Reply

 
Thread Tools
Old July 12th, 2019, 08:51 PM   #81
franciscoc
Registered User
 
Join Date: Feb 2012
Location: Madrid
Posts: 976
Likes (Received): 3253

Impressive bronze doors, I didn't know they were originals from Almohad era
franciscoc está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote
Sponsored Links
Advertisement
 
Old July 13th, 2019, 01:15 AM   #82
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,452
Likes (Received): 6182

These ones are, yes. The ones in the mosque of Cordoba are 14th c. approximate replicas (so, christian) of these.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 15th, 2019, 03:41 AM   #83
citysquared
Registered User
 
citysquared's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jun 2019
Posts: 136
Likes (Received): 74

Spain is so beautiful.
__________________
Love Does Not Exclude

Truth and Love Must Prevail, Václav Havel

Nolke liked this post
citysquared no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 15th, 2019, 11:11 PM   #84
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,452
Likes (Received): 6182

Continuation of Seville as Almohad Andalusi capital

If we look back at the reproductions of 13th c. Seville...

Quote:
Originally Posted by Nolke View Post
P. Garmendia's recreation of the christian siege of the city in 1248:


You can see a fortified precint at the right (southern) edge of the city, next to the mosque. That's the alcazar (al-qsr), the royal palace. Presumably, this was originally created as a kasbah in the Cordoban period, which was later turned into a taifa royal palace (Seville taifa kingdom was the strongest in 11th c. al-Andalus, it became kind of a little empire prior to the Almoravid conquest). The current walls of the complex have their origins in those old fortresses, but they have been continuously remodelled ever since.



Source: Google Maps



In Wikimedia Commons by Proa 500
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...ILLA_(133).JPG




In Wikimedia Commons by J. Luis Filpo
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...Monumental.jpg


An ancient (now blocked) gate to the fortress:



In Wikimedia Commons by J. Luis Filpo
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F..._Isbiliyya.jpg
__________________

franciscoc liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; July 17th, 2019 at 01:48 AM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 15th, 2019, 11:13 PM   #85
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,452
Likes (Received): 6182

Continuation of Seville as Almohad Andalusi capital

But, besides the walls, the oldest remains in what is still today the royal palace of the city (this is the oldest continuously-inhabited royal residence in Europe) date back to the great intervention of the Almohad caliph Abu Yusuf Yaacub.

The Almohad palace had this plan, with 6 courtyards:


Source: Antonio Almagro in https://www.eea.csic.es/wp-content/u...LCAZAR_AAG.pdf

Number 2 (Patio del Yeso) is preserved today, with modifications; number 5 (Casa de la Contratación) was remodelled by christians but could recently be reconstructed; from number 4 there're some remains (notably a dome and some arches). The rest have been lost.

There's much more islamic-looking architecture in the alcazar of Seville besides what I'm going to show here, but those works were commisioned by christian monarchs and hence considered mudejar style, which we'll check later on this thread.

This is patio del Yeso (court of plaster, adequate name):



In Wikimedia Commons by José Luis Filpo
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...de_Sevilla.jpg


At the moment you cannot walk into the courtyard, but you can look into it through a room (Sala de la Justicia, 14th c. mudejar construction) with a richly carved arch (in the picture) open to it.



In Wikimedia Commons by Miguel Hermoso Cuesta
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...es_Yeso_05.jpg




In Wikimedia Commons by José Luiz Bernardes
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...eville_(2).JPG
__________________

franciscoc liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; July 17th, 2019 at 01:45 AM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 15th, 2019, 11:14 PM   #86
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,452
Likes (Received): 6182

Continuation of Seville as Almohad Andalusi capital

The arches of the opposite side of the courtyard have been reconstructed in the wall. Originally they would have been open to another room.



In Wikimedia Commons by Alberto Bravo
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...o_del_Yeso.jpg


Columns, details...



In Wikimedia Commons by Alberto Bravo and J. Luis Filpo
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F..._almohades.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...de_Sevilla.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...e_Sevilla).jpg
__________________

franciscoc liked this post
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 15th, 2019, 11:16 PM   #87
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,452
Likes (Received): 6182

Continuation of Seville as Almohad Andalusi capital

Number 5 in the plan above is the courtyard of the Casa de la Contratación, literally house of hiring. Such house wasn't exactly a building, though, but a royal institution with the function of regulating the crown's monopoly on (Spanish-)American interchange: it regulates trade and migrations, collects taxes associated with both, takes care of the fleets, collects geographical information, trains sailors, etc. Anything related to the maritime and colonial world.

This institution was housed here during the 16th and 17th centuries, and for that purpose a part of the former medieval palace was completely transformed (the islamic elements would end up hidden from sight). The institution, however, moved to the city of Cadiz at the beginning of the 18th c. and so this building fell into disrepair for a long time. When it was restored in the 20th c. some walls had to be demolished and the ground had to be excavated, and that's how the remains of an islamic gardened courtyard appeared and the original patio could be reconstructed.

One side:



Source: Fundación Tres Cuturas (1999) Sevilla almohade

The other side:



In Wikimedia Commons by CarlosVdeHabsburgo
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...%C3%B3n_04.jpg




In Wikimedia Commons by CarlosVdeHabsburgo
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...%C3%B3n_01.jpg




In Wikimedia Commons by CarlosVdeHabsburgo
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...%C3%B3n_10.jpg / https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...ci%C3%B3n).jpg


Remains of the fresco paintings that used to decorate the gardens:



In Wikimedia Commons by CarlosVdeHabsburgo
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...jpg?uselang=es
__________________

franciscoc liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; July 17th, 2019 at 01:42 AM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 15th, 2019, 11:17 PM   #88
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,452
Likes (Received): 6182

Continuation of Seville as Almohad Andalusi capital

As for the rest of the palace that didn't reach our days...

Hypothetical reconstructions of the later Almohad palace sectors that haven't been preserved, by Almagro and González:



Source: https://www.eea.csic.es/wp-content/u...LCAZAR_AAG.pdf

There's a specific house in the surroundings of the alcazar complex (number 5 in the map above) with an interesting dome (alike those of the maqsura in Cordoba mosque, so callled 'caliphal domes') that was always supposed to be the rest of an Almoravid (not Almohad) residence. It has recently been discovered that those remains actually date back to the taifa period of the 11th (not 12th) century, so that would likely be the residence of the taifa king of Seville.


__________________

franciscoc liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; July 17th, 2019 at 01:45 AM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 16th, 2019, 09:52 PM   #89
franciscoc
Registered User
 
Join Date: Feb 2012
Location: Madrid
Posts: 976
Likes (Received): 3253

The majority of historical demographers consider Seville and Norman Palermo as the most populated cities in Europe (without counting Constantinople) in the 11th and 12th centuries.
This gives an idea of the splendor that reached Seville at this time and whose population wouldn't exceed until the sixteenth century, its golden age, which reaches 170 thousand inhabitants and becomes the fifth most populous city in Europe (after Paris, Naples, London and Venice).
__________________

Nolke liked this post
franciscoc está en línea ahora   Reply With Quote
Old July 18th, 2019, 10:34 AM   #90
indiekid
Hipster Scum
 
indiekid's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2008
Location: Glasgow
Posts: 4,447
Likes (Received): 4649

Fantastic thread, especially learning about the less famous examples. A trip to Seville, Cordoba and Granada is definitely on my to-do list.
__________________

Nolke liked this post
indiekid no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 20th, 2019, 11:18 AM   #91
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,452
Likes (Received): 6182

Continuation of Seville as Almohad Andalusi capital

Perhaps the most enduring construction by the Almohads in Seville was the new walled precint, which would triple the intramural surface of the city (some 4 sq. km. ). The city would never require another wall expansion, these walls wouldn't be torn down until the 19th c.

Remains of these walls are scattered, but there's a specially notable chunk at the northern edge.



In Wikimedia Commons by EmDee
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F..._almohades.JPG




In Wikimedia Commons by Jose Luiz Bernardes
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...a_Macarena.JPG




In Wikimedia Commons by CarlosVdeHabsburgo
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...uralla)_01.jpg



Spain 063 by Adrian Maidment, en Flickr

An old city gate (interior pictures: https://sevilla.abc.es/sevilla/20131...1302131.html):



In Wikimedia Commons by Gzzz
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...3rdoba_(2).jpg


Notice how the wall has salients as a way to provide angles for defense...



Source: Google Maps
__________________

franciscoc liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; July 20th, 2019 at 11:45 AM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 20th, 2019, 11:19 AM   #92
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,452
Likes (Received): 6182

Continuation of Seville as Almohad Andalusi capital


These two towers were part of the complicated complex of precints surrounding the alcazar and its associated fortresses, at the south of the city.



In Wikimedia Commons by CarlosVdeHabsburgo
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F..._(Sevilla).jpg




In Wikimedia Commons by Michal Osmenda
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...077899825).jpg
__________________

franciscoc liked this post
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 20th, 2019, 11:20 AM   #93
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,452
Likes (Received): 6182

Continuation of Seville as Almohad Andalusi capital

That complicated net of walls included an isolated stretch of wall (a coracha) connecting the city with a watchtower standing at the river shore, whose function was the vigilance and defense of the port. This tower was called burj ad̲h̲-d̲h̲ahab : the golden tower, or, as Castilians would call it, Torre del Oro. Traditional stories speak about how medieval kings used this tower to store precious metals, as an explanation for the tower's name, but in fact its Arabic name actually alluded to the shining on the building with sunlight, due to a plaster covering it originally had.



In Wikimedia Commons by CivArmy
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...lle,_Spain.jpg





In Wikimedia Commons by PMRMaeyaert
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F..._E_Sevilla.jpg


Its symbolic position turned this tower into another symbol of the city. Only the lower block of the tower is originally islamic, since the second and third blocks are christian additions: the second is a 14th mudejar construction and the dome-crowned part is an 18th c. Baroque addition (no matter how islamic might those yellow tiles might look to some).



In Wikimedia Commons by CEphoto, Uwe Aranas
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...del-Oro-01.jpg




In Wikimedia Commons by Superchilum
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...Siviglia_1.JPG


And, in case you were wondering: yes, this was the Spanish wonder in Age of Empires 2.

Last edited by Nolke; July 20th, 2019 at 11:41 AM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 20th, 2019, 11:23 AM   #94
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,452
Likes (Received): 6182

Continuation of Seville as Almohad Andalusi capital

Another Almohad-built element for the protection of the river was the castle that the christians would later dedicate to San Jorge (Saint George) on the opposite shore. Its function was to protect the floating bridge that crossed the river (the river geomorphology was too unstable for a stone bridge, Seville didn't have a non-floating bridge until the 19th c.), yet another construction that seems to date back to Almohad times.

Both the castle and the floating bridge dissapeared in the 19th c. Although the remains of the castle can be visited as a museum and you can see an old 1851 of the bridge here (in a different location to where it used to be, since the structure had to be moved as the new iron bridge was under construction on the very same place).

Quote:
Originally Posted by Nolke View Post
P. Garmendia's recreation of the christian siege of the city in 1248:




In Wikimedia Commons, anonymous author
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...l_Oro_1770.jpg
__________________

franciscoc liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; July 20th, 2019 at 11:38 AM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Old July 20th, 2019, 11:24 AM   #95
Nolke
Registered duster
 
Join Date: Oct 2003
Location: Sevilla
Posts: 5,452
Likes (Received): 6182

Finally, it's worth mentioning that the caliph Abu Yaacub Yusuf made himself built a country palace near the Almohad city (today well into modern Seville urban center, though). There's barely any remain of it (only pillars), but the interesting stuff is that it was built alongside a big pond and among irrigated orchards, in a similar fashion to the iconic Menara gardens in Marrakech, of the same period (no snow-capped mountains in the background, though; for that we would have to move to Granada). Or akin some similar structures we saw in Madinat al-Zahra (the Ummayad palatine city of Cordoba).

What is actually left of the complex is both the original pond and some remains of the aqueduct that the caliph erected (reusing a previous Roman infrastructure) simply to bring water to his palace... These ponds had several uses: they were mostly irrigation reservoirs, but also served landscaping and recreational purposes.



Source: Google Maps



In Wikimedia Commons by Gzzz
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...ontoto_(2).jpg


Despite the title of this picture, this sadly now dissapeared aqueduct bridge isn't Roman, but Almohad.



In Wikimedia Commons by CarlosVdeHabsburgo
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F...en_Sevilla.jpg
__________________

franciscoc liked this post

Last edited by Nolke; July 20th, 2019 at 11:34 AM.
Nolke no está en línea   Reply With Quote
Sponsored Links
Advertisement
 


Reply

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off


Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Ουρανοξύστες και Ψηλά Κτίρια στην Αθήνα 3 | Athens Skyscrapers and Highrises 3 gm2263 Αθήνα | Athens 2589 August 16th, 2019 01:26 PM
FRANKFURT | Projects & Construction Patrick City/Metro Compilations 1392 July 14th, 2019 11:12 AM
Rio named as the 1st World Capital of Architecture by UNESCO Cauê Architecture 9 February 1st, 2019 04:17 PM
MADRID TODAY - MONOGRAPH OF ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT CITIES OF EUROPE Castor_Game Cityscapes and Skyline Photos 519 October 18th, 2018 09:48 PM
WEBSITES LISTING - A comprehensive list of LINKS to Local/Newcastle Area Websites Newcastle Historian Newcastle Metro Area 21 June 29th, 2010 03:04 PM


All times are GMT +2. The time now is 04:27 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.11 Beta 4
Copyright ©2000 - 2019, vBulletin Solutions Inc.
vBulletin Security provided by vBSecurity v2.2.2 (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2019 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.
Feedback Buttons provided by Advanced Post Thanks / Like (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2019 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.

SkyscraperCity ☆ In Urbanity We trust ☆ about us