The dockyard was located away from the main current to avoid deposition of silt. It is speculated that Lothal engineers studied tidal movements, and their effects on brick-built structures, since the walls are of kiln-burnt bricks. This knowledge also enabled them to select Lothal's location in the first place, as the Gulf of Khambhat has the highest tidal amplitude and ships can be sluiced through flow tides in the river estuary. The engineers built a trapezoidal structure, with north-south arms of average 21.8 metres (72 feet), and east-west arms of 37 metres (121 feet). Another assessment is that the basin could have served as an irrigation tank, for the estimated original dimensions of the "dock" are not large enough, by modern standards, to house ships and conduct much traffic. Criticism of the dock theory has grown since first doubted by Leshnik in 1968 and later Yule in 1982.
The original height of the embankments was 4.26 metres (14.0 feet). (Now it is 3.35 metres or 11.0 feet.) The main inlet is 12.8 metres (42 feet) wide, and another is provided on the opposite side. To counter the thrust of water, offsets were provided on the outer wall faces. When the river changed its course in 2000 BCE, a smaller inlet, 7 metres (23 feet) wide was made in the longer arm, connected to the river by a 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) channel. At high tide a flow of 2.1–2.4 metres (6.9–7.9 ft) of water would have allowed ships to enter. Provision was made for the escape of excess water through the outlet channel, 96.5 metres (317 feet) wide and 1.7 metres (5.6 feet) high in the southern arm. The dock also possessed a lock-gate system—a wooden door could be lowered at the mouth of the outlet to retain a minimum column of water in the basin so as to ensure floatation at low tides. Central to the city's economy, the warehouse was originally built on sixty-four cubical blocks, 3.6 metres (12 feet) square, with 1.2-metre (3.9-foot) passages, and based on a 3.5-metre-high (11.5 ft) mud-brick podium. The pedestal was very high to provide maximum protection from floods. Brick-paved passages between blocks served as vents, and a direct ramp led to the dock to facilitate loading. The warehouse was located close to the acropolis, to allow tight supervision by ruling authorities. Despite elaborate precautions, the major floods that brought the city's decline destroyed all but twelve blocks, which became the makeshift storehouse.
A block of bricks placed in the main drainage canal with four holes, from which the net to filter out solid waste was installed
A reconstructed drainage canal around the wealthy houses.
The area known as “street 9” in Lothal, Gujarat, India
The old names of Mandore, the ancient capital of Marwar, were Maddodara, Mandowar and Mandavyapura-durga, believed to be derived from the rishi Mandavya. This town was in existence in the fourth century A.D. as revealed by early Gupta period inscriptions near the cave of Mahadarao. Local traditions hold that Mandore was first held by the Nagas, followed by the Pratiharas, the Chahamanas and the Muslim Sultans of Delhi from whom it was wrested by the Rathores. The excavations carried out in 1909-10 yielded two elaborately carved monoliths of Krishna-lila scenes. On stylistic grounds, these monoliths could be dated to early fifth century A.D. The Pratihara rulers of Mandore constructed excellent Brahmanical and Jaina temples. The Pratihara ruler Rajilla built the rampart of the fort in about the sixth century A.D. The Brahmanical temple discovered in excavations consists of sanctum perched on the summit of three high terraces which diminish in size towards the top and are ascended by flights of steps on east, north and south sides. The sanctum is datable to the seventh or eighth century A.D. and was restored in the ninth and tenth century A.D. and again in the twelfth century A.D. This temple was originally consecrated to Vishnu. The Ghatiyala inscription of A.D. 861 reveals that the Pratihara ruler Kakkuka constructed here a Jaina temple also.
Padmavati : The Lost Ancient City (4th-5th century AD)
Different Views of The Pawaya Brick Temple
Unexcavated Mounds at Padmavati
Crocodile Water Outlet
Visit to the Pawaya Brick Temple
Panels near the doorway at The Pawaya Brick Temple
Yaksha Manibhadra Image (1st/2nd Century A.D.)
Palm Capital of Padmavati
Fragment of Gateway Lintel
Capital of Aditya-upendra-Indra
The site of Padmavati, which once served as the capital of the mighty Naga dynasty, has been largely forgotten by tourists as well as locals. The site of the ancient citadel is now almost occupied by the present village Pawaya and the ruins of a Muhammadan fort. But the surrounding area is studded with brick bats, potsherds and other indications of ancient habitation from which it is clear that the boundaries of the ancient city extended for some distance to the west, and to the north even beyond the river Parvati. Since the bricks have been quarried for generations, and since ruins of brick structures where pits are taken are exposed in many places, the village is also locally known as Pol Pawaya or hollow Pawaya. Although the ancient structures have been largely tampered with and mostly for purposes of quarrying bricks for newer constructions, several remains which still lie concealed underneath, hold a lot of promise for further excavations. A proper excavation of Pawaya is sure to deliver riches and a better understanding of the history of the Nagas and the Guptas apart from other dynasties of ancient and medieval India.
A forum community dedicated to skyscrapers, towers, highrises, construction, and city planning enthusiasts. Come join the discussion about structures, styles, reviews, scale, transportation, skylines, architecture, and more!