Atyrau (Kazakh: Атырау, historical name Guriev) is a city in Kazakhstan, and the capital of Atyrau Province. It is located 2700 kilometers west of Almaty and 350 kilometers east of the Russian city of Astrakhan. Other transliterations include Aterau, Atirau, Atyraw, Atırav, Atıraw.
Atyrau is Kazakhstan's main harbour city on the Caspian Sea at the delta of the Ural River. Atyrau city is approximately 20 meters below sea level. The city is considered by locals to be located both in Asia and Europe, as it is divided by the Ural River (considered the border between Asia and Europe by local tradition; by international sources the border between Asia and Europe is the Emba river).
Modern Atyrau is famous for its oil and fish industries. It has 142,500 inhabitants (1999 census), almost 80% ethnic Kazakh. (The rest being mostly Russians and other ethnic groups: Korean, Bulgar, etc) Since 1 February 2006 its mayor is Bergey Ryskaly.