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I recently found several Baedeker Guides to various areas of Germany from the 1910's. They are absolutely fascinating, as they describe German cities as they were before the First World War. Moreover, it's really interesting to see how travel guides looked like back then. And yes, there were Baedeker guides made for other countries as well (and they are also worth reading), including for Britain. You might have heard of the infamous Baedeker Blitz-this is where the name comes from.

I would like to share with you excerpts from these guides-for some reason I can't attach pictures from my computer, so I'll just reproduce here a few paragraphs from these guides.

I. Frankfurt, as described in Southern Germany (Wurtemberg and Bavaria) (12th Edition), Karl Baedeker, 1914. Pages 101-106

Chief Sights (one day): Rossmarkt, Goethe-Platz, Goethe's House, Romer, Cathedral, Stadel Art Institute, Senckenberg Natural History Museum, Palmen-Garten

Frankfurt am Main, with 436,000 inhabitants, on the right bank of the Main, was formerly a free town of the empire and first appears in history in the reign of Charlemagne. It is now the headquarters of the 18th Army Corps and the seat of numerous scientific institutions. It has long been one of the most important commercial centers of Germany. The old part of the town, which is surrounded with promenades, has numerous public buildings and private houses from the 15th-18th centuries. The finest residential quarter is the W. end Sachsenhausen, on the left bank, which is connected with Frankfurt by five bridges, has important fruit culture.

The principal approach from the imposing Haupt-Banhof to the inner town is the busy Kaiser-Strasse. At the point where it crosses the Gallus-Anlage rises a conspicuous clock-tower; on the right are a Bismarck Monument and the Schauspielhaus. The Kaiser-Str. ends at the Rossmarkt, in the W. half. (...)

The Goethe-Platz, which adjoins the Rossmarkt on the N., has a Goethe Monument by Schwanthaler (1844). At no. 23, Grosser Hirschgraben, is Goethe's House, where the poet spent his boyhood (1749-1765, open 8-1 and 3-6, in winter 9-1 and 3 till dusk, Sun. 10-1; adm. 1M). The house has been restored to the condition in which it was after the alterations made in 1755.

To the N.E. of the Rossmarkt lies the Schiller-Platz, with the old Hauptwache (now a cafe) and a statue of Schiller by Dielmann (1863). Here begins the Zeil, the chief business street of Frankfurt, with fine shops and the General Post Office (1892-1894).
In the Pauls-Platz is the Pauls-Kirche, a rotunda built in 1833, where the German parliament of 1848-1849 held its meetings. To the E is the Romerberg, with the Justitia Fountain, erected in 1543 and renewed in 1887.
The Romer is the name now applied to the town hall, which consists of a group of twelve old houses and various new buildings. (...) To the S. of the Romerberg is the Nikolai-Kirche, erected in 1290 and rebuilt in 1842-1845; on the altar is a Resurrection by Rethel. A few steps to the S. are the Renten-Turm (1455) and the Saalhof, probably occupying the site of the Carlovingian palace. The Catholic St. Leonhards-Kirche was begun in 1219 and completed in 1507; the late Gothic choir dates from 1434.
The Alter Markt leads from the Romerberg E. to the cathedral. No. 44, on the left, is Steinernes Haus, a Gothic building of 1464. No. 5 is the Goldene Wage, of 1624, with fine skylight gratings.
The Cathedral, a Gothic church with nave and aisles of equal height, was rebuilt in 1235 on the site of a church founded by Louis the German. The choir dates back from 1315-1338, the transept from 1346-1353. The German emperors were crowned here. After a fire in 1867 the church was restored by Denzinger, when the W. tower was completed. (...)
To the S. of the Cathedral are the Municipal Archives, built in 1877 by Denzinger, and the old Leinwand-Haus, dating from the 14th century and rebuilt in 1902. The latter contains the Municipal Historical Museum.

And then it goes on to describe other landmarks, such as the Kaiser-Brucke, the New Synagogue, the Opera House, the Neue Borse, etc. I find it interesting that most of the places mentioned here still exist today, though of course in between them much of the architectural landscape has changed. I will post other such excerpts when I will have time-and if people here happen to have access to old travel guides, it might be interesting to see what they had to say about Prewar European cities (and in particular those cities that were subsequently devastated by war).

1,532 Posts
Here is a bit of curious history. During WW2 there were a series of Luftwaffe bombing raids on Britain called the Baedeker Blitz.

So known was this travel guide, that Baron Gustav Braun von Stumm, a spokesman for the German Foreign Office, said "We shall go out and bomb every building in Britain marked with three stars in the Baedeker Guide".

2,066 Posts
I couldn't help but look up whether these were available online, and I managed to find some. Here is what you can read about Brunswick in "Northern Germany as far as the Bavarian and Austrian frontiers; handbook for travellers" from 1913:

Brunswick, Ger. Braunschweig, the capital of the Duchy of that name, with 100,000 inhabitants, lies on the Oker, which flows through the town in several arms, in a fertile plain bounded on the S. by wooded hills. It is now an important industrial place, the staple products being sugar, tobacco, woollen goods, machinery, and carriages; and its sausages, cakes, and asparagus are also exported.

General view

The Altstadt-Markt, where the Altstadt-Rathhaus, the Church of St. Martin, and several fine old private buildings (e.g. the 'Huthaus' No. 8, of the end of the 17th century.) are situated, forms the centre of the S.W. quarter of the town, which adjoins the railway-station. The Platz is embellished with a Fountain, cast in pewter in 1408, and restored in 1847, bearing ornaments, arms, and texts from Scripture in the Low German dialect.


The Altstadt-Rathhaus, consisting of two parts, one 56 ft., the 62 ft. long, at right angles to each other is an elegant Gothic edifice, begun about 1250, continued in 1393-96, and completed in 1447-68. Facing the market-place, both stories of both wings have open arcades with graceful tracery, on the nine pillars of which are statues of Saxon princes, from Henry the Fowler to Otho the Child, and their wives, most of them executed about 1455 by Hans Hesse.

Altes Rathaus

St. Martin's Church, opposite the Rathhaus, originally a Romanesque basilica, was enlarged in the early-Gothic style in the second half of the 13th century. ; the Chapel of St. Anne, added in the S.W. side in 1434-38, in of the late-Gothic period; the choir was built in 1490-1500. On the S. and N. facades are rich portals and fine sculpturing ; to the S. is the so-called Priests' Gate, to the N. the Bridal Portal (14th century). The W. portal is Romanesque.

In the streets adjoining the Altstadt-Markt are many handsome old private houses, such as No. 38 Gördelinger-Str., and No. 5 (Renaissance, 1591) and 10 (Gothic, 1467) Post-Strasse, Opposite the end of the Post-Str., rises the Gothic Gewandhaus, the E. gable in the Renaissance style was constructed in 1590. - The Gymnasium Martino-Catharineum, Breite-Str., is also a handsome edifice.

The Gewandhaus

At the corner of the Stein-Str. stands the Synagogue, built by Uhde in 1875 in a Moorish-Byzantine style (apply to the custodian of the adjacent school). Nos. 11 and 13 Knochenhauer-Str. are interresting old edifices of 1489, with statues. No. 3 Stein-Str. (1512) is adorned with a curious relief. No. 1 Bank-Platz, is a Renaissance edifice of 1592. - The Post and Telegraph Office, in the Friedrich-Wilhelm Str., is by Raschdorff. Traversing the Kohlmarkt and the Schuh-Str., we observe several other handsome dwelling-houses, the finest of which is No. 5, in the Sack, a little to the N., with rich burlesque ornamentation (1536; restored 1890). We now reach the Burg-Platz in which rises the -

The Kohlmarkt

The Sack House

Cathedral of St. Blasius, or Burgkirche, with a vaulted interior borne by pillars, and a spacious crypt. It was begun in 1172 in the Romanesque style bt Henry the Lion, after his return from the Holy Land, and completed in 1194. The Gothic S. aisle was added after 1322, the N. aisle with its spiral columns in 1469-74. The towers were burned down in 1195, and have never been wholly rebuilt. The chapel in front of the S. transept was completed in 1891.

The Cathedral

In the Burg-Platz, on the N. side of the cathedral, rises a bronze Lion on a modern pedestal, erected here in 1166 by Henry the Lion as a symbol of his supremacy, and restored in 1858. Down to 1486 the Burggrafen, or ducal bailiffs, publicly administered justice here. - To the E. of the Lion are the remains of the old Palace of Henry the Lion, built in 1150-60 in the Romanesque style on the site of the old castle of Dankwarderode. The building, repeatedly injured by fire, rebuilt, and enlarged, long served military purpouses, and has lately been restored in a uniform Romanesque style. It has two stories, and is 130 ft. long and 42 ft. wide. The tower marks the site of the old chapel.


Column of the Lion

In the Wilhelms-Platz, to the S. of the cathedral, is an old lime-tree, which an improbable tradition dates from the time of Henry the Lion. To the E., in the Münz-Str., are the Court House and the Police Office, two edifices in the Italian Renaissance Style.

We next visit the Schloss-Platz, in which, in front of the palace, admirable equestrian Statues of the Dukes Frederick William by Hähnel, and Charles William Ferdinand by Pönninger, were erected in 1874.

The Palace, erected by K. Th. Ottmer in the Renaissance style on the site of the 'Graue Hof', which was burned down in 1830, and almost entirely rebuilt after the destructive fire of 1865, is a sumptuous modern edifice, now occupied by Prince Albert of Prussia. The principal facade towards the town is 137 yds. in length and 110 ft. in height. The imposing portal is crowned by a celebrated Quadriga designed by Reitschel, and executed by Howaldt in copper. The colossal statues of Otho IV and Otho the Child, and also the group in the pediment are by Bläser. The facade at the back is tastefully adapted to its position overlooking the gardens. The interior is shown on application to the castellan at the portal. The public are permitted to pass through the portal and to visit the gardens. The small Church of St. Magnus, at the back of the palace, consecrated in 1031, dates in its present form from the 13th and 15th centuries, and was restored in 1877. The interior contains some interresting wood-carving.

The Ducal Castle

From the palace we proceed to the N. through the Bohlweg to the Hagenmarkt, passing the old Pauline Convent, the church of which, dating from the 14th century, was converted into an arsenal at the beginning of the 18th century. The Hagenmarkt is embellished with a Fountain Statue of Henry the Lion by A. Breyman, executed in bronze by Howaldt. - Opposite to it rises the Church of St. Catharine, a handsome edifice, probably begun by Henry the Lion, and recently restored, containing numerous tombstones of the 16th-18th centuries, the finest being that of Count von der Schulenburg, of 1619. The choir dates from about 1500. - There are several handsome buildings in the neighbothood Wendan-Str, in the Fallersleber Str., and in the Wilhelm-Str.

Hagenbrücke and the Katharinekirche

The Hagenmarkt

The text goes on a little bit more, but it takes forever to transcribe so I'll leave it there for now :lol:

3,440 Posts
We next visit the Schloss-Platz, in which, in front of the palace, admirable equestrian Statues of the Dukes Frederick William by Hähnel, and Charles William Ferdinand by Pönninger, were erected in 1874.

The Palace, erected by K. Th. Ottmer in the Renaissance style on the site of the 'Graue Hof', which was burned down in 1830, and almost entirely rebuilt after the destructive fire of 1865, is a sumptuous modern edifice, now occupied by Prince Albert of Prussia.

The Ducal Castle
Love these old travel books, but the author includes a mistake in reference to the resident of the palace in 1913.
Prince Albert of Prussia died in 1906, having been regent for the Duchy for many years due to the conflict between Hanover and the German Empire. After his death, Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg was named regent and he lasted until 1913 when the Ernst August of Hanover was given the duchy, due to his marriage to Victoria Luise, daughter of Wilhelm II.

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P. 188-193, Lübeck

Northern Germany as far as the Bavarian and Austrian frontiers, 1913

Lübeck with 63,500 Inhab., the smallest of the three independent Hanseatic towns of the German Empire, was once at the head of the League, and is still a busy commercial place.
It lies 10 M. from the Baltic, on the Trave, the channel of which has been deepened, so as to afford access to vessels of 16 ft. draught.
Wine, especially claret, timber, and tar are the chief articles of trade at Lübeck.
The town still contains reminiscences of its medieval greatness in its lofty towers, its ancient gabled houses in the late-Gothic and Renaissance style,
fortified gateways, Gothic churches, and its venerable Rathhaus.

Leaving the station, we enter the town by the inner Holstenthor, a fine specimen of a medieval gateway, completed in 1477 and restored in 1871.

The Holsten-Strasse leads straight to the Market, in which rises the Rathhaus (see below).
This square is adorned by a Gothic Fountain, erected in 1873, with statues of Henry the Lion, Adolph. of Holstein, Emperor Barbarossa, and Frederick II.
Here, too, is situated the old Pranger (p. 190).

The Rathaus, occupying the N.E. corner of the market-place, a Gothic brick building with huge gables and quaint spires, consists of two buildings adjoining each other at right angles,
completed as they now stand in 1442. In 1570 the principal part of the building, adjoining the market, was embellished with an entrance-hall in the Renaissance style,
and in 1594 a handsome staircase in the same style was constructed on the side next the Breite-Str.
The whole edifice underwent a complete restoration in 1887-1893.
In front of the main entrance in the Breite-Str. are two 'Beischlage' (see p. 210), with metal reliefs of 1452. The keeper is usually to be found in the building (fee 50 pf.).

A few paces to the N. of the market rises the Church of St. Mary, one of the most admirable examples of low-German brick architecture,
which has served as a model for numerous churches in this part of the country.
It was indebted for its origin in 1280-1304 to the ambition of the citizens to have their principal church larger than the cathedral ot the bishop.
The plan is similar to that of the French cathedrals, the aisles being lower than the nave, which is not the case with most of the brick churches.
It is 335 ft. long ; transept 162 ft. in height and 186 ft. in width ; nave 127 ft. high ; spires 407 ft. high.
A chime of bells in the small E. tower plays a chorale at the hours and half hours.

... the Cathedral, founded by Henry the Lion in 1173, enlarged in 1276, and completed in 1336; towers 394 ft. high.
The nave, transept, and one bay of the choir date from the original Romanesque basilica, which was built in the shape of a Latin cross ; but the greater part of the choir and the aisles are Gothic.
The Vestibule of the N. aisle, a gem of the Transition style, dates from early in the 13th cent, (restored) ; the inner portal, with garlands, fantastic animals , and polished columns of black slate, is especially worthy of attention.

Adjoining the Cathedral on the S. Is the Museum, a Gothic edifice built in 1889-92,
the E. wing of which includes remains of a cloister belonging to a monastery that formerly occupied this site.
Admission, Sun. and (in. summer) Thurs. 11-2 free. Wed. and Frid. 10-3, 50 pf., Tues., Thurs., and Sat. 10-3, on application to the custodian in the E. wing, 1-3 pers. 1 1/2 M. , each additional pers. 60 pf. Catalogue 50 pf.

The Hospital zum Heiligen Geist (generally open), in the Geibel-Platz (in which is a monument to Geibel, see below), is an admirably-organised institution.
A fine early-Gothic chapel, dating from the early part of the 13th cent. , and now rarely used for divine service, serves as an entrance-hall.
The chapel and its ancient mural-paintings were restored in 1866.

The Burgthor, the N. gate of the town, is a lofty brick structure of 1444.
A little to the W. of it is an archway, with some well-executed grotesque wood-carvings.
An avenue of lime-trees leads from the gate to the cemetery, with a monument of Geibel (1815-1884), the poet, who was born in Lubeck.


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I've had the idea for a while now of converting this into video format, - that is, to read part of the guidebook out loud while showing photos and illustrations from around 1900 in the background. Well, I've done that now.

Note that this is just the introduction, I intend to make more videos later on covering the rest of, or at least the most interresting parts of Berlin, and perhaps other places further down the line.

3,440 Posts

Great show, visually and the text. One view--on Tauentzienstrasse toward Kaiser Wilhelm church--is particularly tragic compared to today. Wittenberger Platz is horribly tacky and I, for one, am so tired of ruins-turned-into-memorials. They should rebuild the church or replace it with something notable and grand for that focal point.

2,066 Posts
P. 157-158, Stettin

Northern Germany, as far as the Bavarian and Austrian frontiers, 1904

Stettin, the capital of the Province of Pomerania, and the headquarters of the 2nd Army Corps, with 210,000 inhab., including
a garrison of. 5000 soldiers, originally belonged to the Dukes of Pomerania, who became extinct in 1637, then to Sweden from 1648 to 1720, and has since been Prussian.
It is a commercial and manufacturing town of great importance, situated on both banks of the Oder, the principal part being on the left bank (Altstadt and Neustadt),
while on the right bank lie the quarters which were formerly the suburbs of Lastadie and Silberwiese, connected with the left
bank by four bridges, including a handsome railway swing-bridge.

The Oder at Stettin is sufficiently deep (20 ft.) for vessels of substantial size, and the town possesses a considerable fleet of sea-going craft and river steamboats.
The chief exports are sugar, corn, and spirits; the chief imports petroleum, train-oil, French wines, and herrings.
Stettin is also the most important manufacturing place in Pomerania, the staple products being sugar, ships, machines, and chemicals.
On the right bank of the Oder is the Free Harbour, 150 acres in extent, constructed in 1893-98.

A little to the N.E. of the railway-station is the Post Office, opposite which stands the New Rathaus.
Between the two is a monumental fountain, by L. Mansel in copper (1898).
The 'Grüne Schanze' and Linden-Str. lead hence to the Neustadt, with the Law Courts, the Town Museum, containing modern paintings,
and the Pomeranian Museum, with objects of natural history.

In the Parade-Platz are the Guard House, the Provincial Offices, and the Berliner-Tor, which (like the Königs-Tor), is a handsome structure of the time of Fred. William I.
Between the Parade-Platz and the Königs-Platz rises an Equestrian Statue of Emp, William I., by Hilgers.
The Königs-Platz is farther adorned with a copy in bronze of a Statue of Frederick the Great by Schadow, erected in 1793.
The original, an admirable work in marble, is in the Landschafthaus.
In front of the Theatre stands a marble Statue of Frederick William III., by Drake.
— Hard by is the Church of SS. Peter & Paul, the oldest church in Pomerania, originally built in 1124, and after various vicissitudes restored in 1816-17.

The Schloss (entr. in the Pelzer-Str.) was begun in 1503, the N. and W. wings were completed in 1577, and the building was altered in the 18th cent, and 1874.
It was formerly the seat of the Dukes of Pomerania, and is now occupied by courts of justice.
The clock-tower contains the Provincial Museum (open in summer on Sun., 11-1, and Wed., 3-5; at other times on application).
The dial of the clock represents a human face which moves. The court is adorned with a bust of the Great Elector, in bronze, by Wichmann.
The church contains the burial-vault of the dukes. View from the tower.

The oldest part of the Church of St. James dates from the 13th cent.;
the exterior and a chapel of 1500 were restored in 1897, the interior in 1901.

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P. 184-190, Breslau

Northern Germany, as far as the Bavarian and Austrian frontiers, 1904

Breslau (390 ft.), the second city in Prussia, the capital of Silesia and seat of government for the province, the headquarters
of the 6th Army Corps, and the residence of a Roman Catholic prince-bishop, with 423,000 Inhab. (167,000 Rom. Cath., 20,000 Jews, 5900 soldiers),
lies in a fertile plain on both banks of the Oder at the influx of the Ohle. The islands formed here by the Oder are connected with the banks by numerous bridges.
The city consists of the Altstadt and five continually increasing suburbs.

Promenades on the site of the fortifications, skirting the broad moat, now enclose the greater part of the inner city.
The finest parts of these are the Zwinger-Garten, at the end of the Schweidnitzer-Str., with a handsome club-house,
and, farther to the E., the modern belvedere called the Liebichs Höhe, which commands an admirable survey of the town and its environs.
At the foot of it is a bust of Schleiermacher (1768-1834), the theologian, who was born at Breslau.
— To the N.E. are the Göppert Monument and the municipal Gymnastic Hall, with an educational museum.
The Holtei-Höhe (with a bust of Holtei, the Silesian poet), at the N.E. corner of the Promenades, affords an excellent view of the cathedral and the Sand-insel as well as of the busy Oder.
To the W. is the Kaiserin-Augusta-Platz, with the School of Art and a War Monument commemorating the events of 1870-71.

Near the centre of the town is the Ring, originally the market-place, the four sides of which bear different names.
On the W. side is the house (No. 8) once occupied by the Bohemian kings, built about 1500 ; the frescoes (17th cent.)
representing the Emperor and the seven Electors were restored in 1865.

On the S.E. side rises the Rathaus (visitors apply at the custodian's room, in the groundfloor on the right), built in the
middle of the 14th cent., a noble monument of the prosperous age of Charles IV. and the other Luxemburg monarchs.
The florid enrichments of the oriel windows and gables, and the rich decorations of the interior belong, however, to the late-Gothic period (end of 15th and beginning of 16th cent.).
The building was extensively restored in 1885-88. The finest apartment is the Fürstensaal (now the council-hall),
with handsome vaulting, where from the 15th cent, downwards meetings of the Silesian princes and estates were generally held.
It has been appropriately restored and adorned with portraits of princes and burgomasters.
— Below the Rathaus is the Schweidnitzer Keller, with remarkably fine vaulting.

In the W. part of the Ring rise the equestrian Statue of Frederick the Great, in bronze, erected in. 1842,
and the equestrian Statue of Frederick William III, erected in 1861, both by Kiss (1802-65), a Silesian by birth.

The Stadthaus to the W. of the Rathaus, was completed in 1862 from Stüler's designs.

The neighbouring Blücher-Platz is embellished with a bronze Statue of Blücher, by Rauch (1827).
On the S. side of the Platz is the handsome Alte Börse, now occupied by municipal offices.
— The Königs-Platz, to the W. of the Blücher-Platz, contains a bronze Statue of Bismarck, by Breuer (1900).
— In the Ross-Markt stands the Municipal Savings Bank, containing the Municipal Library (150,000 vols, and over 3000 MSS.)
and the Civic Archives (both open free daily, 9-2, in winter also in the afternoon, except Sat.).

The Protestant Church of St.Elizabeth, to the N.W. of the Ring, founded about 1245 and restored in 1890-93,
has a tower 300 ft. in height (1452-56) and three choirs (sacristan, An der Elisabeth-Kirche, No. 1).

The Protestant Mary Magdalen Church, to the E. of the Ring, dates from the same early period.
The late-Romanesque S. portal, one of the finest pieces of architecture in the city though unfortunately much damaged, was transferred hither from the monastery of St. Vincent in 1529.
The two towers are connected by an arch. The church, restored in 1888-90, contains a curious iron spiral staircase (ascending from the altar ; 1576),
a ciborium of the 15th, and inlaid stalls of the 16th cent, (sacristan, Predigergasse 3).

The parsonage, opposite the S.E. side of the church, contains an oriel window of 1496.
Below is the so-called Dompnig Column, with sculptures of 1491, erroneously connected with Burgomaster Heinz Dompnig, who was executed in 1490.

The Albrecht-Strasse, which is terminated by the fine pediment of St. Adalbert's Church (13-14th cent.),
contains the Ober-Praesidium (left; No. 32), originally a palace of Prince Hatzfeld (18th cent.), and the handsome Post Office (right).

In the Neumarkt is a fountain (restored 1874), with a figure of Neptune, familiarly known as 'Gabel-Jürge'.
— The Church of St. Bernhardin;, dates from the 15th century.

At the end of the Schweidnitzer Strasse are the Minorite Church or Church of St. Dorothea (of 1351), the Theatre, and the Military Headquarters.
An Equestrian Statue of Emp. William I., by Behrens, was erected in 1896 a littte to the S.E. of the last.
— The Exerzier-Platz is bounded by the Royal Palace and the Industrial Museum.

The Silesian Museum of Industrial Art and Antiquities occupies the old Ständehaus or Hall of the Estates (adm. daily, except Mon., 10-2, Sun. 11-2, free; entr. in Graupen-Str.).

Opposite the museum rises the Neue Börse, or New Exchange, built in the Gothic style by Lüdecke (1864-67).

Beyond the Stadtgraben rises the Synagogue, a brick building in the Oriental style, designed by Oppler.

A little to the W. is the Museum of Fine Arts, a brick building with an Ionic portico and a lofty dome, erected in 1875-80 from Rathey's design.
In front of the exterior staircase is an Equestrian Statue of Emp, Frederick III,, by Brütt (1901).
Adm. free, daily except Mon. and holidays, 10-2, Sun. 11-14.

The Tauenzien-Str., to the E., leads to the Tauenzlen-Platz, which contains the Tauenzien Monument, designed by Langhans ,
the medallion by Schadow , and erected to General Tauenzien (d. 1791), the gallant defender of Breslau in 1760.
— To the S.E., in the Garten-Strasse (No. 74), is the handsome new building of the Landeshaus or Provincial Diet, and farther on is the Central Railway Station.

A bronze Statue of Moltke, by Üchtritz, was erected In 1899 at the intersection of the Kaiser-Wihelm-Str,
and the Augusta-Str. 1 1/2 M. to the S. of this is the South Park (Südpark).

A memorial tablet on the house No. 22 in the Schmiedebrücke, a street running to the N. of the Ring, records that Baron vom Stein,
the great statesman and reformer of Prussia after its overthrow by Napoleon, resided here at one of the most eventful epochs in the history of Prussia (Feb. and March, 1813).
Farther on is the university, which was transferred from Frankfort on the Oder to Breslau in 1811, and united with a Jesuit College, the buildings of which it now occupies (1700 students).
The large Aula and the small Aula are lavishly adorned. — To the E. of the
University is an Ursuline Convent, St. Vincent's Church (with the tomb of Duke Henry II., p. 212),
and the District Supreme Court, formerly a Praemonstratensian abbey, with beautiful cloisters.

Beyond the Sand-Brücke, on the Sand-Insel, is the
University Library, comprising 330,000 vols., 4000 vols. of MSS., and 3200 incunabula; it is established in an old Augustine Abbey (adm. on week-days 9-5, Sat 9-3).
The same building contains the Archaeological Museum, with a collection of casts after the antique (open free on Sun. 11-1 & 2-4, Mon. & Thurs. 11-1).

The adjoining Sand-Kirche (sacristan, Sand-Str. 6), or Church of our Lady on the Sand, erected in the 14-15th cent., is a well-proportioned structure with polygonal apse and fine groined vaulting.
Above the door of the sacristy (right aisle) is a relief of the 12th cent, representing the foundation of the original church by Mary, wife of Count Peter Wlast, and her son Swentoslaus.

The Kreus-Kirche (sacristan, Dom-Str. 21), on the right bank of the Oder, a handsome brick edifice consecrated in 1295,
contains a large crypt (St Bartholomew's), and the Tomb of Duke Henry II. of Silesia (d. 1290), in painted sandstone, in front of the high-altar.

The Cathedral of St. John the Baptist (sacristan, Dom-Str. 9), flanked with two series of chapels, dates in its present form mainly from the 14th century.
It has no transept. The W. vestibule dates from the 15th, and the choir from the middle of the 13th cent.;
while some relics of the original building of the 12th cent. are visible at the chief portal.

Opposite the cathedral, to the W., is the Archiepiscopal Residence, while to the N. lies the little Church of St. Aegidius, the oldest edifice in Breslau, in the transition style.
In the Göppert-Str. (No. 12) are the Diocesan Archives (curious muniment-chest of 1455), and at No. 6 is the Botanical Ghurden (open free daily 7-12 & 2-6, for strangers on Sun. also),
which contains a good Botanical Museum and (in the S.E. part of the garden) a large relief-model, illustrating the formation of coal.
— The Zoological Garden (adm. 50 pf.; concerts in summer on Sun., Wed., & Frid.; good restaurant), tastefully laid out, lies beyond the barrier, 3/4 M. distant.

The Monhaupt-Strasse leads from the Botanical Garden to the N., past the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, to the Church of St, Michael, a Gothic brick edifice by Langer, consecrated in 1871, with polychrome interior.
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