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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
Seeing a lack of macro thread on Chinese basic scientific research, I'll start one here. To differentiate this from the news thread, let's keep this in the macro perspective and don't load it with too many news item. Also let's keep this thread with in basic scientific research only, there are already plenty of post of Chinese achievements in technology and industry. (such as this and this) in and keep debate to a minimum if possible.
 

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Discussion Starter · #2 · (Edited)
Chinese Quantum Teleportation Experiments

2010 -16 km

http://phys.org/news193551675.html


2013 - 101.8 km


http://arxiv.org/pdf/1205.2024v2.pdf

2016 [Expected] Into Space



http://www.nature.com/news/data-teleportation-the-quantum-space-race-1.11958

In additional to large scale experiment, China is also building Quantum photonics at chip scale. Allowing application level research as well as integration with electronics

http://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/semiconductors/optoelectronics/quantum-photonics-on-a-single-chip

 

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Discussion Starter · #3 · (Edited)
Next Series of Chinese Scientific Satellites


http://english.nssc.cas.cn/missions/MM/201304/W020130423472077550551.pdf



Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

Through repeatedly delayed, the project should complement Chandra X-ray Observatory and continue the work once Chandra bite the dust.

http://web.mit.edu/iachec/meetings/2013/Presentations/Lu.pdf

Kuafu Project

Another much delay project that will study the solar wind, it will consist of 3 satellites, 2 in orbit around the earth and 1 at the L1 point.



https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct...BSMHDXpBkHPu1qA&bvm=bv.73612305,d.cGE&cad=rja

Dark Matter Satellite

Will be mounted on the next Chinese Space Station, and join a host of instruments for detection of black holes, dark energy, dark matter and finding the origin of the universe.



http://english.ihep.cas.cn/rs/fs/sm/SM/SM_aboutherd/


Full list of those Astronomy projects can be found here
http://indico.cern.ch/event/197799/session/2/contribution/13/material/slides/0.pdf
 

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Discussion Starter · #4 · (Edited)
Space Explorations

Chang'e Project



No need for introduction, the next stage will be lunar sample return, and from the look of it its a big module. If they decide to land in somewhere exciting, such as the polar region or a perpetually dark Moon crater that find direct evidence for water. That would be exciting news.

Here the full plane for the moon, hope the program will go its full term. However it appears, the second probe landing Chang'e 4 have to modified to prep for Chang'e 5 rather to run a repeat of Chang'e 3.

Capture by luhai167, on Flickr
http://wenku.baidu.com/view/21d5423a5727a5e9856a619b.html

As for Chang'e 3, the project still continues. As it bears a ultra-violet telescope and will be used to monitor binary stars.



http://www.spaceflight101.com/change-3-mission-updates.html

Here is a video of Chang'e 3's scientific achievements
http://news.cntv.cn/2014/09/08/VIDE1410132781102921.shtml

Overview of the Chinese space program from 2009 MIIT white paper, that details the long term plans for Chinese space exploration in both manned and unmanned missions.



My translation:

2010 - 2020
aim for basic scientific mission on multiple fronts. (Chang'e Program going very well, Kuafu program was delayed, Yinghuo program so far has failed, HXMT launching next year or so.)
Moon sample return (not done)
master deep space flight and tracking (somewhat done with CE2)
basic deep space communication network (somewhat done with Tianlian, new tracking ships and new ground stations)
basic space station (done)

2020 - 2030
Aim for 2-3 scientific missions per year
Moon landing (Manned)
Mars Probe
master deep space autonomous flight
high speed deep space communication network
continuously occupied station station

2030-2050
Aim for "disruptive and fundamental" research in basic science (Don't know you can plan for this sort of thing though. But it does mean Chinese will be willing fund expensive science programs by then)
Probe beyond inner solar system
Permanent station on the moon
Leading position in space based observation
Leading position in deep space autonomous flight
Mars Landing (Manned)
Solar system wide communication network
 

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Discussion Starter · #5 ·
Project 973

Project 973 is Chinese equivalent of the National Science foundation, which founds university projects in application-grant basis. The following is the current list of founded projects and amount of money granted to each project. The 1358.63 million yuan granted so far for 2014 for 160 projects. List below in order of fund granted, and as you can see it covers almost every subject of science.


基于光子轨道角动量(OAM)的新型通信体制研究
华南大规模低温成矿作用
南海关键岛屿周边多尺度海洋动力过程研究
小麦产量和品质性状的全基因组选择研究
高效有机/聚合物太阳电池材料与器件研究
南海陆坡生态系统动力学与生物资源的可持续利用
猪繁殖力的生理学及相关遗传调控机理
深部复合地层围岩与TBM的相互作用机理及安全控制
临近空间高速飞行器等离子鞘套信息传输理论
大型飞机电液动力控制与作动系统新体系基础研究
超临界二氧化碳强化页岩气高效开发基础
土壤复合有机污染特征、界面行为及修复技术原理
农作物重要病毒病昆虫传播与致害的生物学基础
中国陆相致密油(页岩油)形成机理与富集规律
新型太赫兹源、接收器和其它关键功能器件及其应用
大容量直流电缆输电和管道输电关键基础研究
雷电重大灾害天气系统的动力-微物理-电过程和成灾机理
周围神经损伤及修复后神经再生与中枢神经重塑的机制研究
重要牧草、乡土草抗逆优质高产的生物学基础
山区支线机场高填方变形和稳定控制关键基础问题研究
基于空间微生物变异规律探索重要感染疾病防控新策略研究
系统性红斑狼疮的发病机理解析和诊治新策略硏究
战略有色金属非传统资源清洁高效提取的基础研究
新一代超大型运载火箭薄壁结构制造的科学问题
海洋工程装备材料腐蚀与防护关键技术基础研究
大型航空复合材料承力构件制造基础
高温高密核物质形态研究
强直性脊柱炎发生机制及控制策略研究
玉米产量和品质性状全基因组选择育种的基础研究
中国东部古近系陆相页岩油富集机理与分布规律
多维复用光纤通信基础研究
深部危险煤层无人采掘装备关键基础研究
核幔耦合作用与亚年代至世纪尺度地球自转及磁场变化关系研究
天然草原生产力的调控机制与途径
团簇多级结构的构筑与功能调控
肿瘤异质性演化机制与个体治疗策略的生物学研究
油页岩高效油气炼制与过程节能科学基础
单基因遗传性聋病的分子机制研究
伽玛射线暴与相关前沿物理研究
网络大数据计算的基础理论及其应用研究
基于生物、心理多模态信息的潜在抑郁风险预警理论与生物传感关键技术研究
出血性脑卒中发生发展机制及其防治的基础研究
强流高功率离子加速器物理及技术先导研究
高服役性能海洋动力定位装备制造的基础研究
食用菌产量和品质形成的分子机理及调控
高性能聚酰亚胺薄膜和纤维材料制备中的结构与性能调控
煤中有害元素分布富集机理及环境污染防治
大型客机减阻机理和方法研究
网络信息空间大数据计算理论
学习行为发生、发展及异常的认知神经机制研究
深空探测高精度天文测角测速组合自主导航基础研究
基于影像实时动态多元分子分型的乳腺癌精准诊疗关键技术研究
深海水下油气输送系统安全运行与风险控制
大型风力机的关键力学问题研究及设计实现
基于LAMOST大科学装置的银河系研究及多波段天体证认
密闭舱室环境安全保障纳米复合材料
液相激光熔蚀及在若干光电纳米材料制备中的关键科学问题研究
过渡金属氧化物异质结在多场调控下的新奇物性及器件研究
土壤系统碳动态、机制及其对全球变化的响应
成体神经干细胞的命运决定机制与功能研究
新型低维体系量子输运和拓扑态的研究
面向三元空间的互联网中文信息处理理论与方法
先天免疫相关蛋白质复合物结构与功能的研究
光电子调控矿物与微生物协同作用机制及其环境效应研究
全球变化背景下南海及周边地区春夏气候变异特征和机理及其对全球气候的反馈作用
神经元迁移、形态发生和微环路形成的调控机制
神经生长与信息传递重要蛋白质复合体的结构生物学研究
精子发生与成熟的表观遗传调控
重要新型膜离子通道门控和调节机制的结构基础
亚欧内陆荒漠生态系统对全球变化的响应特征与区域生态安全
养殖鱼类蛋白质高效利用的调控机制
西南山地典型生态系统植物多样性对气候变化的响应
单倍体干细胞的建立、维持和应用
mTOR调控网络在衰老及其相关代谢疾病发生进程中的作用及分子机制
脊柱发育与稳态维持的分子调控机制研究
多能干细胞向中胚层细胞分化的机制研究
利用纳米材料与技术提高农药有效性与安全性的基础研究
肿瘤代谢异常的关键蛋白质作用机制及其分子调控网络
低维磁性耦合体系的新物性及多场调控
细胞命运维持与转化的表观遗传调控作用与机制研究
基于半导体人工光合成的二氧化碳能源化研究
纳米插层材料功能组装与盐湖镁资源有效利用
东南丘陵区红壤酸化过程与调控原理
植物胚胎及种子发育的机理研究
典型人工纳米材料的水环境过程、生物效应及其调控研究
微生物多细胞体系的设计与合成
腧穴配伍效应规律及神经生物学机制研究
黄土重大灾害及灾害链的发生、演化机制与防控理论
新疆北部古弧盆体系成矿机理
新型高性能稀土发光材料的科学基础及应用
蛋白质复合体和膜蛋白结构生物学中的新技术和新方法研究
微纳超结构碳材料的设计制备及高效能量转换与存储研究
动物病毒-宿主相互作用机制的研究
资源节约型高性能稀土永磁材料设计和可控制备
二次锂空气电池高效能量转换与储存纳米材料的设计与调控
大气物质沉降对海洋氮循环与初级生产过程的影响及其气候效应
肿瘤免疫逃逸新机制和免疫治疗新途径的基础与应用研究
安全攸关软件系统的构造与质量保障方法研究
新型高品质微腔中的光子与电子态耦合
我国活性氮源及其对空气质量与气候变化的影响机理研究
核酸药物高效纳米载药系统的研究
2.8-4.0微米室温高性能半导体激光器材料和器件制备研究
全球变化与区域可持续发展耦合模型及调控对策
基于内皮细胞应激的糖尿病继发血管病变的早期关键机理与干预策略的研究
新发、再发传染病病原体的结构研究
多重量子相干器件制备、表征及外场调控
微型能源动力系统的科学问题
年代际尺度上全球和中国大气成分与气候的变化及其相互作用
听觉微环路障碍形成的遗传和分子机制
基于超级电容器的大容量储能体系及其应用
无线接入网高能效微波集成器件理论及实现机理
环境内分泌干扰物对女性生殖功能的影响及分子机制
慢性病毒感染的体液应答机制及功能重塑
人工光合成太阳能燃料的基础
循环miRNA生物学功能及临床应用
重大岩体工程灾害模拟、软件及预警方法基础研究
诱导性前脑神经祖细胞体内微环境的组分解析、条件优化和功能模拟
合成生物器件干预膀胱癌的基础研究
云计算安全基础理论与方法研究
不确定信息下多体导航与控制的系统理论和数学基础
决定卵母细胞质量的分子机制
中医证候临床辨证的基础研究
猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒与宿主相互作用调控病毒复制及宿主免疫应答的机制
固体量子计算的器件物理基础
集成高通量实验与计算的钛合金快速设计
人胚胎干细胞衍生细胞治疗心肌梗死后心力衰竭的关键科学问题研究
大气污染物的理化特征及其与气候系统相互作用
腧穴配伍方案优选及效应影响因素研究
NOD样受体的免疫生物学及其相关疾病机制研究
视网膜多模态医学影像处理与分析及其应用基础研究
芽麦对品质的影响及抗穗发芽小麦材料全基因组选育
西天山石炭-二叠纪构造演化与浅成低温成矿系统
复杂生物大分子复合体的低温电镜高分辨三维重构及功能研究
废水中污染物强化传递分离的关键问题
森林生态系统活性氮循环机制及其环境效应研究
高轨道d电子体系的高压研制与强自旋-轨道耦合研究
柔性直流输电换流器安全运行裕度的基础研究
可印刷塑料电子材料及其大面积柔性器件相关基础研究
能谷-自旋耦合量子态的光电作用机理和操控研究
玉米叶型建成分子机理研究
燃气轮机高效清洁柔和燃烧机理及燃烧室基础研究
体细胞重编程过程中的表观遗传调控研究
大规模异质数据分析、挖掘与管理
新型紫外/深紫外硼酸盐非线性光学材料的设计与制备研究
高速铁路软土路基长期运营沉降与环境振动控制
有机纳米聚集体界面分子取向调控及光电器件应用基础研究
外周神经损伤引起中枢可塑性改变的能量代谢机制
叶片发育极性建成的调控网络研究
分子铁电多功能存储材料的前沿交叉研究
稻田生态系统对大气[CO2]升高的高应答机制及其可持续性研究
计及缺陷敏感性的网格加筋筒壳结构轻量化设计理论与方法
城市边界层理化结构与成霾交互作用机制研究
淋巴细胞发育中的基因转录后调节网络研究
软件定义的云数据中心网络基础理论与关键技术
二维原子晶体界面科学与器件基础
合成气转化制备优质液体燃料的高效金属纳米催化剂研究
自旋及其复合系统的量子操纵与相干集成研究
表观遗传调控的中央杏仁核GABA神经环路与慢性神经痛
基于情境的安全攸关软件的构造方法与运行机理研究
光催化体系表界面电子态的耦合与演化规律研究

http://news.sciencenet.cn/htmlnews/2013/11/285026.shtm


The good news here is that there is a mechanism for bottom up exploration, and it mechanism exists for relatively small project to be funded beyond the large science mega project that we see in the news.
 

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Discussion Starter · #6 ·
Continue with Mega Projects

Nuclear Fusion

China is a member of ITER and has a series of fusion and fusion related project both in support of ITER and for itself. (especially Inertial confinement fusion project that seems to be more beneficial in nuclear weapon research than energy production)

Tokamaks

EAST

Based on previously Russian based HT-7 in 1994, it will be used to mangets and long term plasma control for the ITER project. Before HT-7, China tried a series of Tokamaks such as HT-6B、HT-6M、MPTX、磁镜, however, they are obselote compared to Russian Tokamaks of the same period.



Shenguan (神光) Series

The SG series Inertial Confinement Fusion testing facility was founded in 1995 (interestingly the last Chinese nuclear test was 1996) With 3 test setups so far. SG I, SG II and SGIII. SGIV was supposedly under development with 48 beamlines, which would make it the same scale as the National Ignition Facility in the US.




http://www.lssf.cas.cn/sgIIzz/cmsm/200908/t20090826_2448336.html

The website also give a timeline of China's laser development, interestingly China isn't that much behind the cutting edge considering the conditions in Chinese during the 1960s.
第一台固体红宝石激光器1961年9月王之江等
First Chinese Ruby Laser 9.1961 (first laser in the world was 10.1960)
第一台He-Ne激光器 1963年7月邓锡铭等
First He-Ne Laser, 1963
第一台掺钕玻璃激光器 1963年6月干福熹等
First Neodymium glass laser 6.1963 (First Neodymium Glass laser in the world was 10.1961)
第一台GaAs同质结半导体激光器 1963年12月 王守武等
First Chinese GaAs Solid state laser 12.1963 (First GaAs state laser in world was in10.1962)
第一台脉冲Ar+激光器 1964年10月 万重怡等
First Ar+ Pulse Laser 1964
第一台CO2分子激光器 1965年9月王润文等
First CO2 Laser 1965 (First CO2 Laser in world was in 1964)
第一台CH3I化学激光器 1966年3月邓锡铭等
First Chinese CH3I Laser 1966
第一台YAG激光器 1966年7月屈乾华等
First Chinese YAG Laser 1966 (First YAG Laser in world was in 1964)

Compare with the cutting edge
http://www.photonics.com/Article.aspx?AID=42279

Stellarator

Lingyun 凌云



Built in the mid 1960s (yes, you read it right), it was a 800kJ unit the proved to China that Stellarator was a bad way go about fusion, at least in the 60s. Which was the state of the art at the time.

http://www.tdd.org.cn/upload/2009-8/2009082960963969.pdf
 

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Discussion Starter · #7 · (Edited)
Instrument that aids basic research

Scientific research doesn't (usually) come out of the blue, and often research large and complex instruments to discover and confirm result. (Unless you're Eiestein and you only the events of the cosmos such as Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919 to confirm your theory of general relativity)

Strong steady state magnetic field research

Being able to provide strong steady state magnetic field is corner stone in nuclear fusion, linear accelerator construction, cell and virus structure manipulation and basic physics research. Recently WM-5 test system achieved 350k Gauss in a 50mm water cooled system which was a world record.

http://lssf.cas.cn/wtqcc/
http://lssf.cas.cn/zycg/201404/t20140418_4093112.html
WM-5

Examples of research conducted using WM series
http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2014/mh/c3mh00091e#!divAbstract
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v493/n7430/full/nature11699.html

CSNS

China Spallation Neutron Source


The Neutron source will be used as a microscope at the atomic level that will aid China's effort in Physic, Chemistry, Biology and material science. Once this project is completed, expect huge leaps for China in those fields.


http://accelconf.web.cern.ch/accelconf/a07/PAPERS/WEZMA02.pdf
http://lssf.cas.cn/zxsp/201303/t20130314_3792803.html

SXFEL
Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser

This instrument will be used to research into dense plasma, microscopy and medical imaginary. While the laser itself can be research for both laser propulsion and use as weapons.

Some research results from this facility
http://journals.aps.org/prstab/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.14.090701
http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v6/n6/full/nphoton.2012.105.html

Hefei Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

Built in 1989 and continued to improve in its structure, the Synchrotron supported Chinese research into chemistry, physics and material science



Some of research results from this facility
http://www.natureasia.com/en/nchina/article/10.1038/nchina.2008.147
http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130429/srep01750/pdf/srep01750.pdf
http://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.137203
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22397593
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja904844c
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010218006002768


LAMOST
Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope


this Telescope aims to conduct 5-year spectroscopic survey of 10 million Milky Way stars and is unique in its use of active optics.

You can view raw data here
http://data.lamost.org/pdr/?locale=en

Some publications from this facility
http://iopscience.iop.org/2041-8205/785/2/L23
http://xxx.tau.ac.il/abs/1405.7105
http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.6314
http://iopscience.iop.org/1538-3881/145/6/169

FAST
Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope

three to ten times more sensitive than the Arecibo Observatory, enough said. Due in September 2016. In addition to detecting pulsars, it can also be used to contact aliens.



KARST

Essentially a array of FAST, but consist of 30 elements with 200 meter aperture each. Which will dawrf the Very Large Array in New Mexico.

HIRFL-CSR


Heavy Ion Accelerator that will advance China's development in Physics and material science. Details are in the presentation below.
http://ribll.impcas.ac.cn/conf/stori08/programme/pdf/xu.pdf
Some research done there
http://www.nature.com/cddis/journal/v4/n6/full/cddis2013227a.html
http://iopscience.iop.org/2041-8205/766/1/L8
http://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.162501

BEPCII
Beijing Electron–Positron Collider II


A small Collider at only 3.7 GeV (compare to 7 TeV expected for LHC), however it does contribute to our understanding of physics, chemistry and medicine.

Some research from this facility:
http://www.nature.com/news/quark-quartet-opens-fresh-vista-on-matter-1.13225
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/ipdf/10.1021/es502000d
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v508/n7495/full/nature13045.html
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/328/5975/240.figures-only
 

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Discussion Starter · #8 ·
Link to major Chinese R&D results in 2012

02 大亚湾反应堆中微子实验发现新的中微子振荡模式
04 北京谱仪III实验物理成果
09 北京同步辐射装置成果——高性能聚合物材料的合成及在场效应晶体管中的应用
12 基于兰州重离子加速器冷却储存环实验研究原子核同位旋对称性破缺发现新现象
14 合肥国家同步辐射实验室X射线吸收精细结构谱学线站取得重要研究成果——XAFS研究低维材料的生长机理和构效关系
21 EAST实现超过400秒的高参数偏滤器和长脉冲高约束等离子体放电,再创纪录
25 中国遥感卫星地面站成果——全国民用卫星地面接收站网格局形成,实现全部国土接收覆盖
31 上海光源成果——新型铁基硫族化合物超导体在高压下的相变特性
35 上海光源成果——疾病或植物重要生理过程相关的膜蛋白晶体结构研究
41 上海深紫外自由电子激光实验装置首次实现回声谐波型自由电子激光受激放大
43 稳态强磁场实验装置成果——钙离子通过改变磷脂的电荷属性调控T细胞受体活化
48 北京同步辐射装置用户成果
48 压力诱导镧基金属玻璃非晶多形态相变及电子结构的遗传研究
50 Mn基化合物金属-绝缘体高压相变研究取得进展
51 不含f电子的无序合金体系中发现非晶-非晶相转变现象
52 兰州重离子研究装置成果
52 电离辐射造成线粒体DNA损伤敏感区域的新机制
54 中能区40Ar弹核碎裂反应机制研究
55 合肥同步辐射装置用户成果
55 多铁性异质结的同步辐射高分辨X-ray衍射结构研究
57 EAST在H模边界输运垒区域观察到一种新的湍流与E×B流相互作用产生的振荡态
59 依托神光装置进行的强激光高能量密度物理研究新进展——在实验室中利用强激光模拟对日地磁场活动
62 上海光源用户成果
62 TALE蛋白的特异DNA序列识别机制
63 纳米毒理学研究进展——纳米二氧化铈的生物转化
64 TIEG1影响EGFR转录调控及其信号通路的研究
66 寒武纪早期磷足类(Phosphatocopina)甲壳动物的内部软组织结构
68 利用同步辐射医学影像优化脑血管病的动物模型及基因治疗促进脑缺血后的血管新生的临床前研究
70 应变调控SrTiO3/SrRuO3超晶格的结构相变和磁有序
72 生物质能脱硝催化剂的原位XRD研究
73 金属玻璃中非晶形成能力的原子尺度机理研究
74 受限核-壳纳米结构中铁活性中心对CO的低温催化性能研究
75 介孔孔道取向方向可以调控的介孔二氧化钛薄膜研究取得新进展
77 中国西南野生生物种质资源库成果
78 酰基高丝氨酸内酯介导的植物生理学新功能研究
79 高原两栖类群体演化历史揭示生物对晚新生代气候环境变化的响应
80 稳态强磁场实验装置成果
80 反钙钛矿结构化合物AlCMn3临界行为分析
81 NiBi3超导体单晶中表面引起的磁性涨落
83 V3O4纳米晶呈现出较高量子隧道磁化温度
84 组合显微实验测试系统(SMA)机器研究获得新进展
85 线粒体II型NADH脱氢酶的结构与功能研究
86 利用子午工程数据开展空间环境研究取得重要成果
87 磁暴期间电离层与等离子体层物质交换的耦合研究
87 利用子午工程科学数据对大地震后电离层扰动的研究
88 120°E流星雷达观测链MLT潮汐风场Mapping技术
89 子午工程激光雷达观测到北京双钠层现象

http://www.lssf.cas.cn/cghb/201308/P020130814383227434940.pdf
 

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Discussion Starter · #9 ·
Major Data collection efforts

Meridian Space Weather Monitoring Project
http://english.cssar.cas.cn/op/mp/

子午工程
http://lssf.cas.cn/zwgc/

A long and on going investigation of space weather involving sounding rockets. (sometimes very big ones)


National Crop Gene Bank
种质资源库

http://icgr.caas.net.cn/
http://lssf.cas.cn/zzzyk/
http://icgr.caas.net.cn/cgris_english.html

A central repository of all seeding information in China. Including GMO, natural and natural hybrids. This way the likes of Monsato can't patent traditional corp and then sue the farmers for it. Also this information can be use to develop new corps perform genetic research.
 

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Discussion Starter · #10 ·
http://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/biomedical/devices/chinese-superdupercollider


China Plans Enormous Particle Collider

By Alexander Hellemans

What comes after the Large Hadron Collider?

The main successor concept is the International Linear Collider (ILC), which would smash together electrons with a “center of mass energy” of up to one tera-electron volt. It is currently in an advanced state of discussion between scientists mainly from American, European, and Japanese particle physics institutes. The proposed machine would be a "Higgs factory", performing experiments with large numbers of Higgs bosons, allowing a better understanding of the still enigmatic particle.

But China may build it’s own successor system. Scientists there have reportedly completed the initial conceptual design for a much larger circular collider that would smash together protons and be housed in a tunnel twice the size of the LHC’s. Particles would ultimately collide with an energy of 100 TeV—seven times higher that the collisions that produced Higgs particles in the LHC. They hope to complete the conceptual design by the end of 2016.

The Super Proton-Proton Collider or SPPC would be an upgraded version of the LHC, and planners at China's Institute of High Energy Physics aim at a completion date in 2040. However, the 54-km long tunnel would be dug out starting in 2020 and would house, in a first step, a much less powerful machine, the Circular Electron-Positron Collider or CEPC, to be completed in 2025. The tunnel will later be upgraded to house the superconducting magnets of the 100 TeV SPPC.

Just like the ILC, the CEPC will investigate the Higgs particle and will therefore have to have a center of mass collision energy of 250 GeV. The choice of a circular machine instead of a linear one is somewhat problematic because electrons and positrons start radiating synchrotron radiation when steered into a circular path. "The synchrotron radiation goes with the fourth power of the energy, and there is a huge scaling loss," says Lyn Evans , director of the International Linear Collider Organisation. "They will be pushed to get to the next level, which will be the top quark, which needs 350 GeV in the center of mass, and that would be an exttreme limit for them," says Evans.

However, CEPC project director Xinchou Lou says the synchrotron losses will be manageable, because the tunnel will be so large that its magnets will have to pull very little on the electrons and positrons to steer them into a circle.

According to Evans the choice for a circular electron-positron collider could be justified because of the long term plans for the 100 TeV proton-proton collider:

They will build this machine, which will be fairly cheap and the technology is well known, and do the physics with [positrons] and [electrons], but in a second step they will use the same tunnel to make a proton-proton collider, and then you can go to very high energies. However, the technology will be difficult. You will need very high field superconducting magnets, and a lot more R&D.
Despite China’s big plans there’s a chance it will join the ILC project. "Scientifically, we have support from China, but politically this is another question,” says Evan. “Why would the Chinese government join in in a collaboration for a linear collider while at the same time building a circular machin? That is still a question.”

Asked the same question, CEPC’s Lou is more positive. " Yes, we plan to collaborate," he says. "The CEPC and the ILC are complementary to each other and together they can bring the measurement of the Higgs properties to an unprecedented precision.”



More info from official Chinese site

http://www.ihep.cas.cn/dkxzz/cepc/
 

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Xi'an aims to build national science center
Xi'an, home to the underground army of Terracotta Warriors, is now determined to sharpen its tech edge by constructing a national science center, Li Mingyuan, the city's mayor, said.

The capital of Shaanxi province hopes to construct a comprehensive center to drive innovation in China's northwestern region, promote technological and economic growth and better support the country's objective of high-quality development, said Li, who is also a deputy to the National People's Congress, the country's top legislature.

"The center-which aims to help solve major scientific problems and break bottlenecks in cutting-edge technologies-will play an important role in improving China's global competitiveness in the sci-tech sector," he said.

The 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-20) for the construction of major national science and technology infrastructure, which was released by the National Development and Reform Commission in 2017, called for the building of several comprehensive national science centers by 2020 in areas that have clusters of key science and technology infrastructure.

Such centers have been approved in Beijing's Huairou district, as well as in Hefei, Anhui province, Shanghai's Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, and in Shenzhen, Guangdong province.

There is no plan for one in Northwest China as yet.

Xi'an, with its advantages in sci-tech talent, key laboratories, scientific institutes and advanced industries, such as electronic information, high-end equipment manufacturing, biomedicine and new energy, and its role as a major city in the Northwest, is prepared to put scientific development in the region into the fast lane, Li said.

Last year, the city's GDP reached over 1 trillion yuan ($154 billion) for the first time, official statistics showed. The number of new high-tech companies reached 1,500 last year, with the output value of high-tech industry surging 23.4 percent.

With advantages in scientific research strength, industry foundations and large-scale scientific facilities, "Xi'an shows great potential," Li said.

For instance, the National Time Service Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, established in 1966 in Xi'an, is the only professional research institute in China that specializes in fundamental research and applications in the fields of time and frequency.

It generates, maintains and transmits the national standard for Beijing time and has the only platform for experiments in space-ground integrated satellite navigation and time service in China, according to its website.

Also, construction of the National Translational Science Center for Molecular Medicine, with an area of about 4 hectares, began in Xi'an last year, aiming to lead the nation in research on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of tumors and cardiovascular disease.

The city is also developing a new pilot zone for artificial intelligence, as well as China's first "hard technology" demonstration area, Li said.

"Hard technology" means core technologies that require long-term research and development, including optoelectronic chips, aerospace technology, biotechnology, information technology, new materials and smart manufacturing.

"Xi'an will prioritize such bottleneck core technologies, striving to serve as a 'national team' for scientific innovation," Li said.

The city has 83 colleges with about 1.3 million undergraduate students, 60 academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences or Chinese Academy of Engineering, 23 national key laboratories and about 460 scientific research institutions.

Xi'an Jiaotong University and Northwestern Polytechnical University, with advantages in the fields of mechanical engineering, materials science, power engineering, astronautics and marine technology, train many young engineers every year.

The national university science and technology parks of the two universities and the Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone have been approved by the State Council, China's Cabinet, as demonstration bases for innovation and entrepreneurship.

Xi'an's integrated circuit industry is listed as a key national industry, and its aviation industry was one of the country's first advanced manufacturing industries. Its electronic information, automotive and aerospace industries each have annual output valued at more than 100 billion yuan.

"As technological innovation is an important driving force for high-quality development, we suggest building a national science center in Xi'an to attract more major sci-tech programs to the city, build more national industrial innovation centers and expand support for universities and scientific institutions in western areas," Li said.

"It will help improve the innovation-driven development capabilities of Xi'an and the whole northwestern region, serving the high-quality development goals of the country."

Xi'an aims to build national science center
 
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