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Cleveland was incorporated in 1814 and saw its first big growth in 1832 with the completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal, which connected Lake Erie with the Ohio River. Cleveland continued to thrive as a port city in the 1800s with iron ore being shipped from Minnesota and coal being transported by rail from the Ohio River Valley. In 1870, Standard Oil was founded in Cleveland, and at the turn of the 20th century, several automibile companies were located in the city.

Cleveland was originally centered around Public Square, a central plaza that was planned for the city by the Connecticut Land Company. Later, in 1903, a civic center was planned as part of the City Beautiful movement to redevelop and rehabilitate a run-down area of the city and make it a center of activity. The plan was implemented over the next three decades as civic buildings were constructed around a large mall. Today, growth is occurring along the lakefront. Buildings like the Great Lakes Science Center and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame were built on land that had been used in the mid-1930s for the Great Lakes Exposition. Redevelopment of the waterfront will continue with plans for parks and other people-friendly uses on abandoned land.


Cleveland's three tallest buildings from Hope Memorial Bridge.



The 1932 bridge carries Carnegie Avenue over the Cuyahoga River.



Progressive Field, from Carnegie Avenue. The ballpark opened in 1994 as Jacobs Field, and is the home of Major League Baseball's Cleveland Indians.



Quicken Loans Arena, from Huron Road. The arena was built in 1994 to replace Gund Arena. Quicken Loans Arena is the home of the NBA's Cleveland Cavaliers and other tenants.



The Utica Building, on 9th Street.



The Caxton Building, on Huron Road. The structure was built in 1903 and originally housed a printing company.



The old Higbee's department store, at 9th Street & Prospect Avenue. Higbee's moved here in 1929 when the structure was built. Dillard's moved into the building in 1992 and remained open until 2002. Higbee's was used for several segments of the 1983 film "A Christmas Story", including the parade and window display scene, and the department store Santa scene.



The Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, on 6th Street at Superior Avenue. The building is the headquarters for the Federal Reserve System's Fourth District, and was completed in 1923.



St. John the Evangelist Cathedral, on 9th Street at Superior Avenue. The cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cleveland, which was established in 1847. The church was built in 1852.



The Charter One building, on 12th Street.



Erieview Tower, on 12th Street at St. Clair Avenue. The 529-foot tall highrise was completed in 1964 and was one of the only structures built as part of the Erieview urban renewal project of the 1960s. The land from the Erieview project, east of the Erieview Tower, is now being developed as the Avenue District neighborhood.



The Leader Building, on Superior Avenue. The highrise was built for the Cleveland Leader newspaper in 1912.



The Board of Education Administration Building, on 6th Street. The structure was built in 1931 and the home of the Cleveland Metropolitan School District.



The East Ohio Gas Company Building, on 6th Street. The headquarters was built in 1916.



The old Cleveland Trust Company, at 9th Street & Euclid Avenue. The Cleveland Trust Rotunda was built in 1908, and is now surrounded by Ameritrust's old building, which took over the site.



The Cuyahoga County Courthouse, on Lakeside Avenue. The courthouse was built in 1912.



Cleveland City Hall, on Lakeside Avenue. City hall was built in 1916.



The Cleveland Mall, with the Cleveland Public Library on the left, 200 Public Square in the middle, and the Howard M. Metzenbaum Courthouse on the right. The Cleveland Mall was the city's plan during the City Beautiful Movement. The large mall, divided into three parts, would be surrounded by civic buildings. The centerpiece was to be a large terminal building that would sit at the north end of the mall on the Lake Erie shoreline. The skyscraper was never built as planned, with the highrise eventually being built at Public Sqaure, but the mall is considered one of the more complete plans carried out during the City Beautiful Movement.



Memorial Plaza, in the Cleveland Mall. Fountain of Eternal Life, dedicated in 1964 to citizens of the city that served in World War II, is in the foreground.



The Public Auditorium, on St. Clair Avenue. The auditorium was built in 1922 and has seen use as a convention center and concert hall.



The Howard M. Metzenbaum U.S. Courthouse, on Superior Avenue. The structure was built in 1910 as one of the civic buildings on the Mall, and functioned as the post office, customs house, and U.S. courthouse.



The Howard M. Metzenbaum Courthouse, from Rockwell Avenue.



The Cleveland Public Library, on Superior Avenue. The library was founded in 1869 and was built in 1925.



The Key Tower, on St. Clair Avenue. The skyscraper was completed in 1991 and is 948 feet tall.



Key Tower was the tallest building between New York City and Chicago when completed, and is currently the 18th tallest building in the United States.



The Cuyahoga County Soldiers' & Sailors' Monument, in Public Square. The Goddess of Liberty stands atop of the monument.



The monument is 125 feet tall and is dedicated in 1894 to veterans of the Civil War.



The Goddess of Liberty looks towards Lake Erie, with the Key Tower rising to the sky.



The Tom L. Johnson statue, in Public Square. The statue was dedicated in 1915. Tom Johnson was mayor of Cleveland from 1901 to 1909, and also served as a U.S. Representative for Ohio.



The Old Stone Church, on Public Square at Ontario Street. The church was originally known as First Presbyterian Church, and was built in 1855. An 1884 fire destroyed all of the church except the exterior walls, which were re-used. Because of the use of stone as a building material, it was called "the stone church" informally. As other stone churches were built, its nickname became "the old stone church". 75 Public Square, built in 1915, is on the left.



The Society For Savings Building, on Public Square at Ontario Street. The structure is 152 feet tall and was completed in 1890. At the corner of the building is an arc lamp dating from 1890, one of the last remnants of the first use of electric street lamps in the world.



The Society for Savings Building is considered the first modern skyscraper in Ohio.



The Terminal Tower, on Public Square. The skyscraper was completed in 1930.



At 708 feet tall, Terminal Tower was the tallest building in the world outside of New York City from 1930 to 1953.



The Terminal Tower is now part of the Tower City Center mixed use development.



200 Public Square, at Public Square between Superior Avenue and Euclid Avenue. The skyscraper is 658 feet tall and was completed in 1985.



The May Company Building, on Euclid Avenue. The department store was built in 1914 and was the main department store for the May Company.



The Cleveland Arcade, on Euclid Avenue.



The Arcade was built in 1890 and was modeled after the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, Italy.



The Cleveland Arcade is considered to be the first indoor shopping mall in the United States.



The Arcade is now a Hyatt Regency hotel, with the atrium's top three floors and the two buildings that flank it making up the hotel space.



The House of Blues, on Euclid Avenue. The venue was opened in 2004 in an old Woolworth's store dating from the 1950s.



An old house on 3rd Street.



The Courthouse Square building, at 3rd Street & Lakeside Avenue.



Cleveland Browns Stadium, on Alfred Lerner Way at Cleveland's lakefront. The stadium was built in 1999 and is the home of the reactivated cleveland Browns franchise in the NFL.



The NASA Glenn Visitor Center, in the Great Lakes Science Center on Erieside Avenue at the North Coast Harbor area. The museum opened in 1996. The Glenn Visitor Center moved to the Science Center in early 2010 from their NASA research center near Cleveland Hopkins International Airport.



The Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, on Erieside Avenue on the lakefront. The hall of fme opened in 1995. Cleveland is recognized as the birthplace of rock & roll due to WJW disc jockey Alan Freed using the term to describe the music that he played on his show, "Moon Dog House Rock and Roll Party". Freed also organized the Moondog Coronation Ball to showcase the music, making it the first rock concert.

 

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Your pictures turned out great, Matt, too bad you didn't get to really "experience" downtown Cleveland, that Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is something else. Downtown Cleveland has really turned a corner over the last ten years, but I can't say the same about the rest of the city.

I can't believe in my photo collection, I didn't get a picture of the Federal Reserve Building. I completely forgot. Oh well, I'll be back in Cleveland someday, I'll get it then.

I really like your first two shots there. Looks like it was a humid day there. ;)
 

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The Federal Reserve Bank is a great building. Little known fact: look at the steps leading to the main entrance. Notice the glass bricks in the risers. These were for observation and were designed to come out. The holes are, in fact, machine gun ports, intended for the defense of the building and its vault from riots and civil insurrection.

The Rockefeller Building on West Superior is also a gem.
 

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Thanks for the detailed tour! Terminal Tower is one of my favorite developments anywhere. The three arcade buildings on Euclid are also gems.
When we were in Cleveland a few years ago, we had a great breakfast at a little cafe in one of the smaller arcades.

Anybody know what has become of the May Co and Higbees department store spaces??
 

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Thanks for the detailed tour! Terminal Tower is one of my favorite developments anywhere. The three arcade buildings on Euclid are also gems.
When we were in Cleveland a few years ago, we had a great breakfast at a little cafe in one of the smaller arcades.

Anybody know what has become of the May Co and Higbees department store spaces??
Higbees is being converted into a casino by Cleveland Cavs/Quicken loans owner Dan Gilbert
 

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Thanks for the set! I absolutely love the skyline of my new city! I live in Detriot-Shoreway right at Gordon Sq and take the Shoreway to work each day - I LOVE looking at the skyline every morning.

Terminal Tower is absolutely STUNNING
 

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Great photo tour and equally great information with your pictures. Thanks!

Erieview Tower is really similar to the US Bank building in Milwaukee. If it was white, they'd practically be twins.

Time to wash the Cleveland Trust Company building. That thing is terribly dirty!

Douglas, that's a pretty wild fact!
 

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Anybody know what has become of the May Co ...??
The May Co. is one of several older buildings which are being converted into condominiums. Downtown condos and rental apartments are in huge demand lately. At the rate the downtown population is growing, the residents will soon demand that one of the former department stores be converted back into a department store.

Time to wash the Cleveland Trust Company building. That thing is terribly dirty!
The old bank building is being preserved (and presumably washed) and will be converted into a what will certainly be a very splendid looking supermarket to serve the growing number of downtown residents. The adjacent 30-story bank tower (designed by Marcel Breuer) and another lower rise building which surround the old bank are being converted into a hotel and condominiums.
 

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Thanks for the photos.
Cleveland certainly has a "husky" feel to it.
And the tallest buildings downtown are very unique from each other.

Is winter weather hard in Cleveland?
Is the city/metro growing, holding it's own?
 
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