Constanța, Black Sea's largest port
With a population of 254,693 in 2011, is the fourth largest city in Romania.
Constanța is a city with 2600 years of history, founded around 600 BCE by Greeks from Miletus (now in Turkey). Is Romania's oldest continuolusly inhabited city.
In Antiquity, under the name Tomis, was for many centuries the largest and most important city in Mynor Scythia, or today Dobruja (the province between Danube and Black Sea).
It was here where Ovid, one of most celebrated poets in Roman empire, was exiled by emperor Augustus between year 8 and his death in 17 CE. At Tomis, Ovid wrote two of his poem collections, Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto in which he describes his sadness and the harsh life at this place which at that time was "at the end of the world".
Sometimes in 4th century Tomis was renamed Constantiana, in honour of Constantia, the half-sister of Constantine the Great (274-337).
Like Dobruja, Tomis / Constanța had a troubled and complex history. It was ruled by Greeks between ~600 BCE and 430 BCE, Odrysians (a Thracian kingdom in what is today Bulgaria) between 430 and 339 BCE, Scythians for a period in 4th century BCE, Macedonians between 339 and 100 BCE, Pontians (a kingdom in today Northern Turkey) between 100 and 55 BCE, Getae (or Dacians, ancient inhabitants of today Romania) between 55 and 44, Romans between 44 BCE and 330 CE, Roman-Byzantine Empire between 330-7th century and in 971-1187, First and Second Bulgar Empire between 7th-9th centuries and 12-13th centuries, Kievan Russians between 968-971, a local ruler, Dobrotici (who gave the present name of the province) in 14th century, Wallachians between 1388-1397 and 1404-1420. From 1420 to 1878 was under Ottoman Empire and from 1878 is part of Romania.
Constan'a is one of Romania's main industrial centers. Its port is the biggest at Black Sea (of any country) and one of the biggest in Europe. During the first half of 2008, some 3,144 new companies were established in Constanța and its neghbouring localities, a number surpassed only in Bucharest and Cluj County.
With many vestiges from Antiquity and a mix of Romanian, Turkish, Tatar, Aromanian, Greek and many other ethnicities and cultures, Constanța is one of Romania's most interesting and attractive cities. Mamaia, continuing Constanța at its northern limit, is Romania's largest and most popular resort, visited annually by hundreds of thousands of tourists.
Panoramas by Răzvan Isme
Click on images to enlarge