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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
I opened this thread, because I want to have a thread with old places and buildings, architecture of Roman and Byzantine Empire which is not so well-known. It includes also the byzantine medieval churches, buildings because the Byzantine Empire considered itself as a legal succesor of Roman Empire even if, it becomes during time something else. There are many byzantine churches in the today's catholic part of Roman Empire, as Italy for exemple from late antiquity, or Croatia, a place at contact between catholic and byzantine world. I consider that it's fascinating to find pieces of byzantine culture among very well-known catholic heritage which comes from a world which wasn't separated at that time. So, this is my intention, to post picture with less-known places from Mediterranean basin, Italy, Africa, the Balkans, even Asia, everywhere it can be found something important from Roman and Byzantine empires. Of course Greek Orthodox churches, and old heritage of Ancient Greece can be also post here, because it's actually the same world.
 

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I'll post some from my other threads.

Hagioi Apostoloi, (Apostle Saints), Ancient Agora-Athens

Area: Athens, Ancient Agora
Type: Cross-in-Square-Tetraconch
Date: 1000 A.D.




http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/06_DELTIA/file7.aspx
Description:

The church is situated in the Ancient Agora of Athens. It is a cross-in-square church with certain elements that distinguish it from a typical cross-in-square plan. The simple, four-columned, cross-shaped center is covered with a dome. The four cross-arms end in semicircular conches. Between them are interposed four smaller ones, which constitute the corners of the square that inscribes the cross. The unknown architect combined elements of a central plan building, a tetraconch and a cross-in-square one.




In fact, the church plan is a unique combination of a circular building and a cross-in-square naos. The monument, in terms of architecture, could be considered as an experimental “application” of the early Christian octagon to the aesthetic vocabulary of the middle Byzantine period. This circular design conveys a strong impression of unity in the interior. In the ordinary cross-in-square Byzantine church this is only restricted to the lower level of the building: the usually low roofs of the corner-base as well as the small dome of the cross-in-square plan break the unity of the interior, destroying the up-lifting effect of the architecture.



The masonry of the church is cloisonné.

The monument is decorated with cufic ornaments and dentil courses. It is dated to the end of the 10th century. The church is not mentioned in any historical medieval sources.




(Part of the interior, photos are actually not allowed and is usually closed too. The corinthian column capitals are probably reused ancient ones from the nearby area)

http://www.flickr.com/photos/cameliatwu/3898059377/sizes/z/in/set-72157622133910155/


http://www.flickr.com/photos/cameliatwu/3898838382/sizes/z/in/set-72157622133910155/
 

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Generally this sub category of Byzantine dome is called Athenian.

Hagioi Asomatoi, Thisseion (Incorporeal Saints)

Area: Athens, Theission
Type: Cross-in-Square
Date: 2nd half of the 11th century




Description:

The church is situated northwest of the Theission, in Ermou Street and in the homonymous square. It is a cross-in-square church with an Athenian dome.



(The dome of the Athenian Type and the decorative naked masonry is going to be a requiring theme.)



Unfortunately, the church has has suffered centuries of decay and subsequent repairs, especially the interior. It is dated around the middle of the 11th century.

 

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The selection is random, but I had the posts ready, so.

HagioiTheodoroi

Area: Klauthmonos Sq., Athens
Type: Cross-in-Square
Date: 1049 or 1065 A.D.




http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/06_DELTIA/file9.aspx

Description:




The church is near Klathmonos Square, in Evripidou and Skuleniou Street, in the center of Athens. It is an eminent Byzantine monument of Greece dated to the middle of the 11th century.



It is a simple, distyle, cross-in-square church. The historical evidence on the church is a founder’s inscription walled above its entrance in the west.




The foundation date is mentioned in the inscription, 1049 or 1065 – specialists disagree on the reading of the date. Nikolaos Kalomalos, spatharocandidatus (Byzantine official), is its founder.
The monument is characterized by heavy proportions and massive three-sided apses. In general, it has ancient features since it was built on an older church, which must have influenced the present one.
Its masonry is cloisonné. The bell-tower is posterior and fragments from the marble screen of the church were incorporated into it.
The frescoes are much more recent (20th century) and they have been painted by Athanasius Kandris.

 

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Nikolaos, Hagios, (Rangavas)

Area: Plaka, Athens
Type: Cross-in-Square
Date: 1st half of the 11th century




Description:

http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/06_DELTIA/file12.aspx

The church is situated in Stravon Street in Plaka and, as indicated by its name, it must have belonged to the aristocratic Rangava family. It is a simple, four-columned, cross-in-square church dated to the first half of the 11th century. It has been damaged, especially during the 19th century, but it was restored – at least in its largest part – in the end of the 70’s.

The neoclassical extension was added in the 19th century.
The church has even a web page
http://www.ragkavas.gr/el

 

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Another speciment from Athens, already posted.
Soteira Lykodemou, Athens

Area: Philellinon St.
Type: Octagon
Date: Between 1015-1031 A.D.


http://www.panoramio.com/photo/82326956


Description:
http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/06_DELTIA/file10.aspx
The church is a domed octagon. It is best known as Russian church, since it was bought by the Russian community of Athens in the 19th century. An inscription places it around 1031.



It is situated in Filellinon Street. No wall paintings are preserved, while the more recent ones are painted by Loudovikos Thirsios (1847).
The high bell-tower was added at the time the Russian community obtained it for its religious needs.



(It is the largest surviving building from the Middle Ages in Athens. It does not have the Athenian type dome, but rather a more typical polygonal Byzantine, perhaps due to the larger area it has to cover.
It suffered some damage from an earthquake in 1701. During the 19th century, apart from the new wall paintings, a new templon was also made. The bell tower was finally added in 1855, copying the style of the building)

 

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Discussion Starter · #16 ·

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Discussion Starter · #17 ·

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Another gem is the small church next to the cathedral in Athens. Dates from the late 12th century and is constructed completely out of recycled ancient marble architectural members.

Panagia Gorgoepikoos

Area: Mitropoleos Sq
Type: Cross-in-Square
Date: end of the 12th century, possibly around 1182-1204


https://www.flickr.com/photos/alandmarie/8725003560/sizes/l/


http://www.eie.gr/archaeologia/gr/06_DELTIA/file11.aspx

Description:

The church is also known as Hagios Eleutherios or the Small Metropolis.
It is situated next to the southern side of the Cathedral of Athens, in Mitropoleos Square. It is a cross-in-square church.
The monument incorporates in a unique way 90 sculptures of different eras in its external walls.



It resembles an open-air exhibition of sculptures, which are dated to the Classical, Roman and early Christian centuries, but also from the middle Byzantine period.
M. Chatzidakis associated the church with the bishop of Athens, Michael Choniates.




https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3921888473/sizes/l


https://www.flickr.com/photos/alandmarie/8723891529/sizes/c/


https://www.flickr.com/photos/caenwyn/6070010686/sizes/l
 

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I'll put 2 more small churches to change the page

Hagioi Pantes,

Area: Tsocha St, Ampelokipoi - Athens
Type: Cross-in-Square
Date: Unknown, but before the 12th century




Description:

It is the small, elegant church situated in Tsocha Street in Ampelokipoi.
It is a cross-in-square church, which is mentioned as the Monastery of the Confessors in the historical sources - more specifically in Michael Choniates’ epistles.
 

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