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*| Dutch colonial architecture ‎around the world.

528548 Views 721 Replies 80 Participants Last post by  Nemo - The Dutch colonial empire 1598-1975.

Light green:
Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) / Dutch East India Company
Dark green: Vereenigde Westindische Compagnie (WIC) / Dutch West India Company
Orange: Handelsposten, factorijen en forten / Trading posts or 'factories' and forts


In 1935, the Dutch colonial empire was stripped of it's former colonies South-Africa, Ceylon, Goldcoast and Guyana, but the Dutch East Indies + Suriname + the 6 Netherlands Antilles islands still comprised an area of 2.080.000 sq/km and with a total population of 69 million (1942: well over 80 million) it was after the British and French, the third most populous colonial empire in the world.

It all started in the 16th century with trading companies, that slowly transformed into political actors in the local powerplay exerting more and more territorial claims. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) eclipsed all of its rivals in the Asia trade. Between 1602 and 1796 the VOC sent almost a million Europeans to work in the Asia trade on 4,785 ships, and netted for their efforts more than 2.5 million tons of Asian trade goods. By contrast, the rest of Europe combined sent only 882,412 people from 1500 to 1795, and the fleet of the English (later British) East India Company, the VOC’s nearest competitor, was a distant second to its total traffic with 2,690 ships and a mere one-fifth the tonnage of goods carried by the VOC. The VOC enjoyed huge profits from its spice monopoly through most of the 17th century. During the 18th century, the power of the Dutch Republic and the VOC. declined and in the end the English clearly dominated the seas. From the 1800's the Kingdom of the Netherlands became hardly a 2nd rate European power, but grew into a first rate power in Asia. Curiously the Dutch today hardly ever speak about an empire, but statistics show otherwise. There's hardly a coast in the world that was left unmapped by Dutch cartographers or unvisited by Dutch ships and all over the globe traces can be found of short or longterm encounters with the Dutch.

However, this empire, like all others in history, was built at a human cost and this story is never complete without mentioning institutionalised slavery, racism and exploitation of people and their lands, which characterises colonialism. It's effects can be traced in many aspects of life in both the former colonized countries and the former colonizing country. This thread is focused on architecture and buildings as the most visible monuments of a system that has formally vanished but still today has a lasting effect on peoples lives. The material remnants often reflect the complex hybridity of the colonial context and in some instances they even form national symbols of present day bureaucracies.

Though most of the buildings were designed by Dutch architects and dictated by Western architectural styles, even the most ardent style-purists among architects could not escape the forces of context and culture. And like in colonial India, in colonial Indonesia plenty of buildings were built, designed or commisioned by Indonesians or the ethnic Chinese and Arabs. And while Dutch architects were strongly influenced by Indonesian culture, so too were Indonesian architects, contractors and clients influenced by Western architecture. Colonial architecture often is a result of climatological adaptions or the use of local building materials - and more importantly, the rich and diverse cultural contexts. In this hybridity lies the quality of these buildings. Architecture shows that the strict racial taxonomy of a colonial system could not be maintained.

Duration of the most important former overseas territories:
  • Dutch East Indies/Indonesia - (1598-1948) 350 years - (1942: area. 1.919.440 km² - population of 72 million) * Dutch New-Guinea (till 1969).
  • Suriname - (1600-1975) 375 years - (1975: area. 163,821 km2 - population of 361.000)
  • Coldcoast/Ghana - (1637-1872) 235 years
  • Ceylon/SriLanka - (1600-1805) 205 years
  • Guyana - (1600-1814) 214 years
  • Malacca/Malaysia - (1641-1824) 183 years
  • Kaapkolonie/South Africa - (1652-1805) 153 years - (1800: area. 145.000 km² - population of 18.000)
  • Mauritius - (1638-1710) 72 years
  • New Netherlands/New York (USA) - (1626-1667) 41 years
  • Dutch Formosa/Taiwan - (1624-1662) 38 years
  • Dutch Brazil - (1624-1654) 30 years
  • Japan (Hirado/Nagasaki) - (1641-1857) 216 years - trade monopoly

Important cities founded by the Dutch:
  • New Amsterdam/New York City (1614) - 8,5 million inh. (2019)
  • Batavia/Jakarta (1619) - 10.7 million inh. (2019)
  • Kaapstad/Cape Town (1652) - 4 million inh. (2018)
  • Mauritsstad/Recife (1630) - 1.6 million inh. (2019)
  • Willemstad (1634) - 140.000 inh. (2020)

Dutch explorers chronologically (1580-1750)
  • Olivier Brunel - 1584?: attempt to sail to Asia via a Northern Route. Earlier, in service of the Russian Stroganov's, Brunel reached the river Ob.
  • Willem Barentsz - 1594: Sails along the western coast of Nova Zembla (and gave the island its name).
  • Cornelis Nay - 1594: sails along Nova Zembla into the Kara Sea.
  • Willem Barentsz - 1595: Failed attempt to sail beyond Nova Zembla.
  • Cornelis Houtman - 1596-1597: first Dutch voyage to the East Indies.
  • Willem Barentsz - 1596-1597: discovers Spitsbergen/Svalbard and Bear island/Bjørnøya. Rounds Nova Zembla, crew stranded and forced to spend winter in a wooden house.
  • Jacques Mahu - 1598-1600: attempt to reach the East Indies via the Strait of Magellan. One of his ships land in Japan.
  • Olivier van Noort - 1598-1601: sails through the Strait of Magellan and around the world.
  • Pieter de Marees - 1600-1602: leads an expedition to the Goldcoast of African Guinea.
  • Joris van Spilbergen - 1602: first Dutch captain to visit Ceylon and sails around the world in 1614-1617.
  • Willem Jansz - 1605-1606: sails along the southcoast of New-Guinea and discovers New Holland/Australia.
  • Henry Hudson (Englishman in service of the Dutch EIC) - 1609: discovers the river Hudson and sails it up to Fort Oranje (Albany).
  • Abraham Blauvelt - (16??): city of Bluefields and Bluefield river (Nicaragua), Blewfields Bay (Jamaica).
  • Hendrik Brouwer - 1611: discovers a faster route to the East Indies via the southern part of the Indian Ocean.
  • Adriaen Block - 1613-1614: sails along the coast of New England and discovers the Connecticut river or "Versche rivier". Named Block island near Rhode (Dutch: Rode) island.
  • Jan Jacobsz. May van Schellinkhout - 1614: Discovers and names the island of Jan Mayen.
  • Dirck Hartog - 1616: lands on the shores of the western coast of New-Holland/Australia.
  • Jacob Le Maire and Willem Cornelisz Schouten - 1615-1617: named kaap Hoorn (Cape Horn), Vuurland (Tierra del Fuego), Staten eiland (Isla de los Estados) and the Le Maire Strait was named in his honor. Searching for a new route to the East Indies. Discovered the Tonga islands the Hoorn islands/Wallis&Fortuna and the Schouten islands.
  • Jan Carstensz - 1623: sails along the south coast of New Guinea and New Holland/Australia. Named Gulf of Carpentaria and discovers Arnhemland.
  • François Thijssen - 1626-1627: explored the southern coast of New Holland/Australia, mapping more than 1500 kilometres.
  • François Pelsaert - 1628-1629: famous as the commander of the ship Batavia, which ran aground in the Houtman Abrolhos off the coast of Western Australia.
  • Matthijs Quast - 1639: discovers the Bonin Islands and mapped the coasts of Japan in more detail than before.
  • Abel Janszoon Tasman - 1642-1643: discovers Tasmania, New-Zealand, the Fiji islands and visits the Tonga islands.
  • Maarten Gerritsz. de Vries - 1643: first European to sail on Hokkaido, the island of Sakhalin and the southern Kurilles (Staten island, Company island, De Vries Strait).
  • Abel Janszoon Tasman - 1644: reconnaisance of the northcoast of New Holland/Australia.
  • Abraham Cabeliau - 1560-1645: maps Venezuela, the three Guyana's and parts of Brazil.
  • Hendrick Hamel - 1653-1666: shipwrecked on Quelpaert eiland (Cheju-do), captured, after thirteen years, Hamel he managed to escape to Japan.
  • Simon van der Stel - 1685: leads an expedition going north from Cape of Good Hope.
  • Willem de Vlamingh - 1696-1697: explored the southwest coast of New Holland/Australia.
  • Jacob Weyland - 1705: reconnaissance of the nothern coasts of New-Guinea.
  • Jacob Roggeveen - 1721-1724: sails the Pacific in search of Terra Australis and discovers the Samoa islands and Paaseiland/Easter Island.
  • Samuel van der Putte - 1721-1745: travels over land to India, Tibet and China.

Geographical remains
  • New Zealand
  • Tasmania
  • Mauritius
  • Ile Amsterdam
  • Kaap Hoorn/Cape Horn
  • Paaseiland/Easter island (Chile)
  • Barentsz Sea
  • Tasman Sea
  • Delft island (Ceylon)
  • Tortola (Brit. Virgin Islands)
  • Goree (Goeree) island (Senegal)
  • Oranje river (South-Africa)
  • Robben island (South-Africa)
  • Mossel Bay (South-Africa)
  • Drakensbergen (South-Africa)
  • Van Diemen Strait (Japan)
  • Îles de Horne/Hoornse eilanden, Wallis/Fortuna (Pacific)
  • Cape Maria van Diemen (New Zealand)
  • Groote Eylant (Australia)
  • Arnhem land (Australia)
  • Cape Duyfken (Australia)
  • Van Diemen Sea (Australia)
  • Houtman rocks (Australia)
  • Cape Leeuwin (Australia) Wiki: Australian places with Dutch names list
  • Van Rees mountains (New-Guinea)
  • Schouten islands (New-Guinea)
  • Vogelkop/Cendrawaish mountain (New-Guinea)
  • Kaap Vals/Tanjung Vals (New-Guinea)
  • Muller/Schwaner mountains (Borneo)
  • New Amsterdam (Guyana)
  • Jost van **** island (British Virgin Islands)
  • Wilhelmina mountains (Suriname)
  • Juliana Top mountain (Suriname)
  • Van Asch-van Wijk mountains (Suriname)
  • Oranje mountains (Suriname)
  • Jan Mayen (Norway)
  • Bear island (Norway)
  • Spitsbergen/Svalbard (Norway)
  • Barentsburg - (Spitsbergen/Svalbard - Norway)
  • Verlegenhuken - (Spitsbergen/Svalbard - Norway)
  • Heerland - (Spitsbergen/Svalbard - Norway)
  • Ny Frislant (Spitsbergen/Svalbard - Norway)
  • Hinlopenstretet - (Spitsbergen/Svalbard - Norway)
  • City of Bluefields and Bluefield river (Nicaragua)
  • Blewfields Bay (Jamaica)
  • Vuurland/Terra del Fuego (Argentina)
  • Staten eiland/Isla de Los Estdos (Argentina)
  • Le Maire Strait (Argentina)
  • Bahia Nassau (Chile)
  • Isla Barnevelt (Chile)
  • Wall Street/Wal of Waalstraat (New York City)
  • Kromme Zee/Gramercy (New York City)
  • Breukelen/Brooklyn (New York City)
  • Vlissingen/Flushing (New York City)
  • Haarlem/Harlem (New YorkCity )
  • Nieuw Utrecht/New Utrecht (New York City)
  • Lange Eylant/Long Island (New York City)
  • Adriaen Blocks Eylant/Block Island (New York)
  • 't Greenwyck/'t Greenwijck - Greenwich (NY State)
  • Gravesant/Gravesend (NY State)
  • Boswyck/Bushwick (NY State)
  • Haverstroo/Haverstraw (NY State)
  • Heemstede/Hempstead (NY State)
  • Rood Eylant - Rhode Island
  • Schuylkill river - (Philadelphia) Wiki: Toponymy of the New Netherlands list
NB: And the non-geographical but famous words: 'Yankee' derived from Jan-Kees and 'apartheid'​ - Episode in the Anglo Dutch wars - The Four Days Battle.

Also read about: The Raid on Chatham: Great Britain's Pearl Harbour

List of colonies, factories and forts

(Dutch West India Co. operating area)

  • Jemseq - Nieuw-Brunswijk (Aug. 1674 - Sep. 1674)
  • Dutch Arcadia

United States of America
Nieuw-Nederland/New Netherlands
* Capital: Nieuw-Amsterdam/New York City (1626-1664/1665-1667)
New York State:
* Fort Nassau (Castle Island)​
* Fort Nassau and Fort Oranje (present day Albany) (1615-1661/1673-1674)​
* Beverswijck, Beverwijck (Albany): Fort Beverwijck​
* Nieuw Amsterdam, Manhattos (New York): Fort Amsterdam​
* Rensselaerswijck (Rensselaer)​
* Colen Donck, Donck's heer land, Djoncksheerland/The Yonkers​
* Nieuw-Utrecht​
* Staten eiland/Staten island​
* Hastings, Newtown, Misput, Middelburg (Maspeth)​
* Wiltwyck, Sopus, Esopus (Kingston)​
* Rustdorp/Jamaica​
* Heemstede/Hempstead​
* Muscoota, Haarlem, Nieuw Haarlem/Harlem​
* Gravesand/Gravesend​
* Oostdorp, Westchester, Vreedland/Freedland​
* Vlissingen/Flushing​
* Nieuw-Amersfoort/Flatlands​
* Midwout/Flatbush​
* Boswijck/Bushwick​
* Breukelen/Brooklyn​
* Nieuw Dorp/Hurley​
* Fort Beversreede (Philadelpia)​
* Fort Nya Korsholm​
* Fort Goede Hoop (Hartford): Fort Goede Hoop, Fort Huis ter Hope​
* Prinseneiland, Moordenaarseiland (Murderer's Island, Prince's Island): Fort Wilhelmus.​
* Altona, Altena (Wilmington): Fort Christina, Fort Altena.​
* Blommaerts Kil, Horekil, Whorekill, Hoerenkill: Compagniesfort, Compagniesfort Whorekill.​
* Swaenendael/Lewes​
* Pentagouet: 1674 - Sep. 1674.​
New Jersey:
* Fort Nassau (Gloucester)​
* Pavonia, Hoboken, Pavonia, Bergen (Jersey City)​
* Bommelerweert, Schoon Eylandt, Carrs Island, Juniosa Island, Hooge Eiland (Burlington Island)​

New Netherland, or Nieuw-Nederland in Dutch, was the 17th-century colonial province on the East Coast of North America of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. The claimed territories were the lands from the Delmarva Peninsula to extreme southwestern Cape Cod. The settled areas are now part of the Mid-Atlantic States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut, with small outposts in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. The capital New Amsterdam (New York), was located at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan on upper New York Bay.The surrender of Fort Amsterdam to the British control in 1664 was formalized in 1667, contributing to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. In 1673 the Dutch re-took the area, but later ceded it (in return for Suriname) under the 1674 Treaty of Westminster ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War.​
Wiki Commons - New Netherlands colony

>x< Caribbean - Central America

(Dutch West India Co. operating area)

Puerto Rico
* San Juan de Puerto Rico (1625- 2 Nov. 1625 to Spain)​

The Dutch occupied only the town and the fort of Canuela in the bay entrance. The fort of Canuela is retaken by the Spanish after three weeks. The Morro Fortress remain in the Spanish hands.​

American and British Virgin Islands
* Sint Kruis (Saint Croix) Dutch east part- English west part (1625-1650)​
* Thortolleneiland (Tortola): WIC post - sugar (1648-1672)​
* Anegada: WIC post (16..-1680)​
* Saint Thomas (1657-1666-1672) Dutch capital: Taphuus (Charlotte-Amalie)​
* Virgin Gorda (1628-1680): WIC post.​
* Anguilla​

Kingdom of the Netherlands Netherlands Antilles and Aruba (Dutch West Indies)
* Aruba (1634-1805/1815 >>)​
* Curaçao (1634-1805/1815 >>)​
* Bonaire (1633-1805/1815 >>)​
* Sint Maarten (Ned.)/St. Martin (Fr.) (1620-1633/ 1644-1648 - treaty with the French to split the island - 1816 >>)​
* Sint Eustatius (1636 >>)​
* Saba (1620s/1640-1816 >>)​

The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch: Nederlandse Antillen, Papiamentu: Antia Hulandes), also referred to informally as the Dutch Antilles, was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, consisting of two groups of islands in the Lesser Antilles: Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire (ABC Islands), in Leeward Antilles just off the Venezuelan coast; and Sint Eustatius, Saba and Sint Maarten (SSS Islands), in the Leeward Islands southeast of the Virgin Islands. Aruba seceded in 1986 as a separate country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the rest of the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved on 10 October 2010, resulting in two new constituent countries, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, with the other islands (BES-islands) joining the Netherlands as "special municipalities", officially public bodies. The name 'Netherlands Antilles' is still sometimes used to indicate the islands which are part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.​

Trinidad en Tobago
Nieuw-Walcheren/Tobago (1628-1637/1654-1666/1667-1672/1676-1677)

* Fort Nieuw-Vlissingen​
* Fort Lampsinsberg​
* Fort Beveren​
* Fort Fort Bellavista​
* Fort Sterreschans​

In 1628 a Dutch ship with 68 colonists landed in the island (called by them Nieuw Walcheren). They founded a fort called Fort Flushing near today’s Plymouth. In 1629 and 1632 more ships arrived from Zeeland to strengthen the small Dutch settlement. The history of this first colony had a tragic conclusion on 1 January 1637 when a Spanish expedition destroyed the settlement and massacred the colonists. In September 1654, a Zeelandian expedition under Pieter Becquart founded a settlement at Lampsins Bay on the opposite side of the island. This new settlement was named Nieuw Flushing. The island was divided between the Dutch and the Courlanders. By 1658, 1.200 men peopled the Dutch colony. On 6 December 1677, a new French fleet totaling 21 ships under D’Estrées landed in Tobago. This marked the end of the Dutch attempts to make Tobago a permanent Dutch colony.​

* Trujillo (15 Jul. 1633-20/21 Jul. 1633 to Spain)​
* Baai-eilanden​

>x< South-America

(Dutch West India Co. operating area)

* Caracas​
* Punta de Araya​
* Isla Tortuga (Dutch fort, 1668)​
* Unare​
* Aves island (Dutch claimed possession as part of the Netherlands Antilles)​

* Santa Marta (16 Feb. 1630-21/22 Feb. 1630 to Spain)​

Dutch Guyana

colony Suriname (1667-1975)
* Capital - Paramaribo​
* Fort Zeelandia​
* Fort Nieuw-Amsterdam​
* Fort Sommelsdijk​
* Fort Piet Hein​
* Fort Para​

First colonization around 1650 by the English. Disputes arose between the Dutch and the English. In 1667, the Dutch decided to keep the nascent plantation colony of Suriname conquered from the English, resulting from the Treaty of Breda. The English were left with New Amsterdam, which later became New York City. Slavery was abolished by the Netherlands in Suriname in 1863, but the slaves in Suriname were not fully released until 1873, after a mandatory 10 year transition period during which time they were required to work on the plantations for minimal pay and without state sanctioned torture. As soon as they became truly free, the slaves largely abandoned the plantations where they had suffered for several generations, in favor of the city, Paramaribo. In 1973, the local government, led by the NPK (a largely Creole, meaning ethnically African or mixed African-European, party) started negotiations with the Dutch government leading towards full independence, which was granted on 25 November 1975.​

colony Dutch Guyana(1616-1814)
  • Essequibo (1616-1814)
  • Berbice (1627-1814)
  • Demerara (1752-1814)
  • Pomeroon
* Stabroeck (Georgetown - now capital of Guyana):​
* Ft. Ter Hooge, Huijs Ter Hooge (Essequibo)​
* Ft. Kijkoveral (Essequibo)​
* Fort Zeelandia (Essequibo)​
* Borsselen Eiland/Borslem Island)​
* Ephraim Post (Epira)​
* Forteiland, Vlaggeneiland/Flag Island)​
* Nieuw Amsterdam 1 (Fort Nassau)​
* Nieuw Amsterdam 2, Krabbeneiland/New Amsterdam)​
* Aquewayse Post​
* Arinda​
* Kartabo/Cartabo)​
* Cayouni Post​
* Concordia Post​
* Stevenburg Post, Concordia Post aan Canje River (Concordia Post)​
* Hardenbroek Post (Wikkie Kreek Post):​
* Huis Nabij​
* Post aan Moruka Kreek​
* Fort Nassau (Berbice)​
* Nieuw Middelburg​
* Fort Nova Zelandia​
* Redoute Samson (Brandwacht)​
* Savonette​
* Fort St. Andries​
* Post aan de Wironje Kreek (Post aan de Wiruni Creek)​
* Redoute bij Wironje Kreek​

Although Christopher Columbus sighted Guyana during his third voyage (in 1498), the Dutch were the first to establish colonies: Essequibo (1616), Berbice (1627), and Demerara (1752). The British assumed control in the late 18th century, and the Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814.​

Guyana (French-Guyana) (1660-1664 en 1676)
* Fort Ceperou, S. Louis, Fort Cayenne (Cayenne)​
* Post at the Aprowaco, Post at the Aprouak​
* Post at the Wacogenive rivier​
* Mecoria Island​
* Post at the Wiapoco, Post at the Oyapoc, Post at the Oiapoque (Wiapoco)​

Dutch Brazil (1624-1654)
* capital: Mauritsstad: (Fort Ernestus, Fort Ernest, Fort Altena, Fort Waerdenburgh, Fort Driehoek)
* Recife: (Fort Bruyn/Fort do Brun, Fort Buraco, Fort S. Antonio do Buraco)​
* Frederiksstad​
* Boavista (Forte Cinco Pontas, Fort Vijfhoek, Fort Frederik Hendrik)​
* Fort Ghijsselingh​
* Itamaracà island, Tamaraca, Tamarica (Itamaracà): Fort Oranje​
* Schoppestad, Van Schoppe stad, Nossa Senhora da Conceicao (Vila Velha)​
* Fortaleza: Fort Schoonenburg, Fort Siara​
* Fort Waerdemburgh​
* Fort Ceulen/Reis Magos​
* Sao Salvador da Bahia (10 May 1624-30 Apr. 1625 to Portugal)​

Amazonas settlements (Amazone Delta):
* Fort Nassau​
* Fort Oranje​

Half of the Portuguese capitanias were taken. Bad policy and lack of vision by the Dutch West India Company after 40 years of Dutch rule eventually led to reinstatement of Portuguese rule.​

Wiki Commons

* Castro​
* Valdivia​
* Chiloë - 1643: Attempt to conquer the island and take it from the Spanish failed.​

>x< Africa

(Dutch East and West India Co. operating area)

* Arguin (1633-1678/1724-1728)​

Sierra Leone
* Tasso island (1664)​

* Kaap Mount​
* Senegambia​

* Portudal​
* Rufisque​
* Joal​
* colony Goree/Goeree island (Goede Reede) (1617-1663 / 1664-1677)​


colony Dutch Goldcoast/Ghana (1598-1871)
* capital: Elmina (1635-1871)
* Fort Amsterdam (Ghana) (near Cormantin) (1665–1721/1785-1867 treaty with Engeland)​
* Fort Apollonia (16..-1768 / 1868-1872) (Cape Apollonia (Benyin))​
* Fort Batenstein (near Butri)(1656-1665/166..-1872)​
* Cape Coast Castle​
* Cabo Corço or Oguaa (Swedish name: Carolusborg of Carlsborg) (16 april 1659- May 1659/22 Apr. 1663 - 3 May 1664​
* Fort Conraadsburg, Fort de Veer (1810/1811), **Fort Naglas (1828), Fort Java (1828), Fort Scomarus (1828), Fort **Batenstein (1828). (28/9 Aug. 1637 - 6 april 1872)​
* Fort Crêvecoeur (Ussher Town (Accra)) (1649-1782/1786-1868)​
* Fort Elise Carthago (1650)​
* Fort Goede Hoop, (1667 or 1705/06 fort–1782/1785-1867/68)​
* Fort Hollandia(Poquefoe/Pokesu (Princess Town)) 1725 fort-1814/1818. 1687* - 1698/1711–1712/1732-1804 abandoned.​
* Fort bij Kpone: (1697 - Apr. 1700 / 1706-..)​
* Fort Leydsaamheyd (Fort Patience, near Apam) (1697/1698–1782/1785-1868)​
* Fort Metaal Kruis, near Dixcove (1868-1872)​
* Fort Nassau, near Mouri (16240 (1598 of 1611/12 – 1664/1665 – 1782/1785 - 1867 by treaty with Engeland)​
* Fort Oranje, near Sekondi (1640 of 1670/75-1872)​
* Fort Ruychaver (Jul./Aug. 1654-1659)​
* Fort Santo Antonio de Axim (Feb. 1642–1664/1665–1872)​
* Fort Elmina (capital)​
* Fort San Sebastian, near Shama (1637-1664/1664–1872)​
* Fort Singelenburgh, near Keta (..-1737)​
* Fort Vredenburgh, near Komenda (1688 fort–1782/1785–1872)​
* Fort Witsenn, near Takoradi​
* Sekondi (1782–1785)​
* Fort Komenda (1868-1872)​
* Cong/Cong-hights: -1659.​
* Anomabu (1640-1652)​
* Egya: (1647-../1663-1664)​
* Kumase (1837-1842/1848-1853/1859-1869)​
* Petit Popo of Popo (Anecho/Aneho) (1731-1760)​

* Klein-Popo (1731-1760)​

* Groot Popo (1680-..)​
* Ouidah (1670s. or 1687/1702-1724 or 1726)​
* Jaquim of Jakri (Godomey) Fort Zeelandia (1726–1734)​
* Offra (1675-1691)​
* Appa or Ardra (1732-1736)​
* Save (1660-..)​
* Allada (1660-..)​

* Benin (1705-1736)​
* Badagri (1737-1748)​
* Epe (1732-1755)​

Annobon (1641-../..-1778 Portuguese, 1778-1968 Spanish)

Sint Helena (1645-1659)

Sao Tomé and Principe
* Sao Tomé (1641-1648)​
* Principe (island) (1589)​

*Corisco island (mandj): Factory (1642-1648 and 1680)​

* Loango (Boary) WIC trading post in ivory and copper (1648-1686 and 1721-1726)​
* Ngoyo or G'oy​

* Mayumba (Majombo - Nyanga provice): factory​

* São Paulo de Luanda (Luanda) - Fort Aardenburgh (26 Aug. 1641-21/24 Aug. 1648)​
* Sao Felipe de Benguela: (Sept. 1641-1648)​
* Pinda of Mpinda (Soyo): factory (1641-1648)​
* Cambamba (Ensandeira island) - Fort Mols (1643-1648)​
* Malemba (Malembo) (1641-1648)​
* Cabinda (1641-1648)​

colony Kaapkolonie/South-Africa (1652-1802)
* Kaapstad (Cape Town) - capital established in 1652.
* Fort de Goede Hoop (built in 1633)​
* Stellenbosch​
* Swellendam​
* Graaf-Reynet​
* Paarl​
In 1647, a Dutch vessel was wrecked in the present-day Table Bay at Cape Town. The marooned crew, the first Europeans to attempt settlement in the area, built a fort and stayed for a year until they were rescued. Shortly thereafter, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) decided to establish a permanent settlement. The VOC, had no intention of colonising the area, instead wanting only to establish a secure base camp where passing ships could shelter, and where hungry sailors could stock up on fresh supplies of meat, fruit, and vegetables. To this end, a small VOC expedition under the command of Jan van Riebeeck reached Table Bay on 6 April 1652. The British seized the Cape in 1795 to prevent it from falling into the hands of Napoleonic France, then briefly relinquished it back to the Dutch (1803), before definitively conquering it in 1806. British sovereignty of the area was recognised at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Around 1800, the Dutch colony was 145.000 km2 and had 18.000 inhabitants.​

* Walvisbaai and other areas (1793)​

*Delagoa Bay: Fort Lydsaamheid (1721-1730)​

* Antongilbaai​
* Fort Dauphin​


Mauritius (1638-1658 /1664-1710)
* Fort Frederik Hendrik​

Portuguese sailors first visited it in 1507 and established a visiting base leaving the island uninhabited. Five ships of the Dutch Second Fleet were blown off course during a cyclone while on their way to the Spice Islands and landed on the island in 1598, naming it in honor of Prince Maurice of Nassau, the Stadtholder of the Netherlands. In 1638, the Dutch established the first permanent settlement. Because of tough climatic conditions including cyclones and the deterioration of the settlement, the Dutch abandoned the island after nearly a century in 1710. When it was discovered, the island of Mauritius was the home of a previously unknown species of bird, which the Portuguese named the dodo, as they appeared to be not too bright. By 1681, all dodos had been killed by the settlers or by their domesticated animals. An alternate theory suggests that the imported wild boars that were set free destroyed the slow-breeding dodo population.​

* Nzwani​

Nieuw-Amsterdam island/Île Amsterdam

This island was discovered by the Spanish explorer Juan Sebastián Elcano on March 18, 1522, along his first world circumnavigation. Elcano did not name the island, however. Having found the island unnamed, the Dutch captain Anthonie van Diemen named it Nieuw Amsterdam (Dutch for New Amsterdam) after his ship in 1633.​

Île St. Paul
The first detailed description of it (and possibly the first landing) was by Willem de Vlamingh in 1696.​

>x< Asia

(Dutch East India Co. operating area)

* Mokka (1620-1757)​
* Aden (1614-1620)​
* Sihiri​

* Muskate (1674)​

* Basra (1645-1646 / 1651-..)​

Iran (Persia)
* Isfahan (of Ispahan): trading post (1623-1747)​
* Bandar Abbas (of Gamron): trading post (1623-1766)​
* Kharg: Fort Mosselstein (1750-1766)​
* Band-e Kong (1665-1753)​
* Boesjir​
* Lar (caravan-stop between Isfahan and Bandar Abbas)​
* Kismus​
* Kerman (trading post)​
* Sjiraas (trading post)​

* Sindi (1652-1660)​


India 1605–1825

colony * Suratte 1616-1795
* Agra. (1621-1720)​
* Burhanpur​
* Ahmadabad (1617-1744)​
* Bharuch​
* Vengurla (1637-1685)​

Malabar (Southwest coast of India)
* Cranganore of Cranganor (Kodungallor) (1662)​
* Cochin de Cima (Pallipuram) (1661)​
* Cochin, Cochin de Baixo or Santa Cruz (1663)​
* Quilon (Coylan) (1661)​
* Cannanore (1663-1790)​
* Kundapura (1667-1682)​
* Kayankulam (ca. 1645)​
* Ponnani (ca. 1663)​

Coromandel (Eastcoast of India)
* Golkonda (1662-1733)​
colony * Bimilipatnam, (1687-1795/ 1818-1825)​
colony * Jaggernaikpoeram (now Kakinada) (1734 –1795/1818-1825)​
* Daatzeram (now Drakshawarama) (1633-1730)​
* Nagelwanze (1669-1687)​
colony * Palikol (1613-1781/ 1785-1795/1818-1825)​
* Masulipatnam (1605-1756)​
* Petapoeli (Nizampatnam) (1606-1668)​
colony * Paliacatta (now Pulicat) (1610-1781/1785-1795/1805-1825)​
colony * Sadras (1654-1757/1785-1795/1818-1825)​
* Tierepopelier (now Thiruppapuliyur) (1608-1625)​
* Tegenapatnam, Kudalur (now Cuddalore) (1647-1758)​
colony * Porto Novo (now Parangippettai) (1608-1825)​
* Negapatnam (1658-1781)​
* Malediven - Tuticorin of Tutucorim (1658)​
* Travancore​

colony * Hougli/Chinsura (1656-1814)​
In 1656 the Dutch East India Company erected a factory on the site of the town, on a healthy spot of ground, much preferable to that on which Kolkata (Calcutta) is situated. At that point Kolkata was the principal Dutch settlement in Bengal (although not known by the name) used as a base for the Dutch intra-asian opium trade. In 1795, during the Napoleonic wars, the settlement was occupied by a British garrison. At the peace of 1814 it was restored to the Dutch. It was among the cessions in India made by the king of the Netherlands in 1825 in exchange for the British possessions in Sumatra.​

Bangladesh (Bengalen)
* Pipely (1635-..)​
* Baleshwar/Bellasoor, (1676-..)​
* Murshidabad​
* Dhaka​

Maldives (1645-1796)

In the mid-seventeenth century, the Dutch, who had replaced the Portuguese as the dominant power in Ceylon, established hegemony over Maldivian affairs without involving themselves directly in local matters, which were governed according to centuries-old Islamic customs.​
colony Sri Lanka (Ceylon) (1658-1796)

The king of Kandy Rajasinghe II made a treaty with the Dutch in 1638 to get rid of the Portuguese who ruled most of the coastal area of the island. In 1638 the Dutch attacked in earnest but ended with an agreement (which was disrespected by both parties), and not until 1656 that Colombo fell. By 1660 the Dutch controlled the whole island except the kingdom of Kandy. A mixed Dutch-Sinhalese people known as Burgher peoples are the legacy of Dutch rule. During the Napoleonic Wars Great Britain, fearing that French control of The Netherlands might deliver Sri Lanka to the French, occupied the coastal areas of the island (which they called Ceylon) with little difficulty in 1796. In 1802 by the Treaty of Amiens the Dutch part of the island was formally ceded to Britain, and became a crown colony.​
* Fort Galle (Barstions: Zon, Maan, Ster, Zwart) - Before the Dutch took Colombo from the Portuguese, Galle was their headquarters.​
* Fort Batticaloa (1638)​
* Fort Frederik​
* Fort Ostenburg​
* Fort Matara - Redoute Van Eck (built from 1763-1765)​
* Fort Tangalle​
* Fort Hammenhiel​
* Fort Pooneryn (1770)​

* Baungdwet, Baung Dwet (Bandel) Arakan (Mrauk-U): trading office ca.1608-1631 1634- ?.​
* Arakan (Mandalay): 1625-1665​
* Siriam, Siriangh (Syriam): trading office 1635-1679​
* Ava: trading office (ca. 1635-1679)​
* Pegu: trading office.​
* Martavaan/Martaban:trading office 1660-..)​
* Arakan: trading office 1625-1665)​

Thailand (Siam)
* Ayutthaya: factory (1613-1767)​
* Patani/Pattani (1602-1623)​
* Singora/Songkhla (1607-1623)​
* Ligor/Ligoor- Nakhon Si Thammarat (..-1756)​
* Oedjang Salang/Phuket​
* Bangkok: factory - warehouse 'Amsterdam'.​

* Ponomping (Phnom Penh)​
* Laauweck/Lawek​

* colony Malakka (Malay peninsula)​
* Koela Linggi/Kuala Linggi: Fort Philippina.​
* Salangoor/Kuala Selangor: Fort Altingburg, Fort Utrecht.​

In 1641 the Dutch defeated the Portuguese to capture Malacca with the help of the Sultan of Johore. The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1798 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta) in Indonesia as their administrative centre. However they still left impressive architectural heritage and one can still find many people from Dutch descendance. Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra.​
The Dutch East India Co controlled the Sultan of Johor - who controlled the island of Singapore​

Dutch East Indies (Nederlands Oost-Indië)/Indonesia. From 1602 - December 27, 1949* 1968*[/B]
* Capital: Batavia/Jakarta (1619-1963)​
* Surabaya​
* Bandung​
* Yogjakarta​
* Malang​
* Semarang​
* Tegal​
* Cheribon​
* Makassar (Celebes)​
* Medan (Sumatra)​
* Padang (Sumatra)​
* Palembang (Sumatra)​
* Pontianak (Borneo)​
* Banjarmasin (Borneo)​
The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, was the Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia. During the 19th century, Dutch possessions in the archipelago and its hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest extent in the early 20th century. Traditional rulers who survived the colonial military conquests were installed as regents and indigenous aristocracy became an indigenous civil service. They were placed under a Dutch hierarchy of Dutch officials; the Residents, the Assistant Residents, and District Officers. This indirect rule did not disturb the peasantry and was cost-effective for the Dutch; in 1900, only 250 European and 1,500 indigenous civil servants, and 16,000 Dutch officers and men and 26,000 hired native troops, were required to rule 35 million colonial subjects. From 1910, the Dutch created the most centralised state power in Southeast Asian history with the capital in Batavia (modern-day Jakarta).​

colony Netherlands New-Guinea (1882-1969)
* Capital: Hollandia, now Jayapura (1952-1963)​
(Netherlands New Guinea refers to the West Papua region while it was an overseas territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1949 to 1969. Until 1949 it was a part of the Netherlands Indies. It was commonly known as Dutch New Guinea. It is currently Indonesia's province Irian Jaya). The Netherlands retained New Guinea when Indonesia became independent in 1949. The arguments of the Dutch government for this changed repeatedly over time. Starting in 1962, under pressure from the international community and under threat of armed conflict with Indonesia, the Netherlands relinquished control and a series of events led to the eventual official annexation of New Guinea in 1969 to Indonesia.​

>x< East-Asia

(Dutch East India Co. operating area)

Vietnam (Tonkin/Annam)
* Ke-cho (Hanoi): trading office (1636-1699)​
* Faifo, Pheypho (Hoi An): 1636-1741.​
* Kwantoeng, Canton (Guangzhou, Kanton): trading office (1749-1803)​
* Whampoa (Huangpu): warehouse (ca. 1728-..)​
* Hockzieuw, Hoksieu (Fuzhou): trading office (..-1681)​
* Xiamen​
* Hainan​
* Macau​
Pescadores islands (1620-1624)
After the attempt to conquer Macao in 1622, the Dutch settled in the Pescadores islands (building a fort in Makung) between Formosa and China. In 1624 a Chinese attack compelled them to move on nearby Formosa.​
colony Formosa/Taiwan (1624-1662)
* Fort Zeelandia​
* Saccam: Fort Provintia, Fort de Provintieën​
In 1624, the Dutch established a commercial base on Taiwan and began to import workers from Fujian and Penghu (Pescadores) as laborers, many of whom settled. They made Taiwan a colony with its colonial capital at Tayoan City (present day Anping, Tainan). The military presence was concentrated at a stronghold called Castle Zeelandia. Chinese naval and troop forces of Southern Fujian defeated the Dutch in 1662, subsequently expelling the Dutch government and military from the island after they ruled for 38 years.​
* trade monopoly Deshima, Decima (Nagasaki): (1641-1857)​
* trade monopoly Firando (Hirado): (trading office, 1609-1641)​

>x< Oceania

(Dutch East India Co. operating area)

discovered in 1606 * Nieuw-Holland/Australia - Capt. Willem Janzoon on the Duyfken; First European to set foot on Australian soil.

discovered in 1616 * Tonga islands - Capt. Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire.
The Tongan people first encountered Europeans in 1616 when the Dutch vessel Eendracht made a short visit to the islands to trade - with Dutch explorers Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire (who called on the northern island of Niuatoputapu) and in 1643 with Abel Tasman (who visited Tongatapu and Ha'apai).​
discovered in 1642 * Tasmanië/Tasmania - Capt. Abel Jansz. Tasman - named it 'Van Diemensland', later the English named it after him.

discovered in 1642 * Nieuw-Zeeland/New-Zealand - Capt. Abel Jansz. Tasman - no futher colonization but temporary settlement.

discovered in 1643 * Fiji - Capt. Abel Jansz. Tasman.

discovered in 1722 * Paaseiland/Easter Island - Capt. Jacob Roggeveen on 5 april (Easter sunday)

discovered in 1722 * Samoa - Capt. Jacob Roggeveen.

>x< Europe

discovered in 1596
* Spitsbergen/Svalbard - whaling colony with many settlements.

Willem Barentsz made the first indisputable discovery of Spitsbergen/Svalbard in 1596, in an attempt to find the Northern Sea Route. From 1611, Spitsbergen became a base for whaling. Smeerenburg was one of the first settlements, established by the Dutch in 1619. Smaller bases were also built by the English, Danish and French. At first the outposts were merely summer camps, but from the early 1630s, a few individuals started to overwinter. Whaling at Spitsbergen lasted until the 1820s, when the Dutch, British and Danish whalers moved elsewhere in the Arctic.​
discovered in 1596 * Bear island/Bjørnøya - discovered by the Dutch explorers Willem Barents and Jacob van Heemskerk on 10 June 1596.

discovered in 1607 * Jan Mayen
In January the Noordsche Compagnie (Northern Company), modelled on the Dutch East India Company, had been established to support Dutch whaling in the Arctic. Two of its ships reached Jan Mayen in July 1614. The captains of these ships—Jan Jacobszoon May van Schellinkhout on the Gouden Cath (Golden Cat) and Jacob de Gouwenaer on the Orangienboom (Orange Tree) —named it Mr. Joris Eylant after the Dutch cartographer Joris Carolus who was on board and mapped the island. But later it was named after the captain. Jan Mayen first appeared on Willem Jansz Blaeu’s 1620 edition map of Europe, originally published by Cornelis Doedz in 1606. He named it Jan Mayen after captain Jan Jacobszoon May of the Amsterdam-financed Gouden Cath, perhaps because he[who?] was by that time based in Amsterdam.​

explored in 1594
* Nova Zembla
Explorer Willem Barents reached the west coast of Novaya Zemlya in 1594 (and gave it it's name) and in a subsequent expedition of 1596.​
discovered in 1643 * Sachalin (Capt. Maarten Gerritszoon de Vries - first European to make an account)

discovered in 1643 * Koerillen/Kuriles (Capt. Maarten Gerritszoon de Vries - first European to make an account)
In the summer of 1643, the ship Castricum sailed by the southern Kuril Islands, visiting Kunashir, Iturup (named 'Staten Island', and Urup, which they named 'Company Island' and claimed it for the Dutch Republic. The ship passed between the islands of Iturup and Urup, the strait between the islands being later named 'De Vries Strait' after its discoverer, and entered the Sea of Okhotsk.​

Belgium (1815-1830) - In this period Belgium was incorporated in the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Check this excellent website for more info: :eek:kay:​


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Tropical Palaces

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Buitenzorg Palace / Istana Bogor - 1744

Bogor, Indonesia

The original palace was built in 1744 as a country retreat for the Dutch Governors. This building was substantially expanded over the century but greatly damaged by an earthquake in 1834, triggered by the volcanic eruption of Mount Salak. The palace was rebuilt into its present form in 1856 - this time with only one story instead of the original three, as a precaution against further earthquakes. Till 1942, Buitenzorg Palace served as the official residence of the Dutch Governors-General. After the Indonesian independence, the palace was used by President Sukarno, but then largely neglected by Suharto when he came to office. The grounds of the estate contain several buildings - the largest of which is the main palace and its two wings.

The Palace is surrounded by the largest and most famous botanical gardens of South-East Asia. An area of 284,000 square metres (28.4 hectares). The garden was built by Governor-General Gustaaf Willem, Baron van Imhoff. The extensive grounds of the presidential palace were later converted into a botanical garden by the German-born Dutch botanist, Professor Casper George Carl Reinwardt. The gardens officially opened in 1817 as 's Lands Plantentuin ('National Botanical Garden') and were used to research and develop plants and seeds from other parts of the Indonesian archipelago for cultivation during the 19th century. This is a tradition that continues today and contributes to the garden's reputation as a major center for botanical research.Today the garden contains more than 15,000 species of trees and plants located among streams and lotus ponds. There are 400 types of exceptional palms to be found along the extensive lawns and avenues, helping the gardens create a refuge for more than 50 different varieties of birds and for groups of bats roosting high in the trees.

Picture by Malik_Braun at Flickr

aerocristobal's photostream on Flickr

Picture by Dennis Ardon on Flickr

Picture by Dennis Ardon on Flickr


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Koningsplein Palace / Istana Merdeka - 1875

Jakarta, Indonesia

Istana Merdeka and Istana Negara is part of a palace complex in Central Jakarta, Indonesia. At first there was only one building in this complex, the Weltevreden Palace (Istana Negara). The Weltevreden Palace was originally built as the residence for a Dutch businessman, J. A. van Braam. Rijswijk and Molenvliet (presently known as Harmonie), the location chosen as the time was the most exclusive neighborhood in Weltevreden area, the New Batavia. During its early years, only the State Palace stood in this complex.

The government used this building as the center of all administration and as the official residence of the Governor-General during a stay in Batavia, in occasion of events such as the Indies Council Meeting held every Wednesday. The Governor-Generals preferred to live in Bogor Palace in Bogor, due to the cooler and more adaptable temperatures in the hillsides of Bogor. The mansion of van Braam was bought due because of a need for the Dutch government to centralize power. However, Daendels Palace (currently Ministry of Finance) in Lapangan Banteng (formerly known as Waterloo Square) was not completed yet.

Upon the completion of Daendels Palace, plans to centralize power changed, and the mansion of van Braam officially became the residency of the governor-general, and Daendels Palace housed administrative buildings. Hotel van den Gouverneur-Generaal (Hotel of the Governor-General) became the official name of the van Braam mansion. During the Colonial era, important events took place in this building. Some of which include the declaration of the cultuur stensel system by the Governor Graaf van den Bosch, and the ratification ceremony of the Lingarjati Treaty on March 25, 1947.

During mid-19th century, the palace does not suffice the accommodation of its administrative purposes, and under orders from J.W. van Lansberge, a new building that today become the Koningsplein Palace (Merdeka Palace) was built within the complex in 1873 during the Governor General Loudon administration, and finished in 1879 during Governor General Johan Willem van Landsberge administration. This neoclasical building, designed by Drossares, was built in southern part of the complex directly facing Koningsplein (now Merdeka Square).

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Daendels or Waterlooplein Palace - 1809

Jakarta, Indonesia

Construction of this architectural gem was commissioned by Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels. As a governor general, Daendels stimulated the move southwards of Batavia; the densely populated walled city was unhealthy and many inhabitants suffered from malaria and cholera. The area of Weltevreden, several kilometres south of Batavia, originally a country estate, was developed and would turn into a highly fashionable area. Halfway Batavia and Weltevreden, the new accommodation for the club Harmonie was constructed.

In Weltevreden, on the Paradeplaats, a new Government House was erected; since Daendels did not wish to inhabit the old country estate (known as the Van der Parra estate), officially assigned to the governors general. The Government House is a building constructed in the period 1809-1827 in Batavia, ‘capital’ of the Dutch colony in the East-Indies. Construction was ordered by governor general H.W. Daendels (1808-1811) and completed by governor general L.P.J. du Bus de Ghisignies (1826-1830).

The building has been preserved and is located on present Lapangan Banteng, Jakarta Pusat, which was known in the nineteenth century as Paradeplaats and since 1828 as Waterlooplein. Modelled in the Empire style, the proportionate Witte Huis (White House) measures 160 meters lengthwise. The pillars on the first story are Doric, whereas those on the second level are Ionic in style. In the past, the building hosted many state functions and even served as a post office, a printing office and a high court. Today, it houses the Indonesian Ministry of Finance.

Read more on this subject: master thesis Art History - mrs. M. van Reenen

Picture by fkmdepkeu at Flickr


Tjipanas/Cipanas Palace - 1890

Cipanas, Java, Indonesia

Apart from the hot springs, Cipanas was also a hill station for the Dutch East Indies Governor-Generals, as it was a popular getaway from the intense heat and humidity from the low-lying lands (including Jakarta itself). It is best known by the Istana Cipanas complex, a residence for former Dutch Governor Generals of the Dutch East Indies, and a country retreat of former President Sukarno. Out of interest in the local hot springs, during the administration of Dutch East India Company Governor General Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff (1743-1750), a health building was constructed near a hot spring. The palace was used by Commissioner-Generals Du Bus de Gisignies, Count van Hoogendorp (1820-1841), Herman Willem Daendels (1808-1811) and Thomas Stamford Raffles, who would later become the founder of colonial. During their terms, they employed hundreds of workers in plantations around the palace. Cibodas was also well know for its botanical gardens - as a satellite of the famous Botanical gardens at Buitenzorg/Bogor.


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Governors Palace - 1700

Willemstad, Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

Palace of the Governor built in 1700, expanded in 1765 and still in service for the Governor of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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Governors Palace - 1730

Paramaribo, Suriname

This palace of the Governor General, now presidential palace, was built in its recent form in 1730 by governor-generaal De Cheusses. It's surrounded by a palm-garden.

Picture by Hornplayer at Flickr


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Governors Palace or Stadhuys - 1641

Malacca, Malaysia

The most imposing relic of the Dutch period in Melaka is the massive red town hall and governors' residence, built between 1641 and 1660. It displays all the typical features of Dutch colonial architecture. Today the Stadthuys houses the musty but informative History and Ethnography Museum. The first governor appointed to Malacca was Jan van Twist and the Dutch began building the Stadthuys to serve as the residency for the new governor as well as an administration centre and town hall. The Stadthuys was raised on the very same spot where the Portuguese governorÂ’s house had been, which was too badly damaged to be of any use to the Dutch. Its construction was carried out by skilled Javanese and Chinese craftsmen. The Stadthuys of Malacca is a reproduction of the former Stadhuis (town hall) of the Dutch town of Hoorn. However, the former Stadhuis of Hoorn only existed from 1420 until 1796. - Read more

Picture by par Sheep"R"Us at Flickr

The Governor's Museum, also known as Muzium Yang Di-Pertua Negeri or Muzium Tuan Yang Terutama, is one of the many museums in Malacca. Formerly called Seri Melaka, the museum is housed in the former official residence and office of the Dutch Governor of Malacca on St Paul's Hill. The building was used as the official residence of the Tuan Yang Terutama, which is the title of the governor, until September 1996. The museum showcases the personal belongings of the various governors of Malacca since independence, beginning with the first Governor of Malacca, Tun Leong Yew Koh.


Governors Palace - 1744

Cochin, Kerala, India

Bolgatty Palace built by the Dutch in India, Bolgatty Palace is located in the scenic island popularly known as Bolgatty island in Kochi, Kerala. Built in 1744 and was later extended and lush green gardens were landscaped around it. The building was then the Governor's palace for the Dutch and later to the British.

Picture by anil aravind at Flickr - Palace of the Governor in Cochin, India - now Bolgatty Palace


Governors Residence - 17th century

Chinsurah, Bengal, India


Picture by by Shevantha at Flickr

Governors Palace - 17th century

Colombo, Sri-Lanka

Built during the second half of the 17th century as the residence of Count August van Ranzow, the Dutch East India Company's governor in Colombo, this attractive old building at 95 Prince Street is one of the few surviving remnants of Colombo's Dutch colonial heritage - now Sri Lanka Dutch Era Museum.


Governors Palace

Colombo, Sri-Lanka - Dutch National Archives - Front of Governor's House Colombo ca. 1687


Governors Palace - 1684

Fort Galle, Sri Lanka

This building was built in 1684 for Dutch governors; more likely it housed both the garrison officers and the VOC Commandeur, as by this date the Dutch seat of government had shifted from Galle to Colombo, finally captured from the Portuguese in 1656. In 1684, the Commandeur of Galle was one Nicolaas van der Meulen. The lower billiard room of what is now the New Oriental Hotel (NOH) - now sadly damp and crumbling - bears the date 1686. Galle was always a major Dutch military base: in 1695 Christopher Langhan stated that "generally a garrison of 200 men is stationed here".

By as early as 1667, as a transhipment port Galle had become second only to Batavia on Java as the VOC's main commercial centre in its Asian dominions. Directly adjoining the NOH to the north on its Church Street side is the single-storied former Dutch Commissariat store, a relatively modest structure built circa 1656 and since 1986 the home of the Dutch Museum. Like the multi-cultural Dutch colonial society that created them, the NOH and other surviving VOC-era buildings in Galle Fort are not really typical Dutch, but rather combine a mix of Dutch/European and Asiatic influences. A classic example of this architectural ambivalence is the Grote Kerk, the Dutch Reformed Church, standing just south of the NOH on the other side of Middle Street, which was completed in 1754.

Read more: Preserving the Spirit of a Forgotten World -Anecdotal glimpses of the New Oriental Hotel, Galle Fort by J. Simpson


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Governors Palace or The Tuynhuys - 1700

Kaapstad/CapeTown, Zuid Afrika/South-Africa

Palace of the Governor-General of the Dutch East India Company in the Cape Colony/South-Africa, built in 1700. The building was renovated and enlarged numerous times until 1751 when it was first recorded that the building was being used as a summer residence by the Governor, a custom which the historical record seems to bear out for all the Dutch Governors that century. By 1790 the building was known as The Governor's House in the Company's Gardens ('Het Governiurs Huys in de Compagnies Tuyn') and by this time - as reflected in the drawings of Josephus Jones circa 1790 - the gardens side of the building already had its rococo balusters with its stucco drapes and Greco-roman sculptures. From a design perspective, the building, incorporating both Louis XVI-style Neo-classicism and Baroque elements, was influenced by 18th Century Dutch and Dutch East Indies architecture of the time. Similar facades, windows, doors and fanlights can be seen in Colonial buildings built in the same period in places such as Amsterdam and Batavia (modern-day Jakarta).
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Pat L.314's photostream on Flickr


Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

1634-1805/1815 - today an independent country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands





Palace of the Governor

The palace is on the same spot where the first fort was built in 1635. In the subsequent two years, the first dwelling of the representative of the West India Company, the Director, was added to it. This precursor of the Government’s Palace was a two-storied wooden building, for which most of the material had been brought from Amsterdam. Not much later, the wooden building was replaced by a stone residence which forms the core of the present Palace. In 1765, the extension took place with an open gallery on the harbor side and the building remained in this state for approximately a hundred years

Fort Amsterdam

Strategically built on the point (Punda) of the eastern finger of land at the harbor entrance. Fort Amsterdam was named after the Chamber of Amsterdam, a department of the Netherlands West Indies Co, which was in charge of the administration of Curaçao. This fort was built in 1635. Fort Amsterdam was the most important of Curaçao's eight forts, and is included in UNESCO's list of World Heritage sites. Embedded in its southwest wall is a cannonball fired by Captain Bligh's troops. Today the complex houses the Governor's residence, the Ministry, several government offices, and the United Protestant Church, which includes a museum.

Penha building

Built in 1708, surrounded by Heerenstraat, Breedestraat and Handelskade, with the ridge perpendicular to Breedestraat. Three storeys with roof, covered with red pantiles. The "Penha" Building is a typical example of Iberian influences in basically Dutch architecture. The building is heavily decorated and the top gables are an abundant interpretation of the Dutch bell-gable. The building is restored in 1956

woutvandendool's photostream on Flickr - Mikve Israël Synagogue

The Mikvé Israel-Emanuel Synagogue (Hebrew: בית הכנסת מקווה ישראל-עמנואל‎), in Willemstad, Curaçao, is the oldest synagogue in the Americas. It is commonly known as the Snoa (short for esnoga, an old Portuguese word for synagogue). The community (congregation Mikvé Israel) dates from the 1650s, and consisted of Spanish and Portuguese Jews from the Netherlands and Brazil. In the nineteenth century there was a breakaway Reform community (Emanu El); the two merged to form the present community in 1964. The community is now affiliated to Reconstructionist Judaism. The first synagogue building was purchased in 1674; the current building dates from 1730. The other Netherlands Antilles island with a historical synagogue is Sint Eustatius, where the ruins of the Honen Dalim synagogue of 1739 still stand impressively on the 'Synagoge Pad.'

Picture by cphoffman42 - St.Anna Basilica, Otrabanda.

Founded in 1752, Otrabanda's Basilica Santa Ana was elevated to basilica and co-cathedral status by Pope Paul VI in 1975. The basilica also served as a pro-cathedral between 1843 and 1958.

cphoffman42's photostream on Flickr - Breedestraat

Picture by Photocapy at Flickr - Queen Juliana bridge
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Picture by RobW_ at Flickr - The Old Drostdy in Graaff Reinet, built in 1806

Cape Dutch architecture

Zuid-Afrika / South Africa

Originally posted by: @Stellenbosch

Cape Dutch architecture is an architectural style found in the Western Cape of South Africa. The style was prominent in the early days (17th century) of the Cape Colony, and the name derives from the fact that the initial settlers of the Cape were primarily Dutch. The style has roots in mediaeval Holland, Germany, France and Indonesia.

Houses in this style have a distinctive and recognisable design, with a prominent feature being the grand, ornately rounded gables, reminiscent of features in townhouses of Amsterdam built in the Dutch style. The houses are also usually H-shaped, with the front section of the house usually being flanked by two wings running perpendicular to it. Furthermore, walls are whitewashed, and the roofs are thatched.

Most Cape Dutch buildings in Cape Town have been lost to new developments — particularly to high-rises in the City Bowl during the 1960s. However, the Cape Dutch tradition can still be seen in many of the farmhouses of the Wine Route, and historical towns such as Stellenbosch, Swellendam, Tulbagh and Graaff-Reinet.

Picture by Kleinz1 at Flickr - Reinet House, Parsonage Street, Graaff-Reinet

Picture by bsktmkr at Flickr - Boschendal winery: Cape Dutch architecture, 1812. Franschhoek.

Picture by DanieVDM at Flickr - Dutch Reformed Church, Franschhoek

Built in 1847 and situated on the main road running through the town. This valley tightly hemmed in by mountains, is named after the French Huguenots who fled to the Cape after religious persecution in 1688. They brought with them a sound knowledge of viniculture and settled down to make wine in the ‘French Glen’ where the estates and many families still have French names. There is just one main street lined with wine estates and a few antique shops, cafes and restaurants until at the end you find the impressive Huguenot Memorial and Museum set in rose gardens by a peaceful lily pond.



Picture by Le Scribbler Photostream at Flickr - Groot Constantia

Perfect example of Cape Dutch architecture. This was the first wine estate to be established at the Cape.
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Java, Indonesia

Capital of the fromer Dutch East Indies from 1619-1949

In 1610, the Dutch East India Co was granted permission to build a trading post on Java island, close to the javanese city of Jayakatra. After a conflict with the local powers, Jan Pietersz. Coen founded the city of Batavia in 1619. He built the city on the ruins of the destroyed city of Jayakatra. Long before Calcutta or Singapore were developed, this city was one of the largest and weathiest cities in the East. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the city inhabited 50.000 people. In the second half of the 19th centuty, the city had 100.000 inhabitaints and at the end of the Dutch colonial rule in 1950, the city had 1 million inhabitants.

Picture by ElangJava

Link to Flickr

Stadhuis - TownHall, built from 1707-1710 - now Jakarta History Museum.

Former City Hall of Batavia, known in the past as Stadhuis. This building was the administrative headquarters of the Dutch East India Company, and later of the Dutch Colonial Government. The current building was constructed in 1707 by the city government, replacing the former city hall built in 1627. Governor General Abraham van Riebeeck inaugurated it in 1710.

The building contains 37 ornate rooms. There are also some cells located beneath the front portico which were used as dungeons. A Javanese freedom fighter Prince Diponegoro, who was arrested, was imprisoned here in 1830 before being banished to Manado, North Sulawesi. Another freedom fighter earlier imprisoned here around 1670 was Untung Suropati from East Java. The building is located in front of a public square, which in the past was known as Stadhuisplein, the City Hall Square. The square is now known as Fatahillah Square (Indonesian: Taman Fatahillah). In the center of the square is a fountain which was used as a water supply during colonial era. The square was also used as the place of executions. In 1970, the Fatahillah Square was declared a Cultural Heritage. The Jakarta History Museum was inaugurated on March 30, 1974 as the center for collection, conservation and research for all kinds of objects of cultural heritage related to the history of the City of Jakarta.

Hakase3000's photostream at Flickr - Typical Dutch bridge, built in 1628

Picture by ElangJava at Flickr

Link to Flickr - Raad van Justitie - Supreme Court, built in 1870, now Museum Seni Rupa.

Picture by antonrex at Flickr

Picture by kapkap at Flickr

Link to Flickr

Willemskerk - Gereja Immanuel

Built from 1835-1839. Protestant church (now Lutheran)

Wiki Commons

Picture by Ikhlasul Amal at Flickr

Daendels Palace, built in 1810, now: Treasury Department, at the Lapangan Banteng (fmr. Waterloo Square)

On March 7, 1809, Governor-General Daendels chose the eastern side of the Paradeplaats of the Waterlooplein (now Jalan Lapangan Banteng Timur) as the site for his new palace. Never modest in his ambitions, Daendels undoubtedly envisaged building a grand palace that would be at the heart of the new Batavia he dreamed of creating. He instructed Lieutenant-Colonel J.C.Schultze (who had also designed the Harmonie Society Clubhouse (HSC)) to prepare the plans.

The design called for a large central main building with wings on either side. The Palace would be for the exclusive use of the governor-general. Government bureaus were to be in separate buildings and there would also be guest houses and a stable for 120 horses. Work proceeded quickly and foundations for the palace were built from the old materials of the demolished castle. By 1811, when Daendels was replaced as governor-general by Jan Willem Janssens (governor-general 1811), the main building and the wings were half finished.

Picture at

Picture by belabangsaindonesia at Flickr - Post Office in the old town / Kantor Pos Kota

Wiki Commons - Koningsplein Palace / Istana Merdeka built in 1870

Link at Flickr

Cathedral / Gereja Kathedral

Cathedral I is situated at Weltervreden and baptized at February 1810. In 1826, this church was burned into ashes. Then Cathedral II was established on February 1830. In 1882, added two towers in the front of the church. But again, the beautiful church became ruins on May 1890. In 1891, a new church was built. On April 21, 1901 the church was officially opened.

Picture by Carl Ottersen at Flickr

Picture by cinzia80 at multiply

Javasche Bank, now Bank Indonesia, designed by Cuypers en Hulswit

Built by Cuypers en Hulswit, built in 1909 - The Amsterdam architect Eduard Cuypers, a younger nephew of Piere Cuypers, was the founder and name giver of the most successful commercial architectural office in the first decades of the twentieth century.

It was the director of the board of the Javasche Bank (later Bank Indonesia) who asked him to travel to the Indies in 1909 and he convinced him to establish a second office in Batavia. Eduard Cuypers was asked by the Bank for the design of several bank buildings. Eduard Cuypers lived and stayed in Amsterdam and in Batavia office he associated him self with Marius Hulswit and in 1910 the technical engineer A.A. Fermont joint in. The building, in Jakarta-kota, the 'Javasche Bank', was finished in 1910 and until 1929 the architectural office realized 14 buildings for this bank firm.

Restuwibowo's photostream at Flickr

Teradaz's photostream at Flickr

Martinguibz's photostream at Flickr

jakartan.cocolog - Fmr. Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, built in 1921

Picture by ariesaksono at wordpress - Former Museum of the Batvia Society of Arts and Sciences, now National Museum of Indonesia, built in 1862

Wiki Commons

Picture by asepsetia at Flickr

link - Former house of an Arabian family, now Museum Tekstil

Picture by basibanget at Flickr

18th century Landhuis/Estate Reinier de Klerk / now National Archives of Indonesia

Built in 1760, now National Archives/Arsip Nasional.

Picture by Hilco666 at Flickr - Dutch East India Company (VOC) warehouses

Link to Flickr - Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij (NHM)

Built in 1929, now Bank Mandiri.

Picture by - Haantjeskerk te Weltevreden - now Gereya Ayam

Wiki Commons - City Theatre / Gedung Kesenian

Link to Flickr

Mangiwau's photostream on Flickr - Menteng Pulo Cemetery

Picture by fototime

khunhans' photostream on Flickr - Art Society building (Kunstkring)

This building has been transformed into a restaurant and bar recently. Before that it was used to house the Immigration department for central Jakarta.

Link to Flickr

Main Train Station / Stasiun Kota

Jakarta Kota Station (Indonesian: Stasiun Jakarta Kota) is a terminal train station, located in the old city core of Jakarta. The station was appointed as a historical and cultural landmark in 1993. The station was first named as the Batavia Zuid (or South Batavia), the name of which was used until the end of the 19th century. The station was also popularly known as the BEOS station as an abbreviation from the Bataviasche Ooster Spoorweg Maatschapij or the Batavian Eastern Railway Company.

The station was built around 1870. It was renovated in 1926 and re-opened on August 19, 1926. It was officially inaugurated on October 8, 1929, by the Dutch Governor-General, A.C.D. de Graeff. The primary designer of the station was the Dutch architect Frans Johan Louwrens Ghijsels (born September 8, 1882). The design of the station is a combination of Western Art Deco and local architecture styles.

Picture by Frost Photography at Flickr

Picture by jakartan.cocolog - Former house of the Javanese prince Raden Saleh / Museum Nasional Sejalah

Picture by jakartan.cocolog - Koninklijke Pakketvaart Maatschappij (KPM)-building, built in 1918.

Wiki Commons - General Post and Telegraph office / Kantor Pos

icture by meneer_nl on Flickr - Aerial of the Railways Sation square downtown Batavia.

jen JOHAN's photostream on Flickr - De Javasche Bank / Bank Indonesia detail

Picture by meneer_nl on Flickr - Aerial of the Rijswijkseplein with Societeit De Harmonie (Club).

Wiki-link with a list of colonial buildings in Jakarta
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Thanks :)

Link at Flickr - Oranjeplein/Onafhankelijkheidsplein - Independence square



Capital of Dutch Suriname from 1667-1975 (*308 years)

Link at Flickr

Picture by lesley_tjon on Flickr

The historic inner city of Paramaribo has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2002. The area, a trading post started by the Dutch, was taken by the English in 1630, and in 1650 the city became the capital of the new English colony. The area changed hands often between the English and Dutch but it was in Dutch hands again in 1667 and under Dutch rule until the independence of Suriname in 1975.

Link at Flickr - Now: Ministry of Internal Affairs

Link at Flickr - De St. Petrus en Paulus cathedral.

It's said to be the world's largest wooden cathedral building.

Link at Flickr - Kerkplein - Dutch Reformed Church

Picture by rustinpc at Flickr - Neve Shalom Synagogue

Picture by rustinpc at Flickr

Link at Flickr

Picture by Hornplayer at Flickr - The Waterkant

Picture by Hornplayer at Flickr

Link at Flickr

Hornplayer's photostream on Flickr

Hornplayer's photostream on Flickr - Queen Wilhemina, neglected statue.

Link at Flickr

Link at Flickr - Fort Zeelandia

Link at Flickr
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Mathieu Castel's photostream on Flickr

De Groote kerk

Galle, Ceylon/SriLanka

(1600-1805) - 205 years

The Dutch Reformed Church, with gables on the eastern and western walls, but no tower, was completed in 1755. It is similar in style to the ones in Negapatnam and Cochin in India, even including the walls. It is built on the site of an earlier Portuguese convent. Around the church and within the walls is a small graveyard.

Mathieu Castel's photostream on Flickr

Mathieu Castel's photostream on Flickr

Mathieu Castel's photostream on Flickr
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1910 : Guntzel&Schumacher and Harrisons&Crosfield offices at the Esplanade


Sumatra, Indonesia

Originally posted by @dochan

1930 : Hotel De Boer

1930 : Corner Cremerweg/Kesawan street with Harrisons&Crosfield and Nederlandsche Handel Maatschappij (NHM) left.

1930 : Kerapatan (Islamic district court) at the Paleisweg.

1920 : Deli Maatschappij HQ

1920 : Deli Railway Company (DSM) HQ at the Serdangweg designed by architect Karsten.

1897: Istana Maimoon - Palace of the Sultan of Deli

1905 : Istana Maimoon - Palace of the Sultan of Deli

1905 : Kesawan street.

1920 : Masjid Raja, designed in 1906 by Royal Dutch East Indies Army engineer, capt. Theo van Erp.

1910 : Javasche Bank office at the Cremerweg/Esplanade designed by Cuypers/Hulswit

1905 : Residency, built in 1900, designed by civil engineer Van Es.

1905 : Hotel/Restaurant De Boer

1905 : De Witte Club

General Post and Telegraph-office (GPO) designed by civil engineer Snuyf.

Town hall at the Cremerweg - Esplanade - bell tower gifted by the Captain of the Chinese, Tjong A Fie.

Governor-General Fock visits Medan Town Hall
The old Karapatan (Islamic District Court) of the Deli sultanate - [The old] Palace of the sultan of Deli, 1920
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Beautiful architectural Survey!

Thank you for the many pictures illustrating Dutch style buildings around the world.

Here in Philadelphia there was a fashion for traditional Dutch elements in late Victorian houses of the period from about 1875 - 1905. These were homes for upper-middle class bourgeois families that often had live-in servants on the top floor.

Here are two examples, one picture taken at the corner from my own house (which is a French 2nd Empire Style) and the other just a block and a half away.

What do you think? Can you see the Dutch influence? Locally we call this type of residential Victorian architecture "Netherlandish Revival."

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Thanks for the pictures - that's a beautiful neighbourhood you live in.

The buildings in the first picture have Russian elements - certainly no Dutch.

The buildings in the second picture are a bit more difficult to classify at first hand, but considering the dark red brick and the number of steps in the front, it looks like a style more derived from Northern-Germany (like in the historical Hansae-cities as Lübeck). :)

Dutch, Flemish, German and Danish styles have an overlap, but with some examples you can easily recognise them. In the Dutch language, this design is termed trapgevel or "stair-step gable", characteristic of many brick buildings in the Netherlands, Belgium and in Dutch colonial settlements.

This is an original 17th century Dutch-style house and here you can see the typical Dutch elements.

This is a typical (and original) 17th century Dutch house in New York (Former New Netherlands)
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Link to Blogspot - Fort Oranje, Itamaracà - Pernambuco

Former Dutch Brazil


Link to Blogspot

Wiki Commons - Fort Oranje

Built by the Dutch in 1631 (the project was designed by engineer Pieter Van Bueren). It was started from May 1631 as a fortification campaign by Dutch forces, under the command of Steyn Callenfels and received the name Fort Orange, in homage to the House of Orange-Nassau, which then ruled the Netherlands. It was garrisoned by a detachment of 366 men under the command of the Polish Captain Crestofle d'Artischau Arciszewski. This effectively resisted the Portuguese forces commanded by Conde of Bagnoli, who defeated (1632), withdrew abandoning its artillery: four pieces of brass brought from Arraial Velho do Bom Jesus. This position formed the basis for the conquest of the island of Itamaracá, defended by the forces of Salvador Pinheiro. After this achievement (1633), the fort was repaired and expanded.

Picture by collierusf10 at Flickr

Link at Flickr - Fort Frederik Hedrik/Forte das Cinco Pontas

Built in 1630 by the Dutch, it was called by them Fort Frederik Hedrik, the fort was the last place they surrendered in 1654.

Link at Flickr - Fort de Bruyne / Forte do Brum

One of the most important remains of the Dutch rule in northeast Brazil is the Forte do Brum (Fort de Bruyne), on the northern end of Recife island. The fort was originally started to built in 1629 by the Portuguese, when the Dutch took control of Pernambuco they rebuilt the fort that was dedicated to Johan de Bruyne that was the president of the political council of Olinda and named it Forte de Bruyne.


Link at Flickr - Forte dos Reis Magos

In December 1633 Van Ceulen captured the Fort of Reis Magos (Dutch Fort Ceulen) at the mouth of the Rio Grande.

Bahia - Itaparica

Link at Flickr - Forte de São Lourenço

Construido pelos holandeses em 1647 e reconstruiído pelos portugueses no Século XVIII.
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link to Flickr

Malakka / Malacca


1641-1825: 184 years Dutch colony.

Dutch Malacca (1641 - 1824) was the longest period of Malacca under foreign control. The Dutch ruled for almost 183 years with intermittent British occupation during the Napoleonic Wars ( 1795 - 1818 ). This era saw relative peace with little serious interruption from the Malay kingdoms due to the understanding earlier on forged between the Dutch and Sultanate of Johor in 1606. This time also marked the decline of the importance of Malacca. The Dutch preferred Batavia (present day Jakarta) as their economic and administrative center in the region and their hold in Malacca was to prevent the loss of the city to other European powers and subsequently the competition that would naturally comes with it. Thus in the 17th century, with Malacca ceased to be an important port, the Johor Sultanate became the dominant local power in the region, due to the opening of its ports and the alliance with the Dutch.

link to Flickr

The Dutch Reformed Church

Christ Church, which is located at Dutch Square, is the oldest Protestant Church in Malaysia. A legacy of the Dutch era, Christ Church was built in the 18th century with bricks which were specially brought in from Zeeland in Holland. The porch and vestry were added a hundred years after the initial church hall was completed. Like most of the buildings in Dutch Square, Christ Church was painted maroon. This color scheme does not date from the Dutch, however, but was only applied in the early 20th century, around the 1920s. Originally, Christ Church were faced with exposed bricks. Later, a layer of plaster was applied to the bricks when the authorities discovered the wall was leaking. The plaster was then painted white. When the British changed the color in the 1920's, it was bright salmon red. The maroon red that we see today was the job of the local authorities much later. It has however created a distinctive character to the buildings at Dutch Square.

Christ Church was built to commemorate the centennial of Dutch rule in Malacca. Construction began in 1741, and completed in 1753. It follows an extremely simple design, which is a quintessential church of Dutch architecture - rectangular, with massive walls, red granith plinths and Dutch roof tiles. It is perfectly proportion to the ratio of 2:1, 27 meters long by 13 meters wide. There are no aisles or chancel. However, it has beautifully hand-carved pews, and the massive 15-meter long timber beams supporting its roof were cut from a single tree. Plaques on the wall of Christ Church commemorate those who died of the various epidemics while stationed in Malacca, reflecting the tough life faced by the Dutch officers in those days. Encased into the floor of the church are tombstones. Some are written in Portuguese and a few in Armenian. Some historians believe that these originally came from St. Paul's Church up on the hill. There is no conclusive agreement as to who put them on the floor of Christ Church. Some argued that they were placed there by the Dutch when they occupied Melaka in 1641. However, this is unlikely for the highly religious Dutch, who were Protestants, to place Catholic tombstones inside their church. Another possibility is that they were installed there much later, by the British.

When the British took over Malacca, they converted Christ Church for Anglican worship and added the weathercock and bell tower. Fortunately, they leave the old Portuguese tombstones that were laid in the floor where they are, and they remain to this day reminding visitors of the Dutch legacy in Malacca.

Link to Flickr

The Stadhuys

The Stadthuys, which means the Municipal Town Hall in Dutch, is the biggest, most prominent building in the Malacca Town Square, and it is also the oldest and biggest Dutch colonial building in Southeast Asia. Construction of it began around 1641, the year the Dutch pried Malacca from the Portuguese, who ruled since the fall of the Malacca Sultanate in 1511. It covers 49,000 square feet. It took close to twenty years to complete it, with building material imported from the Netherlands. Throughout the Dutch Administration until 1824, the Stadthuys served as the civic centre of the town. It houses the Dutch governor and his numerous aides. When the British took over Malacca, they continued to use it as a civic centre. After Independence, the Malaysian government also used it as the State Governing Center until 1979. Since then, it was converted into the Ethnography Museum.

Although the interior is now filled with museum exhibits, it is still possible to view much of the interior with its thick masonry walls and heavy wooden beams. The statue of Admiral Cheng Ho (Zheng He) stand incongruously on the courtyard, commemorating the admirals's visit to Malacca during the time of the Malacca Sultanate. All the buildings here wear a coat of maroon paint, giving the square a decidedly foreign feel not found anywhere else in Malaysia. Unlike popular perception, however, the buildings were not originally painted maroon as you see today. Instead they were faced with bricks. When the authorities discovered the the brick façade leaks, they covered it with plaster and painted it white. Later, in the 1920s, the British changed the colour to a bright salmon red. The present local authorities darkened the colour further, so now we have the buildings in a maroon colour. Recent excavation revealed that beneath the Stadthuys there used to be a Portuguese settlement. A Portuguese well and drainage system were discovered. The remains of the A Famosa, the fort that the Portuguese built right after seizing Malacca, is believed to be buried under the Stadthuys car park today. Today, the Stadthuys houses three museums: the History Museum, the Ethnography Museum and the Literature Museum.

link to Flickr

Picture by superciliousness on Flickr - Dutch administrative building, now Malaysia Youth Museum

The Malaysia Youth Museum is a museum located at Dutch Square next to Christ Church. The building was originally built by the Dutch, and was part of the Dutch colonial administrative complex. In 1931, the British made it the Malacca General Post Office.

Picture of tk_yeoh on Flickr

Picture by superciliousness on Flickr - The Stamp Museum..

It is the state's oldest museum after independence and was once occupied by Westerhout family for 300 years until 1930.

Picture by ceka01 on Flickr - Architecture Museum Malacca

The building housing the museum was established as residence of the Dutch ruler of Malacca during Dutch colonial rule in 18th century after Stadthuys and Christ church. After independence, the Malacca water works Council took over the building until 1982. This building was gazette as a historical monument under the Antiquities Act of 1976. In 1998, the Department of Museums Malaysia carried out conservation work on the overall structure of the building and restored the building to its former condition prior to the waterworks council occupying the building. The rebuilt the upright staircase to the upper floors and highlighted the use of large windows and doors plus the protruding beams which was one of the unique and exciting elements of Dutch architecture.

Picture by superciliousness on Flickr - Heeren house (Heeren street) is one of the very well restored dutch storefronts

Picture by superciliousness on Flickr - Palace of the Dutch Governor

The Governor's Museum, also known as Muzium Yang Di-Pertua Negeri or Muzium Tuan Yang Terutama, is one of the many museums in Malacca. Formerly called Seri Melaka, the museum is housed in the former official residence and office of the Dutch Governor of Malacca on St Paul's Hill. The building was used as the official residence of the Tuan Yang Terutama, which is the title of the governor, until September 1996. The museum showcases the personal belongings of the various governors of Malacca since independence, beginning with the first Governor of Malacca, Tun Leong Yew Koh.

See this link to the Malacca Dutch heritage trail.

Books on Dutch Malacca.

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Picture by Ical_rz at Flickr - Baiturrahman Mosque

Mesjid Raya Baiturrahman opened in 1881. It is designed by Dutch architect Gerrit Bruins, and executed by L.P. Luijks. The building is executed under supervision of military engineers and the actual building done by Chinese contractor Lie A Sie, lieutenant of the Chinese at Oleh-Leh. The large mosque is located in the centre of the city of Banda Aceh (fmr. Koetaradja) in Aceh province, Indonesia. It is of great symbolic significance to the Acehnese people as a symbol of Acehnese religion and culture, especially since it survived the devastating 2004 tsunami intact. The mosque was built by the Dutch colonial administration as a token of reconciliation following their destruction of an older mosque during the Aceh wars.

Koetaradja / Banda Aceh

Sumatra - Indonesia

First stone 1879, completed in 1881, extended with two extra cupola's in 1935. Today the mosque is expanded to 7 cupola's.

bakauhiyon - Javasche Bank office - today Bank Indonesia.

This building survived the 2004 tsunami.
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ivcfjeannie's photostream on Flickr - Fort ElMina, capital of the Dutch Goldcoast

Dutch Gold - or Slavecoast / Ghana

(1637-1872) - 235 years

LFM's photostream on Flickr

Fort ElMina

The Dutch seized the fort from the Portuguese in 1637, and took over all the Portuguese Gold Coast in 1642. The slave trade continued under the Dutch until 1814; In 1871, the Dutch ceded the Goldcoast to Britain in return for Aceh province in Sumatra Indonesia.

Picture by Christine_A_ on Flickr - Elmina castle entrance

Wiki Commons

Wiki Commons - Fort Coenraadsburg - Fort Nassau

The ruins of Fort Nassau perched above the township of Moree/Mori, along the coastline of the Central Region in Ghana. - Fort de Goede Hoop

Having constructed a trading lodge at Senya Beraku in 1667, the Dutch were invited by the chief of the Agona State to build a permanent fort. Predicting the boom in trade of gold, ivory, and slaves, the Dutch agreed, and in 1702, construction began on Fort de Goede Hoop, which was strategically constructed on a high bluff which overlooked the cove used as a landing beach for the town, and offered an excellent gunnery position for the fort's cannons. - Fort Lijdzaamheid

Construction of the fort began in 1697 to secure the state of Acorn, which was held by the Dutch, but was precariously situated between Fante & Agona, which were under control of the British. - Fort Amsterdam, Cormatin

Picture by sarahsarl on Flickr - Fort Oranje - Sekondi

The Fort was built by the Dutch in 1690 on the foundations of a trading post opened in 1642.


More info: see this website

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Picture by ISKANDAR SANOESI at Flickr - Residency / governor's palace in Jogjakarta.


Java, Indonesia

Yogyakarta was founded in 1755 and was the capital of Mataram kingdom when the Dutch came along. The Dutch granted the kings by title Sultan of Yogyakarta territory. Yogyakarta was also the scene of Indonesia's most successful rebellions against the Dutch - firstly with Prince Diponegoro who waged a holy war against colonial rule from 1825 to 1830, and also serving as the capital of the newly independent republic after World War II when the Dutch reoccupied Batavia (Jakarta).

link - The Merapi vulcano seen from the Borobodur, close to the city of Yogya.

Picture by AlisonAJB at Flickr - Javasche Bank, now Bank Indonesia

Picture by sulutorobergas at Flickr - Javasche Bank

Picture by sulutorobergas at Flickr -Post & Telegraph Office

Picture by by ariawijaya at Flickr - Post & Telegraph Office

Picture by Rosenkugel at Flickr - Former NILLMIJ insurance company.

Picture by indore1983 at Flickr - Dutch style gabled house at Jalan Malioboro


Fort Vredeburg - Benteng Vredeburg

Fort Vredeburg is a fortress built in 1765 to protect the Dutch governor. It is located in front of Gedung Agung (Residence of the Dutch governor) and the Sultan's Palace called Kraton. It is surrounded by a trench that is still visible. This square-shaped fortress has a watchtower at each of its four corners. In the past, the Dutch troops patrolled frequently on its wall. Nowadays, the fortress has become a museum. In some buildings in the fortress there are dioramas on Indonesian history.


Picture by elsslots at Flickr

Picture by ceka01 at Flickr

Picture by ceka01 at Flickr

Picture by Firmansyah Afandi at Flickr - Monument Tugu Yogyakarta

Picture by ikanlele at Flickr

Picture by kimpraswilkotayogya at Flickr - Aerial of the Residency, Fort and the Kraton square

link - Kraton Gate (to the Keraton or Sultan's palace)

Picture by mberg68 at Flickr - Part of the Keraton (Sultan's Palace).
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Great thread.
Well edited and very informative.
Thanks for your effort!
Very informative. At first I thought the Melaka church was Portuguese. I've been very confused since so many European powers ruled there over the centuries.
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