- The Dutch colonial empire 1598-1975.
Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) / Dutch East India Company
Vereenigde Westindische Compagnie (WIC) / Dutch West India Company
Handelsposten, factorijen en forten / Trading posts or 'factories' and forts
In 1935, the Dutch colonial empire was stripped of it's former colonies South-Africa, Ceylon, Goldcoast and Guyana, but the Dutch East Indies + Suriname + the 6 Netherlands Antilles islands still comprised an area of 2.080.000 sq/km and with a total population of 69 million (1942: well over 80 million) it was after the British and French, the third most populous colonial empire in the world.
It all started in the 16th century with trading companies, that slowly transformed into political actors in the local powerplay exerting more and more territorial claims. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) eclipsed all of its rivals in the Asia trade. Between 1602 and 1796 the VOC sent almost a million Europeans to work in the Asia trade on 4,785 ships, and netted for their efforts more than 2.5 million tons of Asian trade goods. By contrast, the rest of Europe combined sent only 882,412 people from 1500 to 1795, and the fleet of the English (later British) East India Company, the VOC’s nearest competitor, was a distant second to its total traffic with 2,690 ships and a mere one-fifth the tonnage of goods carried by the VOC. The VOC enjoyed huge profits from its spice monopoly through most of the 17th century. During the 18th century, the power of the Dutch Republic and the VOC. declined and in the end the English clearly dominated the seas. From the 1800's the Kingdom of the Netherlands became hardly a 2nd rate European power, but grew into a first rate power in Asia. Curiously the Dutch today hardly ever speak about an empire, but statistics show otherwise. There's hardly a coast in the world that was left unmapped by Dutch cartographers or unvisited by Dutch ships and all over the globe traces can be found of short or longterm encounters with the Dutch.
However, this empire, like all others in history, was built at a human cost and this story is never complete without mentioning institutionalised slavery, racism and exploitation of people and their lands, which characterises colonialism. It's effects can be traced in many aspects of life in both the former colonized countries and the former colonizing country. This thread is focused on architecture and buildings as the most visible monuments of a system that has formally vanished but still today has a lasting effect on peoples lives. The material remnants often reflect the complex hybridity of the colonial context and in some instances they even form national symbols of present day bureaucracies.
Though most of the buildings were designed by Dutch architects and dictated by Western architectural styles, even the most ardent style-purists among architects could not escape the forces of context and culture. And like in colonial India, in colonial Indonesia plenty of buildings were built, designed or commisioned by Indonesians or the ethnic Chinese and Arabs. And while Dutch architects were strongly influenced by Indonesian culture, so too were Indonesian architects, contractors and clients influenced by Western architecture. Colonial architecture often is a result of climatological adaptions or the use of local building materials - and more importantly, the rich and diverse cultural contexts. In this hybridity lies the quality of these buildings. Architecture shows that the strict racial taxonomy of a colonial system could not be maintained.
Duration of the most important former overseas territories:
Important cities founded by the Dutch:
- Dutch East Indies/Indonesia - (1598-1948) 350 years - (1942: area. 1.919.440 km² - population of 72 million) * Dutch New-Guinea (till 1969).
- Suriname - (1600-1975) 375 years - (1975: area. 163,821 km2 - population of 361.000)
- Coldcoast/Ghana - (1637-1872) 235 years
- Ceylon/SriLanka - (1600-1805) 205 years
- Guyana - (1600-1814) 214 years
- Malacca/Malaysia - (1641-1824) 183 years
- Kaapkolonie/South Africa - (1652-1805) 153 years - (1800: area. 145.000 km² - population of 18.000)
- Mauritius - (1638-1710) 72 years
- New Netherlands/New York (USA) - (1626-1667) 41 years
- Dutch Formosa/Taiwan - (1624-1662) 38 years
- Dutch Brazil - (1624-1654) 30 years
- Japan (Hirado/Nagasaki) - (1641-1857) 216 years - trade monopoly
Dutch explorers chronologically (1580-1750)
- New Amsterdam/New York City (1614) - 8,5 million inh. (2019)
- Batavia/Jakarta (1619) - 10.7 million inh. (2019)
- Kaapstad/Cape Town (1652) - 4 million inh. (2018)
- Mauritsstad/Recife (1630) - 1.6 million inh. (2019)
- Willemstad (1634) - 140.000 inh. (2020)
- Olivier Brunel - 1584?: attempt to sail to Asia via a Northern Route. Earlier, in service of the Russian Stroganov's, Brunel reached the river Ob.
- Willem Barentsz - 1594: Sails along the western coast of Nova Zembla (and gave the island its name).
- Cornelis Nay - 1594: sails along Nova Zembla into the Kara Sea.
- Willem Barentsz - 1595: Failed attempt to sail beyond Nova Zembla.
- Cornelis Houtman - 1596-1597: first Dutch voyage to the East Indies.
- Willem Barentsz - 1596-1597: discovers Spitsbergen/Svalbard and Bear island/Bjørnøya. Rounds Nova Zembla, crew stranded and forced to spend winter in a wooden house.
- Jacques Mahu - 1598-1600: attempt to reach the East Indies via the Strait of Magellan. One of his ships land in Japan.
- Olivier van Noort - 1598-1601: sails through the Strait of Magellan and around the world.
- Pieter de Marees - 1600-1602: leads an expedition to the Goldcoast of African Guinea.
- Joris van Spilbergen - 1602: first Dutch captain to visit Ceylon and sails around the world in 1614-1617.
- Willem Jansz - 1605-1606: sails along the southcoast of New-Guinea and discovers New Holland/Australia.
- Henry Hudson (Englishman in service of the Dutch EIC) - 1609: discovers the river Hudson and sails it up to Fort Oranje (Albany).
- Abraham Blauvelt - (16??): city of Bluefields and Bluefield river (Nicaragua), Blewfields Bay (Jamaica).
- Hendrik Brouwer - 1611: discovers a faster route to the East Indies via the southern part of the Indian Ocean.
- Adriaen Block - 1613-1614: sails along the coast of New England and discovers the Connecticut river or "Versche rivier". Named Block island near Rhode (Dutch: Rode) island.
- Jan Jacobsz. May van Schellinkhout - 1614: Discovers and names the island of Jan Mayen.
- Dirck Hartog - 1616: lands on the shores of the western coast of New-Holland/Australia.
- Jacob Le Maire and Willem Cornelisz Schouten - 1615-1617: named kaap Hoorn (Cape Horn), Vuurland (Tierra del Fuego), Staten eiland (Isla de los Estados) and the Le Maire Strait was named in his honor. Searching for a new route to the East Indies. Discovered the Tonga islands the Hoorn islands/Wallis&Fortuna and the Schouten islands.
- Jan Carstensz - 1623: sails along the south coast of New Guinea and New Holland/Australia. Named Gulf of Carpentaria and discovers Arnhemland.
- François Thijssen - 1626-1627: explored the southern coast of New Holland/Australia, mapping more than 1500 kilometres.
- François Pelsaert - 1628-1629: famous as the commander of the ship Batavia, which ran aground in the Houtman Abrolhos off the coast of Western Australia.
- Matthijs Quast - 1639: discovers the Bonin Islands and mapped the coasts of Japan in more detail than before.
- Abel Janszoon Tasman - 1642-1643: discovers Tasmania, New-Zealand, the Fiji islands and visits the Tonga islands.
- Maarten Gerritsz. de Vries - 1643: first European to sail on Hokkaido, the island of Sakhalin and the southern Kurilles (Staten island, Company island, De Vries Strait).
- Abel Janszoon Tasman - 1644: reconnaisance of the northcoast of New Holland/Australia.
- Abraham Cabeliau - 1560-1645: maps Venezuela, the three Guyana's and parts of Brazil.
- Hendrick Hamel - 1653-1666: shipwrecked on Quelpaert eiland (Cheju-do), captured, after thirteen years, Hamel he managed to escape to Japan.
- Simon van der Stel - 1685: leads an expedition going north from Cape of Good Hope.
- Willem de Vlamingh - 1696-1697: explored the southwest coast of New Holland/Australia.
- Jacob Weyland - 1705: reconnaissance of the nothern coasts of New-Guinea.
- Jacob Roggeveen - 1721-1724: sails the Pacific in search of Terra Australis and discovers the Samoa islands and Paaseiland/Easter Island.
- Samuel van der Putte - 1721-1745: travels over land to India, Tibet and China.
- New Zealand
- Ile Amsterdam
- Kaap Hoorn/Cape Horn
- Paaseiland/Easter island (Chile)
- Barentsz Sea
- Tasman Sea
- Delft island (Ceylon)
- Tortola (Brit. Virgin Islands)
- Goree (Goeree) island (Senegal)
- Oranje river (South-Africa)
- Robben island (South-Africa)
- Mossel Bay (South-Africa)
- Drakensbergen (South-Africa)
- Van Diemen Strait (Japan)
- Îles de Horne/Hoornse eilanden, Wallis/Fortuna (Pacific)
- Cape Maria van Diemen (New Zealand)
- Groote Eylant (Australia)
- Arnhem land (Australia)
- Cape Duyfken (Australia)
- Van Diemen Sea (Australia)
- Houtman rocks (Australia)
- Cape Leeuwin (Australia) Wiki: Australian places with Dutch names list
- Van Rees mountains (New-Guinea)
- Schouten islands (New-Guinea)
- Vogelkop/Cendrawaish mountain (New-Guinea)
- Kaap Vals/Tanjung Vals (New-Guinea)
- Muller/Schwaner mountains (Borneo)
- New Amsterdam (Guyana)
- Jost van **** island (British Virgin Islands)
- Wilhelmina mountains (Suriname)
- Juliana Top mountain (Suriname)
- Van Asch-van Wijk mountains (Suriname)
- Oranje mountains (Suriname)
- Jan Mayen (Norway)
- Bear island (Norway)
- Spitsbergen/Svalbard (Norway)
- Barentsburg - (Spitsbergen/Svalbard - Norway)
- Verlegenhuken - (Spitsbergen/Svalbard - Norway)
- Heerland - (Spitsbergen/Svalbard - Norway)
- Ny Frislant (Spitsbergen/Svalbard - Norway)
- Hinlopenstretet - (Spitsbergen/Svalbard - Norway)
- City of Bluefields and Bluefield river (Nicaragua)
- Blewfields Bay (Jamaica)
- Vuurland/Terra del Fuego (Argentina)
- Staten eiland/Isla de Los Estdos (Argentina)
- Le Maire Strait (Argentina)
- Bahia Nassau (Chile)
- Isla Barnevelt (Chile)
- Wall Street/Wal of Waalstraat (New York City)
- Kromme Zee/Gramercy (New York City)
- Breukelen/Brooklyn (New York City)
- Vlissingen/Flushing (New York City)
- Haarlem/Harlem (New YorkCity )
- Nieuw Utrecht/New Utrecht (New York City)
- Lange Eylant/Long Island (New York City)
- Adriaen Blocks Eylant/Block Island (New York)
- 't Greenwyck/'t Greenwijck - Greenwich (NY State)
- Gravesant/Gravesend (NY State)
- Boswyck/Bushwick (NY State)
- Haverstroo/Haverstraw (NY State)
- Heemstede/Hempstead (NY State)
- Rood Eylant - Rhode Island
- Schuylkill river - (Philadelphia) Wiki: Toponymy of the New Netherlands list
NB: And the non-geographical but famous words: 'Yankee' derived from Jan-Kees and 'apartheid'
- Episode in the Anglo Dutch wars - The Four Days Battle.
Also read about: The Raid on Chatham: Great Britain's Pearl Harbour
List of colonies, factories and forts
(Dutch West India Co. operating area)
United States of America
- Jemseq - Nieuw-Brunswijk (Aug. 1674 - Sep. 1674)
- Dutch Arcadia
* Capital: Nieuw-Amsterdam/New York City (1626-1664/1665-1667)
New York State:
* Fort Nassau (Castle Island)
* Fort Nassau and Fort Oranje (present day Albany) (1615-1661/1673-1674)
* Beverswijck, Beverwijck (Albany): Fort Beverwijck
* Nieuw Amsterdam, Manhattos (New York): Fort Amsterdam
* Rensselaerswijck (Rensselaer)
* Colen Donck, Donck's heer land, Djoncksheerland/The Yonkers
* Staten eiland/Staten island
* Hastings, Newtown, Misput, Middelburg (Maspeth)
* Wiltwyck, Sopus, Esopus (Kingston)
* Muscoota, Haarlem, Nieuw Haarlem/Harlem
* Oostdorp, Westchester, Vreedland/Freedland
* Nieuw Dorp/Hurley
* Fort Beversreede (Philadelpia)
* Fort Nya Korsholm
* Fort Goede Hoop (Hartford): Fort Goede Hoop, Fort Huis ter Hope
* Prinseneiland, Moordenaarseiland (Murderer's Island, Prince's Island): Fort Wilhelmus.
* Altona, Altena (Wilmington): Fort Christina, Fort Altena.
* Blommaerts Kil, Horekil, Whorekill, Hoerenkill: Compagniesfort, Compagniesfort Whorekill.
* Pentagouet: 1674 - Sep. 1674.
* Fort Nassau (Gloucester)
* Pavonia, Hoboken, Pavonia, Bergen (Jersey City)
* Bommelerweert, Schoon Eylandt, Carrs Island, Juniosa Island, Hooge Eiland (Burlington Island)
New Netherland, or Nieuw-Nederland in Dutch, was the 17th-century colonial province on the East Coast of North America of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. The claimed territories were the lands from the Delmarva Peninsula to extreme southwestern Cape Cod. The settled areas are now part of the Mid-Atlantic States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut, with small outposts in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. The capital New Amsterdam (New York), was located at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan on upper New York Bay.The surrender of Fort Amsterdam to the British control in 1664 was formalized in 1667, contributing to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. In 1673 the Dutch re-took the area, but later ceded it (in return for Suriname) under the 1674 Treaty of Westminster ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War.
>x< Caribbean - Central America
(Dutch West India Co. operating area)
* San Juan de Puerto Rico (1625- 2 Nov. 1625 to Spain)
The Dutch occupied only the town and the fort of Canuela in the bay entrance. The fort of Canuela is retaken by the Spanish after three weeks. The Morro Fortress remain in the Spanish hands.
American and British Virgin Islands
* Sint Kruis (Saint Croix) Dutch east part- English west part (1625-1650)
* Thortolleneiland (Tortola): WIC post - sugar (1648-1672)
* Anegada: WIC post (16..-1680)
* Saint Thomas (1657-1666-1672) Dutch capital: Taphuus (Charlotte-Amalie)
* Virgin Gorda (1628-1680): WIC post.
Kingdom of the Netherlands Netherlands Antilles and Aruba (Dutch West Indies)
* Aruba (1634-1805/1815 >>)
* Curaçao (1634-1805/1815 >>)
* Bonaire (1633-1805/1815 >>)
* Sint Maarten (Ned.)/St. Martin (Fr.) (1620-1633/ 1644-1648 - treaty with the French to split the island - 1816 >>)
* Sint Eustatius (1636 >>)
* Saba (1620s/1640-1816 >>)
The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch: Nederlandse Antillen, Papiamentu: Antia Hulandes), also referred to informally as the Dutch Antilles, was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, consisting of two groups of islands in the Lesser Antilles: Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire (ABC Islands), in Leeward Antilles just off the Venezuelan coast; and Sint Eustatius, Saba and Sint Maarten (SSS Islands), in the Leeward Islands southeast of the Virgin Islands. Aruba seceded in 1986 as a separate country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the rest of the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved on 10 October 2010, resulting in two new constituent countries, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, with the other islands (BES-islands) joining the Netherlands as "special municipalities", officially public bodies. The name 'Netherlands Antilles' is still sometimes used to indicate the islands which are part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Trinidad en Tobago
colony Nieuw-Walcheren/Tobago (1628-1637/1654-1666/1667-1672/1676-1677)
* Fort Nieuw-Vlissingen
* Fort Lampsinsberg
* Fort Beveren
* Fort Fort Bellavista
* Fort Sterreschans
In 1628 a Dutch ship with 68 colonists landed in the island (called by them Nieuw Walcheren). They founded a fort called Fort Flushing near today’s Plymouth. In 1629 and 1632 more ships arrived from Zeeland to strengthen the small Dutch settlement. The history of this first colony had a tragic conclusion on 1 January 1637 when a Spanish expedition destroyed the settlement and massacred the colonists. In September 1654, a Zeelandian expedition under Pieter Becquart founded a settlement at Lampsins Bay on the opposite side of the island. This new settlement was named Nieuw Flushing. The island was divided between the Dutch and the Courlanders. By 1658, 1.200 men peopled the Dutch colony. On 6 December 1677, a new French fleet totaling 21 ships under D’Estrées landed in Tobago. This marked the end of the Dutch attempts to make Tobago a permanent Dutch colony.
* Trujillo (15 Jul. 1633-20/21 Jul. 1633 to Spain)
(Dutch West India Co. operating area)
* Punta de Araya
* Isla Tortuga (Dutch fort, 1668)
* Aves island (Dutch claimed possession as part of the Netherlands Antilles)
* Santa Marta (16 Feb. 1630-21/22 Feb. 1630 to Spain)
colony Suriname (1667-1975)
* Capital - Paramaribo
* Fort Zeelandia
* Fort Nieuw-Amsterdam
* Fort Sommelsdijk
* Fort Piet Hein
* Fort Para
First colonization around 1650 by the English. Disputes arose between the Dutch and the English. In 1667, the Dutch decided to keep the nascent plantation colony of Suriname conquered from the English, resulting from the Treaty of Breda. The English were left with New Amsterdam, which later became New York City. Slavery was abolished by the Netherlands in Suriname in 1863, but the slaves in Suriname were not fully released until 1873, after a mandatory 10 year transition period during which time they were required to work on the plantations for minimal pay and without state sanctioned torture. As soon as they became truly free, the slaves largely abandoned the plantations where they had suffered for several generations, in favor of the city, Paramaribo. In 1973, the local government, led by the NPK (a largely Creole, meaning ethnically African or mixed African-European, party) started negotiations with the Dutch government leading towards full independence, which was granted on 25 November 1975.
colony Dutch Guyana(1616-1814)
- Essequibo (1616-1814)
- Berbice (1627-1814)
- Demerara (1752-1814)
* Stabroeck (Georgetown - now capital of Guyana):
* Ft. Ter Hooge, Huijs Ter Hooge (Essequibo)
* Ft. Kijkoveral (Essequibo)
* Fort Zeelandia (Essequibo)
* Borsselen Eiland/Borslem Island)
* Ephraim Post (Epira)
* Forteiland, Vlaggeneiland/Flag Island)
* Nieuw Amsterdam 1 (Fort Nassau)
* Nieuw Amsterdam 2, Krabbeneiland/New Amsterdam)
* Aquewayse Post
* Cayouni Post
* Concordia Post
* Stevenburg Post, Concordia Post aan Canje River (Concordia Post)
* Hardenbroek Post (Wikkie Kreek Post):
* Huis Nabij
* Post aan Moruka Kreek
* Fort Nassau (Berbice)
* Nieuw Middelburg
* Fort Nova Zelandia
* Redoute Samson (Brandwacht)
* Fort St. Andries
* Post aan de Wironje Kreek (Post aan de Wiruni Creek)
* Redoute bij Wironje Kreek
Although Christopher Columbus sighted Guyana during his third voyage (in 1498), the Dutch were the first to establish colonies: Essequibo (1616), Berbice (1627), and Demerara (1752). The British assumed control in the late 18th century, and the Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814.
Guyana (French-Guyana) (1660-1664 en 1676)
* Fort Ceperou, S. Louis, Fort Cayenne (Cayenne)
* Post at the Aprowaco, Post at the Aprouak
* Post at the Wacogenive rivier
* Mecoria Island
* Post at the Wiapoco, Post at the Oyapoc, Post at the Oiapoque (Wiapoco)
colony Dutch Brazil (1624-1654)
* capital: Mauritsstad: (Fort Ernestus, Fort Ernest, Fort Altena, Fort Waerdenburgh, Fort Driehoek)
* Recife: (Fort Bruyn/Fort do Brun, Fort Buraco, Fort S. Antonio do Buraco)
* Boavista (Forte Cinco Pontas, Fort Vijfhoek, Fort Frederik Hendrik)
* Fort Ghijsselingh
* Itamaracà island, Tamaraca, Tamarica (Itamaracà): Fort Oranje
* Schoppestad, Van Schoppe stad, Nossa Senhora da Conceicao (Vila Velha)
* Fortaleza: Fort Schoonenburg, Fort Siara
* Fort Waerdemburgh
* Fort Ceulen/Reis Magos
* Sao Salvador da Bahia (10 May 1624-30 Apr. 1625 to Portugal)
Amazonas settlements (Amazone Delta):
* Fort Nassau
* Fort Oranje
Half of the Portuguese capitanias were taken. Bad policy and lack of vision by the Dutch West India Company after 40 years of Dutch rule eventually led to reinstatement of Portuguese rule.
* Chiloë - 1643: Attempt to conquer the island and take it from the Spanish failed.
(Dutch East and West India Co. operating area)
* Arguin (1633-1678/1724-1728)
* Tasso island (1664)
* Kaap Mount
* colony Goree/Goeree island (Goede Reede) (1617-1663 / 1664-1677)
colony Dutch Goldcoast/Ghana (1598-1871)
* capital: Elmina (1635-1871)
* Fort Amsterdam (Ghana) (near Cormantin) (1665–1721/1785-1867 treaty with Engeland)
* Fort Apollonia (16..-1768 / 1868-1872) (Cape Apollonia (Benyin))
* Fort Batenstein (near Butri)(1656-1665/166..-1872)
* Cape Coast Castle
* Cabo Corço or Oguaa (Swedish name: Carolusborg of Carlsborg) (16 april 1659- May 1659/22 Apr. 1663 - 3 May 1664
* Fort Conraadsburg, Fort de Veer (1810/1811), **Fort Naglas (1828), Fort Java (1828), Fort Scomarus (1828), Fort **Batenstein (1828). (28/9 Aug. 1637 - 6 april 1872)
* Fort Crêvecoeur (Ussher Town (Accra)) (1649-1782/1786-1868)
* Fort Elise Carthago (1650)
* Fort Goede Hoop, (1667 or 1705/06 fort–1782/1785-1867/68)
* Fort Hollandia(Poquefoe/Pokesu (Princess Town)) 1725 fort-1814/1818. 1687* - 1698/1711–1712/1732-1804 abandoned.
* Fort bij Kpone: (1697 - Apr. 1700 / 1706-..)
* Fort Leydsaamheyd (Fort Patience, near Apam) (1697/1698–1782/1785-1868)
* Fort Metaal Kruis, near Dixcove (1868-1872)
* Fort Nassau, near Mouri (16240 (1598 of 1611/12 – 1664/1665 – 1782/1785 - 1867 by treaty with Engeland)
* Fort Oranje, near Sekondi (1640 of 1670/75-1872)
* Fort Ruychaver (Jul./Aug. 1654-1659)
* Fort Santo Antonio de Axim (Feb. 1642–1664/1665–1872)
* Fort Elmina (capital)
* Fort San Sebastian, near Shama (1637-1664/1664–1872)
* Fort Singelenburgh, near Keta (..-1737)
* Fort Vredenburgh, near Komenda (1688 fort–1782/1785–1872)
* Fort Witsenn, near Takoradi
* Sekondi (1782–1785)
* Fort Komenda (1868-1872)
* Cong/Cong-hights: -1659.
* Anomabu (1640-1652)
* Egya: (1647-../1663-1664)
* Kumase (1837-1842/1848-1853/1859-1869)
* Petit Popo of Popo (Anecho/Aneho) (1731-1760)
* Klein-Popo (1731-1760)
* Groot Popo (1680-..)
* Ouidah (1670s. or 1687/1702-1724 or 1726)
* Jaquim of Jakri (Godomey) Fort Zeelandia (1726–1734)
* Offra (1675-1691)
* Appa or Ardra (1732-1736)
* Save (1660-..)
* Allada (1660-..)
* Benin (1705-1736)
* Badagri (1737-1748)
* Epe (1732-1755)
(1641-../..-1778 Portuguese, 1778-1968 Spanish)
Sao Tomé and Principe
* Sao Tomé (1641-1648)
* Principe (island) (1589)
*Corisco island (mandj): Factory (1642-1648 and 1680)
* Loango (Boary) WIC trading post in ivory and copper (1648-1686 and 1721-1726)
* Ngoyo or G'oy
* Mayumba (Majombo - Nyanga provice): factory
* São Paulo de Luanda (Luanda) - Fort Aardenburgh (26 Aug. 1641-21/24 Aug. 1648)
* Sao Felipe de Benguela: (Sept. 1641-1648)
* Pinda of Mpinda (Soyo): factory (1641-1648)
* Cambamba (Ensandeira island) - Fort Mols (1643-1648)
* Malemba (Malembo) (1641-1648)
* Cabinda (1641-1648)
colony Kaapkolonie/South-Africa (1652-1802)
* Kaapstad (Cape Town) - capital established in 1652.
* Fort de Goede Hoop (built in 1633)
In 1647, a Dutch vessel was wrecked in the present-day Table Bay at Cape Town. The marooned crew, the first Europeans to attempt settlement in the area, built a fort and stayed for a year until they were rescued. Shortly thereafter, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) decided to establish a permanent settlement. The VOC, had no intention of colonising the area, instead wanting only to establish a secure base camp where passing ships could shelter, and where hungry sailors could stock up on fresh supplies of meat, fruit, and vegetables. To this end, a small VOC expedition under the command of Jan van Riebeeck reached Table Bay on 6 April 1652. The British seized the Cape in 1795 to prevent it from falling into the hands of Napoleonic France, then briefly relinquished it back to the Dutch (1803), before definitively conquering it in 1806. British sovereignty of the area was recognised at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Around 1800, the Dutch colony was 145.000 km2 and had 18.000 inhabitants.
* Walvisbaai and other areas (1793)
*Delagoa Bay: Fort Lydsaamheid (1721-1730)
* Fort Dauphin
colony Mauritius (1638-1658 /1664-1710)
* Fort Frederik Hendrik
Portuguese sailors first visited it in 1507 and established a visiting base leaving the island uninhabited. Five ships of the Dutch Second Fleet were blown off course during a cyclone while on their way to the Spice Islands and landed on the island in 1598, naming it in honor of Prince Maurice of Nassau, the Stadtholder of the Netherlands. In 1638, the Dutch established the first permanent settlement. Because of tough climatic conditions including cyclones and the deterioration of the settlement, the Dutch abandoned the island after nearly a century in 1710. When it was discovered, the island of Mauritius was the home of a previously unknown species of bird, which the Portuguese named the dodo, as they appeared to be not too bright. By 1681, all dodos had been killed by the settlers or by their domesticated animals. An alternate theory suggests that the imported wild boars that were set free destroyed the slow-breeding dodo population.
Nieuw-Amsterdam island/Île Amsterdam
This island was discovered by the Spanish explorer Juan Sebastián Elcano on March 18, 1522, along his first world circumnavigation. Elcano did not name the island, however. Having found the island unnamed, the Dutch captain Anthonie van Diemen named it Nieuw Amsterdam (Dutch for New Amsterdam) after his ship in 1633.
Île St. Paul
The first detailed description of it (and possibly the first landing) was by Willem de Vlamingh in 1696.
(Dutch East India Co. operating area)
* Mokka (1620-1757)
* Aden (1614-1620)
* Muskate (1674)
* Basra (1645-1646 / 1651-..)
* Isfahan (of Ispahan): trading post (1623-1747)
* Bandar Abbas (of Gamron): trading post (1623-1766)
* Kharg: Fort Mosselstein (1750-1766)
* Band-e Kong (1665-1753)
* Lar (caravan-stop between Isfahan and Bandar Abbas)
* Kerman (trading post)
* Sjiraas (trading post)
* Sindi (1652-1660)
colony * Suratte 1616-1795
* Agra. (1621-1720)
* Ahmadabad (1617-1744)
* Vengurla (1637-1685)
Malabar (Southwest coast of India)
* Cranganore of Cranganor (Kodungallor) (1662)
* Cochin de Cima (Pallipuram) (1661)
* Cochin, Cochin de Baixo or Santa Cruz (1663)
* Quilon (Coylan) (1661)
* Cannanore (1663-1790)
* Kundapura (1667-1682)
* Kayankulam (ca. 1645)
* Ponnani (ca. 1663)
Coromandel (Eastcoast of India)
* Golkonda (1662-1733)
colony * Bimilipatnam, (1687-1795/ 1818-1825)
colony * Jaggernaikpoeram (now Kakinada) (1734 –1795/1818-1825)
* Daatzeram (now Drakshawarama) (1633-1730)
* Nagelwanze (1669-1687)
colony * Palikol (1613-1781/ 1785-1795/1818-1825)
* Masulipatnam (1605-1756)
* Petapoeli (Nizampatnam) (1606-1668)
colony * Paliacatta (now Pulicat) (1610-1781/1785-1795/1805-1825)
colony * Sadras (1654-1757/1785-1795/1818-1825)
* Tierepopelier (now Thiruppapuliyur) (1608-1625)
* Tegenapatnam, Kudalur (now Cuddalore) (1647-1758)
colony * Porto Novo (now Parangippettai) (1608-1825)
* Negapatnam (1658-1781)
* Malediven - Tuticorin of Tutucorim (1658)
colony * Hougli/Chinsura (1656-1814)
In 1656 the Dutch East India Company erected a factory on the site of the town, on a healthy spot of ground, much preferable to that on which Kolkata (Calcutta) is situated. At that point Kolkata was the principal Dutch settlement in Bengal (although not known by the name) used as a base for the Dutch intra-asian opium trade. In 1795, during the Napoleonic wars, the settlement was occupied by a British garrison. At the peace of 1814 it was restored to the Dutch. It was among the cessions in India made by the king of the Netherlands in 1825 in exchange for the British possessions in Sumatra.
* Pipely (1635-..)
* Baleshwar/Bellasoor, (1676-..)
In the mid-seventeenth century, the Dutch, who had replaced the Portuguese as the dominant power in Ceylon, established hegemony over Maldivian affairs without involving themselves directly in local matters, which were governed according to centuries-old Islamic customs.colony Sri Lanka (Ceylon) (1658-1796)
The king of Kandy Rajasinghe II made a treaty with the Dutch in 1638 to get rid of the Portuguese who ruled most of the coastal area of the island. In 1638 the Dutch attacked in earnest but ended with an agreement (which was disrespected by both parties), and not until 1656 that Colombo fell. By 1660 the Dutch controlled the whole island except the kingdom of Kandy. A mixed Dutch-Sinhalese people known as Burgher peoples are the legacy of Dutch rule. During the Napoleonic Wars Great Britain, fearing that French control of The Netherlands might deliver Sri Lanka to the French, occupied the coastal areas of the island (which they called Ceylon) with little difficulty in 1796. In 1802 by the Treaty of Amiens the Dutch part of the island was formally ceded to Britain, and became a crown colony.
* Fort Galle (Barstions: Zon, Maan, Ster, Zwart) - Before the Dutch took Colombo from the Portuguese, Galle was their headquarters.
* Fort Batticaloa (1638)
* Fort Frederik
* Fort Ostenburg
* Fort Matara - Redoute Van Eck (built from 1763-1765)
* Fort Tangalle
* Fort Hammenhiel
* Fort Pooneryn (1770)
* Baungdwet, Baung Dwet (Bandel) Arakan (Mrauk-U): trading office ca.1608-1631 1634- ?.
* Arakan (Mandalay): 1625-1665
* Siriam, Siriangh (Syriam): trading office 1635-1679
* Ava: trading office (ca. 1635-1679)
* Pegu: trading office.
* Martavaan/Martaban:trading office 1660-..)
* Arakan: trading office 1625-1665)
* Ayutthaya: factory (1613-1767)
* Patani/Pattani (1602-1623)
* Singora/Songkhla (1607-1623)
* Ligor/Ligoor- Nakhon Si Thammarat (..-1756)
* Oedjang Salang/Phuket
* Bangkok: factory - warehouse 'Amsterdam'.
* Ponomping (Phnom Penh)
* colony Malakka (Malay peninsula)
* Koela Linggi/Kuala Linggi: Fort Philippina.
* Salangoor/Kuala Selangor: Fort Altingburg, Fort Utrecht.
In 1641 the Dutch defeated the Portuguese to capture Malacca with the help of the Sultan of Johore. The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1798 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta) in Indonesia as their administrative centre. However they still left impressive architectural heritage and one can still find many people from Dutch descendance. Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra.
The Dutch East India Co controlled the Sultan of Johor - who controlled the island of Singapore
Dutch East Indies (Nederlands Oost-Indië)/Indonesia. From 1602 - December 27, 1949* 1968*[/B]
* Capital: Batavia/Jakarta (1619-1963)
* Makassar (Celebes)
* Medan (Sumatra)
* Padang (Sumatra)
* Palembang (Sumatra)
* Pontianak (Borneo)
* Banjarmasin (Borneo)
The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, was the Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia. During the 19th century, Dutch possessions in the archipelago and its hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest extent in the early 20th century. Traditional rulers who survived the colonial military conquests were installed as regents and indigenous aristocracy became an indigenous civil service. They were placed under a Dutch hierarchy of Dutch officials; the Residents, the Assistant Residents, and District Officers. This indirect rule did not disturb the peasantry and was cost-effective for the Dutch; in 1900, only 250 European and 1,500 indigenous civil servants, and 16,000 Dutch officers and men and 26,000 hired native troops, were required to rule 35 million colonial subjects. From 1910, the Dutch created the most centralised state power in Southeast Asian history with the capital in Batavia (modern-day Jakarta).
colony Netherlands New-Guinea (1882-1969)
* Capital: Hollandia, now Jayapura (1952-1963)
(Netherlands New Guinea refers to the West Papua region while it was an overseas territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1949 to 1969. Until 1949 it was a part of the Netherlands Indies. It was commonly known as Dutch New Guinea. It is currently Indonesia's province Irian Jaya). The Netherlands retained New Guinea when Indonesia became independent in 1949. The arguments of the Dutch government for this changed repeatedly over time. Starting in 1962, under pressure from the international community and under threat of armed conflict with Indonesia, the Netherlands relinquished control and a series of events led to the eventual official annexation of New Guinea in 1969 to Indonesia.
(Dutch East India Co. operating area)
* Ke-cho (Hanoi): trading office (1636-1699)
* Faifo, Pheypho (Hoi An): 1636-1741.China
* Kwantoeng, Canton (Guangzhou, Kanton): trading office (1749-1803)
* Whampoa (Huangpu): warehouse (ca. 1728-..)
* Hockzieuw, Hoksieu (Fuzhou): trading office (..-1681)
* MacauPescadores islands (1620-1624)
After the attempt to conquer Macao in 1622, the Dutch settled in the Pescadores islands (building a fort in Makung) between Formosa and China. In 1624 a Chinese attack compelled them to move on nearby Formosa.colony Formosa/Taiwan
* Fort Zeelandia
* Saccam: Fort Provintia, Fort de Provintieën
In 1624, the Dutch established a commercial base on Taiwan and began to import workers from Fujian and Penghu (Pescadores) as laborers, many of whom settled. They made Taiwan a colony with its colonial capital at Tayoan City (present day Anping, Tainan). The military presence was concentrated at a stronghold called Castle Zeelandia. Chinese naval and troop forces of Southern Fujian defeated the Dutch in 1662, subsequently expelling the Dutch government and military from the island after they ruled for 38 years.Japan:
* trade monopoly Deshima, Decima (Nagasaki): (1641-1857)
* trade monopoly Firando (Hirado): (trading office, 1609-1641)
(Dutch East India Co. operating area)
discovered in 1606
- Capt. Willem Janzoon on the Duyfken
; First European to set foot on Australian soil.
discovered in 1616
* Tonga islands
- Capt. Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire.
The Tongan people first encountered Europeans in 1616 when the Dutch vessel Eendracht made a short visit to the islands to trade - with Dutch explorers Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire (who called on the northern island of Niuatoputapu) and in 1643 with Abel Tasman (who visited Tongatapu and Ha'apai).discovered in 1642
- Capt. Abel Jansz. Tasman - named it 'Van Diemensland', later the English named it after him.
discovered in 1642
- Capt. Abel Jansz. Tasman - no futher colonization but temporary settlement.
discovered in 1643
- Capt. Abel Jansz. Tasman.
discovered in 1722
* Paaseiland/Easter Island
- Capt. Jacob Roggeveen on 5 april (Easter sunday)
discovered in 1722
- Capt. Jacob Roggeveen.
discovered in 1596
* Spitsbergen/Svalbard - whaling colony with many settlements.
Willem Barentsz made the first indisputable discovery of Spitsbergen/Svalbard in 1596, in an attempt to find the Northern Sea Route. From 1611, Spitsbergen became a base for whaling. Smeerenburg was one of the first settlements, established by the Dutch in 1619. Smaller bases were also built by the English, Danish and French. At first the outposts were merely summer camps, but from the early 1630s, a few individuals started to overwinter. Whaling at Spitsbergen lasted until the 1820s, when the Dutch, British and Danish whalers moved elsewhere in the Arctic.discovered in 1596
* Bear island/Bjørnøya - discovered by the Dutch explorers Willem Barents and Jacob van Heemskerk on 10 June 1596.
discovered in 1607
* Jan Mayen
In January the Noordsche Compagnie (Northern Company), modelled on the Dutch East India Company, had been established to support Dutch whaling in the Arctic. Two of its ships reached Jan Mayen in July 1614. The captains of these ships—Jan Jacobszoon May van Schellinkhout on the Gouden Cath (Golden Cat) and Jacob de Gouwenaer on the Orangienboom (Orange Tree) —named it Mr. Joris Eylant after the Dutch cartographer Joris Carolus who was on board and mapped the island. But later it was named after the captain. Jan Mayen first appeared on Willem Jansz Blaeu’s 1620 edition map of Europe, originally published by Cornelis Doedz in 1606. He named it Jan Mayen after captain Jan Jacobszoon May of the Amsterdam-financed Gouden Cath, perhaps because he[who?] was by that time based in Amsterdam.
explored in 1594
* Nova Zembla
Explorer Willem Barents reached the west coast of Novaya Zemlya in 1594 (and gave it it's name) and in a subsequent expedition of 1596.discovered in 1643
* Sachalin (Capt. Maarten Gerritszoon de Vries - first European to make an account)
discovered in 1643
* Koerillen/Kuriles (Capt. Maarten Gerritszoon de Vries - first European to make an account)
In the summer of 1643, the ship Castricum sailed by the southern Kuril Islands, visiting Kunashir, Iturup (named 'Staten Island', and Urup, which they named 'Company Island' and claimed it for the Dutch Republic. The ship passed between the islands of Iturup and Urup, the strait between the islands being later named 'De Vries Strait' after its discoverer, and entered the Sea of Okhotsk.
(1815-1830) - In this period Belgium was incorporated in the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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