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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
Seaweed


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jgWgYPeTYOM

"Blood Purifying: The chemical composition of seaweeds is so close to human blood plasma, that they are excellent at regulating and purifying our blood.
High in Calcium: They can contain up to 10 times more calcium than milk and 8 times as much as beef.
Alkalizing:They help to alkalize our blood, neutralizing the over-acidic effects of our modern diet.
Have Powerful Chelating Properties: They offer protection from a wide array of environmental toxins, including heavy metals, pollutants and radiation by-products, by converting them to harmless salts that the body can eliminate easily.
Contain Anti-oxidants: Seaweeds contain lignans (naturally occurring chemical compounds) which have anti cancer properties.
Detoxifying: They are rich in chlorophyll (the pigment that makes some seaweeds green) which is a powerful, natural detoxifier that helps to draw out waste products.
Boost Weight loss: Seaweeds play a role in boosting weight loss and deterring cellulite build-up. Their naturally high concentration of iodine, helps to stimulate the thyroid gland, which is responsible for maintaining a healthy metabolism. At the same time, its' minerals act like electrolytes to break the chemical bonds that seal the fat cells, allowing trapped wastes to escape."

Moringa

"Moringa is used for “tired blood” (anemia); arthritis and other joint pain (rheumatism); asthma; cancer; constipation; diabetes; diarrhea; epilepsy; stomach pain; stomach and intestinal ulcers; intestinal spasms; headache; heart problems; high blood pressure; kidney stones; fluid retention; thyroid disorders; and bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections.

Moringa is also used to reduce swelling, increase sex drive (as an aphrodisiac), prevent pregnancy, boost the immune system, and increase breast milk production. Some people use it as a nutritional supplement or tonic."

Aloe Vera
"Aloe medications can be taken by mouth or applied to the skin. Aloe gel is taken by mouth for osteoarthritis, bowel diseases including ulcerative colitis, fever, itching and inflammation, and as a general tonic. It is also used for stomach ulcers, diabetes, asthma, and for treating some side effects of radiation treatment.

But most people use aloe gel topically, as a remedy for skin conditions including burns, sunburn, frostbite, psoriasis, and cold sores. Some people also use aloe gel to help surgical wounds and bedsores heal faster. There is some science supporting these uses. Some chemicals in aloe gel seem to be able to increase circulation in the tiny blood vessels in the skin, as well as kill bacteria. Together, these effects suggest that aloe gel might be effective in speeding wound healing. But it’s too early to come to that conclusion. Evidence is contradictory. One study suggests that aloe gel may actually delay wound healing.

Some people take aloe latex by mouth, usually for constipation. Less often, aloe latex is used orally for epilepsy, asthma, colds, bleeding, absence of menstrual periods, colitis, depression, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, bursitis, osteoarthritis, and glaucoma and other vision problems."



Soy

"Many plastics are made from soy. It is in everything from paints and inks, to candles and soaps."

If the government can find markets for people I believe these potential existing markets.
 

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Discussion Starter · #2 ·
http://www.fwi.co.uk/business/so-you-want-to-grow-pharmaceutical-crops.htm

So you want to… Grow Pharmaceutical crops
Farmers Weekly Reporters
Wednesday 23 August 2006 9:00
What exactly are pharmaceutical crops?

Pharmaceuticals are one of three niche markets, alongside neutraceuticals (body/skin care products) and cosmaceuticals (cosmetics).

All three use plant oils or extracts to enhance or form the basis of new products.

In many cases, plants may have potential uses in more than one market, so for the purposes of this article we will look at all three end uses together.

What crops are we talking about?

Some you may be familiar with, others not.

The more common ones include borage (oil used to improve circulation and target blood disorders), sweet quinoa (used in gluten-free diets) and hemp (oil high in Omega 3 & 6 fatty acids).

Oil and extracts from poppy, camelina (Gold of Pleasure), echium (Purple Vipers Bugloss), calendula (Pot Marigold) and lunaria (Honesty) also have various nutritional and health benefits.

“Most plants have some bio-ingredient you could use, but its value needs to be proved first,” says Jacqueline Garrood, research and development manager at Yorkshire non-food specialist Springdale Crop Synergies

The findings from research projects will decide which new crops will be important in the future.

The benefits of lunaria to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) sufferers could make this a potential crop within five years, for instance.

Likewise, the pain relief benefits of cannabinoids extracted from hemp for multiple sclerosis sufferers are being investigated.

How big are the markets and how are they changing?

Argentina, eastern Asia, eastern Europe and Canada are big players in the specialist crop markets.

In the UK, borage and hemp are the most widely grown, with crop areas measured in thousands of acres.

But most others probably account for a few hundred acres, each spread among a handful of growers, says the National Non Food Crops Centre’s Ian Law.

Most markets are relatively static, he believes, though there may be potential for growth in some areas soon.

The anti-Alzheimer’s drug galanthamine, for example, can be made synthetically, but can also be sourced naturally from daffodil bulbs.

“Galanthamine is a relatively new drug, but the patent is already close to expiring, so we could see the market open up.”

Existing daffodil growers must research this market carefully, as many may be lifting bulbs at the wrong time for galanthamine production, he notes.

Remember, too, that the total volume of plant products required in specialist markets is small compared with traditional crops, such as cereals and oilseed rape.

Staffordshire firm Statfold Seed Oils’ Graham Lee estimates the total world market for hemp oil, for example, is only about 200t, of which Statfold supplies about 150t.

“Many farmers have latched on to the high prices, but you must remember that we are dealing with pretty small volumes.”

The desire among drug companies to ensure secure, traceable and ethically-produced supplies of raw material could also offer potential for UK growers.

Most poppies grown for morphine come from Afghanistan, but buyers are increasingly looking at sourcing supplies from growers in Hampshire (see case study).

“It’s a very competitive market and there are few contracts this year, but maybe next,” notes Dr Garrood.

What contracts are available?

There is a great deal of secrecy around contracts for pharmaceutical and neutraceutical crops.

Many growers are reluctant to talk up the prices they are getting and companies offering contracts may not want competitors to know what they are working on.

A number of companies source alternative crops or their derivatives, with most offering buy-back contracts to growers.

But contract details vary considerably depending on who you talk to.

All processors demand a reliable, consistently high quality product, free from contaminants like weed seeds and volunteers.

Many will stay with growers who can provide this every year, so establishing a good relationship is key, says Phillip Abbott, farm manager at Statfold Seed Oils.

“Security and quality of supply in the pharmaceutical industry is absolutely paramount,” agrees Dr Law.

This is one area where UK growers could score highly, given the importance already placed on crop assurance and traceability, he says.

Some pharmaceutical crops, such as cannabis sativa, are only grown in specialised glasshouses under licence from the Home Office, says GW Pharmaceuticals’ Mark Rogerson.

“There are a number of farmers growing hemp for fibre or oil, which doesn’t have the same psychological effects.

But cannabis sativa is illegal to grow without a licence and requires incredibly detailed control throughout the growing process.”

How easy are the crops to grow?

Whether you are growing for the pharmaceutical, neutraceutical or cosmetics market, any alternative crop needs a great deal of attention, says Mr Abbott.

“Too many people think you can just put a crop like borage in a field out of the way and let it get on with it.

You’ve got to pay 100% attention to detail.

The potential for many oil crops is very high, but those like borage can be quite volatile and you can end up with a complete disaster.”

Borage yields on his farm are typically about 0.4t/ha (3-4cwt/acre).

Soil needs to be of good quality, with all indices up to scratch.

Inputs are relatively low, but good weed control is important, he continues.

Most crops can be grown using standard farm machinery, although a draper header may be needed for borage and a stripper header on flax.

Borage also requires swathing, although this can be done by a contractor.

Because yields are relatively small compared with cereals, the amount of storage required can be significantly lower, he says.

One potential problem with growing spring-sown crops such as hemp and flax in the UK is that later harvesting may clash with bad weather in early autumn.

Many crops will require desiccation to ensure more timely harvest.

Mr Abbott prefers Reglone (diquat) in flax and hemp, depending on the season, as glyphosate is more likely to be translocated through the plant into the seed.

He does not believe proximity to processors has a big influence on where crops can be grown, as the higher prices (like borage at £2000/t plus) can easily cover higher haulage costs.

What return can I expect?

Compared with crops like wheat, the relatively low inputs required and high prices for a lot of alternative crops can seem very attractive.

But yields can be variable and end-users need to be found before the crop goes in the ground.

The table on page 33 shows a rough idea of gross margins for some of the key crops.

Mr Abbott has found similar performance, estimating gross margins for his borage, hemp and flax at about £617/ha (£250/acre), £494/ha (£200/acre) and £494/ha, respectively.

“A lot of the crops are only in the ground for 90-100 days, which also helps cash flow,” he adds.

Case study
Phillip Abbott
Statfold seed oil

With a total arable area of 260ha (650 acres) Staffordshire firm Statfold Seed Oil cold presses all of the seed grown on the farm for UK and international neutraceutical and personal care markets.

Sunflower, hemp, flax and borage are the main spring-sown “alternative” crops grown on the farm, alongside a small area (30ha) of winter wheat.

The company also crushes about 3000t of seed annually, which includes supplies from the UK and overseas (eg, Kalahari melon seed, hemp from China).

“People are constantly looking for new oils with new benefits.

For example, we have just blended a new cooking oil where the Omega 3 element from Camelina (high in Omega 3, a delicate essential fatty acid) is protected under shallow fry conditions,” says director Henry Noon.

Since setting up the business 10 years ago, £2m has been invested in converting old farm buildings, a bottling plant, cold store and buying/upgrading 10 cold presses.

It is now the largest producer of specialist oils in the UK, says owner, Graham Lee.

Any farmer considering growing for the specialist oil market must ensure they have a buyer lined up first, he urges.

“We’ve developed markets for our oil before the crop has even gone in the ground.

There is no sense growing anything unless you have a buyer for it.”

While they are keen to source crops from the UK, Mr Noon says they tend to avoid using contracts, as they want the flexibility to buy the best quality product every time, wherever it is from.

“Like our buyers, we will stick with growers providing they can supply the required quality and amount.”

Pharmaceutical crops need a lot of attention, says Statfold’s farm manager Phillip Abbott (above).

“The potential for many oil crops is very high, but those like borage can be quite volatile and you can end up with a complete disaster. You’ve got to pay 100% attention to detail.”

Case study
Angus Janaway
North Hampshire

Poppies are a welcome addition to the rotation for Angus Janaway in Hampshire. Some 77ha (190 acres) are contract grown for morphine processing under Home Office licence alongside oilseed rape, wheat and grass seed.

“They are not an easy crop to get right and can be very slow to get started.

Poppy seed is very small and seedlings can be quite vulnerable.

But if you’ve got good soil I am sure the crop will do well.”

A good seed-bed is crucial, he says.

Land (in his case chalk downland) is subsoiled in the summer, then ploughed and left over winter before cultivating twice and drilling in early or mid-March.

Importantly, the seed-bed is not rolled, as this can cause capping and may hamper emergence, he says.

All chemical and fertiliser inputs are stipulated by processor Johnson Matthey, which provides the contract, but Mr Janaway estimates variable costs are about £270/ha.

Once the crop has established successfully, the first of three payments (£100/ha) is made by the end of April.

Another £100/ha is paid post- harvest (31 October), with the final £100/ha plus any quality bonus paid by the end of February.

“From a cashflow point of view, they are a very good crop to grow.”

Poppies are sprayed off with Reglone (diquat) before being harvested with a specialised combine brought in by Johnson Matthey.

A sample is sent away for analysis and this will determine what bonus is paid.

“You are paid on morphine content, so yield is irrelevant.

You have to think about the alkaloid content, which is typically 15-20kg/ha.”

An extra £20/kg of alkaloid produced is paid under the contract.

The crop, which is normally cut at 15-16% moisture, is relatively easy to harvest, but on-floor storage and drying is needed.

Who can I contact?

There is no central body responsible for pharmaceutical or neutraceutical crops, so Dr Law of NNFCC suggests contacting individual companies directly. The NNFCC has a database and links to many companies involved in specialist crops.

National non-Food Crops Centre 01904 435 182 www.nnfcc.co.uk
Springdale Crop Synergies 01262 421 107 www.springdale-group.com
Statfold Seed Oil 01827 830 871 www.statfold-oils.co.uk
Croda (supply of speciality chemicals to personal care, healthcare and industrial markets): 01405 860 551 www.croda.co.uk
Karlshamns (manufacturer of high-value speciality vegetable fats for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals): www.karlshamns.com
GW Pharmaceuticals (pharmaceuticals from cannabis): 01980-557 000 www.gwpharm.com
Norfolk Essential Oils (grow and steam-distil herbs for essential oils): 01354 638 065 www.neoils.com
The English Chamomile Co 01366 728 922 www.chamomile.co.uk
Xenova (pharmaceuticals based on plants and organisms): 01753 706 600 www.xenova.co.uk




Read more on: ArableBusinessDiversification
 

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Discussion Starter · #3 ·
1 Galantamine hydrobromide, a compound derived from daffodil bulbs, is being used to treat Alzheimer’s disease.

2. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna)
All parts of this plant, especially the berries, contain the extremely toxic chemical atropine. Atropine is used to relax the muscles of the eye and to stop muscular spasms.

3. English yew (Taxus baccata)
The leaves of this yew are used in the synthesis of compounds called taxols, which are used in the treatment of breast cancer.

3. Fever tree (Cinchona succiruba)
A native of Latin America, the bark of the fever tree produces quinine, which is used to treat malaria.

4. Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)
Digitalis has been used since the 16th century to treat heart disease and its derivatives are still used in modern medicine.

5. Rubbertree (Hevea brasiliensis)
From rubber gloves to waterproof sheeting and prophylactics, latex plays an important role in health care and medicine.

6. Willow (Salix spp.)
The bark of the white willow contains acetyl salicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin. It has been used for pain relief for 2,000 years.
 

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Discussion Starter · #4 ·
Wikipedia has this plants. if we farm alot of this we can start Pharmaceutical companies and stop importing drugs from abroad

Abscess root (Polemonium reptans) is used to reduce fever, inflammation, and cough.[5]

Açai (Euterpe oleracea) Although açai berries are a longstanding food source for indigenous people of the Amazon, there is no evidence that they have historically served a medicinal, as opposed to nutritional role. In spite of their recent popularity in the United States as a dietary supplement, there is currently no evidence for their effectiveness for any health-related purpose.[6]

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaves are used to lower cholesterol, as well as forum kidney and urinary tract ailments, although there is insufficient scientific evidence for its efficancy.[7]

Aloe vera leaves are widely used to heal burns, wounds and other skin ailments.[8][9]

Arnica (Arnica montana) is used as an anti-inflammatory[10] and for osteoarthritis.[11]

Asafoetida (Ferula assa-foetida) might be useful for IBS, high cholesterol, and breathing problems.[12]

Ashoka tree (Saraca indica) is used in Ayurvedic traditions to treat gynecological disorders. The bark is also used to combat oedema or swelling.[13]

Asthma-plant (Euphorbia hirta) has been used traditionally in Asia to treat bronchitic asthma and laryngeal spasm.[14][15] It is used in the Philippines for dengue fever.[16][17]

Astragalus (Astragalus propinquus) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to strengthen the immune system, and is used in modern China to treat hepatitis and as an adjunctive therapy in cancer.[18]

B[edit]
Barberry (Berberis vulgaris) has a long history of medicinal use, dating back to the Middle Ages particularly among Native Americans. Uses have included skin ailments, scurvy and gastro-intestinal ailments.[19]

Belladonna (Atropa belladonna), although toxic, was used historically in Italy by women to enlarge their pupils, as well as a sedative, among other uses. The name itself means "beautiful woman" in Italian.[20]

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) used to treat diarrhea, scurvy, and other conditions.[21]

Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is used as an agent to reduce the blood glucose level.[22]

Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) is used by both primates and indigenous peoples in Africa to treat intestinal ailments such as dysentery[23][24]

Bitter orange (Citrus × aurantium) used in traditional Chinese medicine and by indigenous peoples of the Amazon for nausea, indigestion and constipation.[25]

Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) historically used for arthritis and muscle pain, used more recently for conditions related to menopause and menstruation.[26]

Blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus) was used during the Middle Ages to treat bubonic plague. In modern times, herbal teas made from blessed thistle are used for loss of appetite, indigestion and other purposes.[27]

Blueberries (genus Vaccinium) are of current medical interest as an antioxidant[28][29] and for urinary tract ailments[30]

Burdock (Arctium lappa) has been used traditionally as a diuretic and to lower blood sugar[31] and, in traditional Chinese medicine as a treatment for sore throat and symptoms of the common cold.[32]
C[edit]

Chili peppers
Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) has a long history of use in South America to prevent and treat disease.[33]

Cayenne (Capsicum annuum) is a type of chili that has been used as both food and medicine for thousands of years. Uses have included reducing pain and swelling, lowering triglyceride and cholesterol levels and fighting viruses and harmful bacteria, due to high levels of Vitamin C.[34][35][36]

Celery (Apium graveolens) seed is used only occasionally in tradition medicine. Modern usage is primarily as a diuretic.[37]

Chamomille (Matricaria recutita and Anthemis nobilis) has been used over thousands of years for a variety of conditions, including sleeplessness, anxiety, and gastrointestinal conditions such as upset stomach, gas, and diarrhea.[38]

Chaparral (Larrea tridentata) leaves and twigs are used by Native Americans to make a herbal tea used for a variety of conditions, including arthritis, cancer and a number of others. Subsequent studies have been extremely variable, at best. Chaparral has also been shown to have high liver toxicity, and has led to kidney failure, and is not recommended for any use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or American Cancer Society.[39][40]

Chasteberry (Vitex agnus-castus) used over thousands of years for menstrual problems, and to stimulate lactation.[41]

Chili (Capsicum frutescens)'s active ingredient, capsaicine, is the basic of commercial pain-relief ointments in Western medicine. The low incidence of heart attack in Thais may be related to capsaicine's fibronolytic action (dissolving blood clots).[42]

Cinchona is a genus of about 38 species of trees whose bark is a source of alkaloids, including quinine. Its use as a febrifuge was first popularized in the 17th century by Peruvian Jesuits.[43]

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is used for upset stomach and as an expectorant, among other purposes. The oil is used topically to treat toothache.[44]

Coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis) is used in a wide variety of roles in traditional medicine, including in particular as a broad-spectrum internal and external antimicrobial, for liver disorders, for intestinal worms and other parasites and as an immune-system stimulant.[45][46]

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) has been used as a vulnerary and to reduce inflammation.[47] It was also used internally in the past, for stomach and other ailments, but its toxicity has led a number of other countries, including Canada, Brazil, Australia, and the United Kingdom, to severely restrict or ban the use of comfrey.[48]

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) used historically as a vulnerary and for urinary disorders, diarrhea, diabetes, stomach ailments, and liver problems. Modern usage has concentrated on urinary tract related problems.[49]
D[edit]

Dandelion flower
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) was most commonly used historically to treat liver diseases, kidney diseases, and spleen problems[50]

Digitalis (Digitalis lanata), or foxglove, came into use in treating cardiac disease in late 18th century England in spite of its high toxicity.a Its use has been almost entirely replaced by the pharmaceutical derivative Digoxin, which has a shorter half-life in the body, and whose toxicity is therefore more easily managed.[51] Digoxin is used as an antiarrhythmic agent and inotrope[52]

Dong quai (Angelica sinensis) has been used for thousands of years in Asia, primarily in women's health.[53]

E[edit]
Elderberry (Sambucus *****) berries and leaves have traditionally been used to treat pain, swelling, infections, coughs, and skin conditions and, more recently, flu, common cold, fevers, constipation, and sinus infections.[54]

Ephedra (Ephedra sinica) has been used for more than 5,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine for respiratory ailments.[55] Products containing ephedra for weight loss, energy and athletic performance, particularly those also containing caffeine, have been linked to stroke, heart arrhythmia, and even death. Such products have been banned in the United States since December 2003. Other dietary supplements containing ephedra were similarly banned in February 2004.[56]

Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) leaves were widely used in traditional medicine as a febrifuge.[57] Eucalyptus oil is commonly used in over-the-counter cough and cold medications, as well as for an analgesic.[58]

European mistletoe (Viscum album) has been used to treat seizures, headaches, and other conditions.[59]

Evening primrose (Oenothera spp.) oil has been used since the 1930s for eczema, and more recently as an anti-inflammatory[60]

F[edit]
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) has long been used to treat symptoms of menopause, and digestive ailments. More recently, it has been used to treat diabetes, loss of appetite and other conditions[61]

Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) has been used for centuries for fevers, headaches, stomach aches, toothaches, insect bites and other conditions.[62]

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) is most commonly used as a laxative. Flaxseed oil is used for different conditions, including arthritis[63]
G[edit]

Garlic bulbs
Garlic (பூண்டு)(Allium sativum) widely used as an antibiotic[64][65][66][67] and, more recently, for treating cardiovascular disease[68][69]

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is used to relieve nausea[70]

Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaf extract has been used to treat asthma, bronchitis, fatigue, and tinnitus[71]

Ginseng (Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius) has been used medicinally, in particular in Asia, for over 2,000 years, and is widely used in modern society.[72]

Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) was used traditionally by Native Americans to treat skin diseases, ulcers, and gonorrhea. More recently, the herb has been used respiratory tract and a number of other infections[73]
Grape (Vitis vinifera) leaves and fruit have been used medicinally since the ancient Greeks.[74]

Guava (Psidium guajava) has a rich history of use in traditional medicine. It is traditionally used to treat diarrhea; however, evidence of its effectiveness is very limited.[75][76]

Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal) might be useful for dental plaque and weight loss.[77]

H[edit]
Hawthorn (specifically Crataegus monogyna and Crataegus laevigata) fruit has been used for centuries for heart disease. Other uses include digestive and kidney problems.[78]

Henna (Lawsonia inermis) exhibits potential antibacterial activity. The alcoholic extract of the root has antibacterial activity due to the presence of flavonoid and alkaloids. Henna is also thought to show anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects in experimental animals.[79]

Hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa)
Hoodia (Hoodia gordonii) is traditionally used by Kalahari San (Bushmen) to reduce hunger and thirst. It is currently marketed as an appetite suppressant.[80]

Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds, leaves, bark, and flowers have been used medicinally for many centuries. The raw plant materials are toxic unless processed.[81]

Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) dates back to ancient Roman and Greek medicine, when it was used to stop bleeding, heal ulcers and wounds, and treat tuberculosis and kidney problems.[82]

J[edit]
Jamaica dogwood (Piscidia erythrina / Piscidia piscipula) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety, despite serious safety concerns.[83] A 2006 study suggested medicinal potential.[84]

K[edit]
Kava (Piper methysticum) has been used for centuries in the South Pacific to make a ceremonial drink with sedative and anesthetic properties. It is used as a soporific, as well as for asthma and urinary tract infection[85]

Khat is a mild stimulant used for thousands of years in Yemen, and is banned today in many countries. Contains the amphetamine-like substance
cathinone.

Konjac (Amorphophallus konjac) is a significant dietary source of glucomannan,[86][87] which is used in treating obesity,[88] constipation,[89] and reducing cholesterol.[90]

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Kratom is known to prevent or delay withdrawal symptoms in an opioid-dependent individual, and it is often used to mitigate cravings thereafter. It can also be used for other medicinal purposes. Kratom has been traditionally used in regions such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

Kanna (Sceletium tortuosum) African treatment for depression. Suggested to be an SSRI or have similar effects, but unknown mechanism of activity.
L[edit]

Lavender blossoms
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) was traditionally used as an antiseptic and for mental health purposes. It was also used ancient Egypt in mummifying bodies. There is little scientific evidence that lavender is effective for most mental health uses.[91]

Lemon (Citrus limon), along with other citruses, has a long history of use in Chinese and Indian traditional medicine.[92] In contemporary use, honey and lemon is common for treating coughs and sore throat.

Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) has a long history of medicinal usage in Eastern and Western medicine. Uses include stomach ulcers, bronchitis, and sore throat, as well as infections caused by viruses, such as hepatitis.[93]

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Sacred lotus has been the subject of a number of in-vitro and animal studies, exploring its pharmacologic effects, including antioxidant, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-infective, hyperlipidemic, and psychopharmacologic activity[94] although clinical trials are lacking.

M[edit]
Marigold (Calendula officinalis), or calendula, has a long history of use in treating wounds and soothing skin[95]

Marsh-mallow (Althaea officinalis) has been used for over 2,000 years as both a food and a medicine[4]

Moringa oleifera is used for food and traditional medicine. It is undergoing preliminary research to investigate potential properties of its nutrients and phytochemicals

MoringaplantinGarden
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) has been used for thousands of years for a variety of medicinal purposes, in particular liver problems.[96]

N[edit]
Neem (Azadirachta indica), used in India to treat worms, malaria, rheumatism and skin infections among many other things. Its many uses have led to neem being called "the village dispensary" in India.[97]

Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has a history of use as for joint pain and skin conditions.[98]

O[edit]
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the plant source of morphine, used for pain relief. Morphine made from the refined and modified sap is used for pain control in terminally ill patients. Dried sap was used as a traditional medicine until the 19th century.[citation needed]

Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Used as an abortifacient in folk medicine in some parts of Bolivia and other northwestern South American countries, though no evidence of efficacy exists in Western medicine. Hippocrates used oregano as an antiseptic, as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. A Cretan oregano (O. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece as a palliative for sore throat. Evidence of efficacy in this matter is lacking.
P[edit]

Papaya (Carica papaya) is used for treating wounds.[99]

Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) oil, from a cross between water mint and spearmint, has a history of medicinal use for a variety of conditions, including nausea, indigestion, and symptoms of the common cold.[100
]
Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) and other species of Echinacea has been used for at least 400 years by Native Americans to treat infections and wounds, and as a general "cure-all" (panacea). It is currently used for symptoms associated with cold and flu[101][102]

Passion Flower (Passiflora) - Thought to have Anti-depressant properties. Unknown MOA. Used in traditional medicine to aid with sleep or depression.

R[edit]
Red clover (Trifolium pratense) is an ingredient in some recipes for essiac tea. Research has found no benefit for any human health conditions.[103]

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) has been used medicinally from ancient times.

S[edit]
Sage (Salvia officinalis), shown to improve cognitive function in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease[104][105]

Syrian Rue (aka Harmal) (Peganum harmala) - MAOI. Can be used as an antidepressant, but carries significant risk. Used in traditional shamanistic rites in the amazon, and is a component of Ayahuasca, Caapi or Yajé (which is actually usually Banisteriopsis caapi but has the same active alkaloids).
St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), widely used within herbalism for depression. Evaluated for use as an antidepressant, but with ambiguous results.[106][107][108]

Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) was used medicinally by the Seminole tribe[109]

Summer savory (Satureja hortensis) extracts show antibacterial and antifungal effects on several species including some of the antibiotic resistant strains.[110][111][112]

T[edit]
Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) has been used medicinally for centuries by Australian aboriginal people. Modern usage is primarily as an antibacterial or antifungal agent.[113
]
Thunder God Vine (Tripterygium wilfordii) is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammation or an overactive immune system[114]

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is used to treat bronchitis and cough. It serves as an antispasmotic and expectorant in this role. It has also been used in many other medicinal roles in Asian and Ayurvedic medicine, although it has not been shown to be effective in non-respiratory medicinal roles.[115]

Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum or Holy Basil) is used for a variety of purposes in medicine.[116]

Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a spice that lends its distinctive yellow color to Indian curries, has long been used in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to aid digestion and liver function, relieve arthritis pain, and regulate menstruation.[117]
U[edit]

Valerian flowers
Umckaloabo, or South African Geranium (Pelargonium sidoides), used in treating acute bronchitis[118]

V[edit]
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) has been used since at least ancient Greece and Rome for sleep disorders and anxiety.[119]

Velvetleaf (Cissampelos pareira) is used for a wide variety of conditions.[120]

Verbena (Verbena officinalis) is used for sore throats and respiratory tract diseases.[121]

Veronica (Veronica officinalis) is used for sinus and ear infections.[122]

Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) is used for skin care.[123]

W[edit]
Wafer Ash (Ptelea trifoliata) root bark is used for the digestive system.[124] Also known as hoptree.

Wahoo (Euonymus atropurpureus) is a purgative and might effect the heart.[125]

Wallflower (Erysimum cheiri) contains constituents that may affect the heart.[126]

Water Dropwort (Oenanthe aquatica) seeds are used for coughs, intestinal gas, and water retention.[127]

Water Germander (Teucrium scordium) has been used for asthma, diarrhea, fever, intestinal parasites, hemorrhoids, and wounds.[128]

Water Hemlock (Cicuta virosa) Despite being one of the most poisonous
plants in the world, it is sometimes used for pain and inflammation.[129]

Water Plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica) is used for the urinary tract.[130]

Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) may be diuretic and antibacterial.[131]

Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) may contain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds.[132]

White willow (Salix alba) is a plant source of salicylic acid, a chemical related to aspirin, although more likely to cause stomach upset as a side effect than aspirin itself. Used from ancient times for the same uses as aspirin.[133]

X[edit]
Xanthoparmelia scabrosa is a lichen used for sexual dysfunction.[134]

Y[edit]
Yerba Santa santa (Eriodictyon crassifolium) was used by the Chumash people to keep airways open for proper breathing.[135]
 

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Seaweed


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jgWgYPeTYOM

"Blood Purifying: The chemical composition of seaweeds is so close to human blood plasma, that they are excellent at regulating and purifying our blood.
High in Calcium: They can contain up to 10 times more calcium than milk and 8 times as much as beef.
Alkalizing:They help to alkalize our blood, neutralizing the over-acidic effects of our modern diet.
Have Powerful Chelating Properties: They offer protection from a wide array of environmental toxins, including heavy metals, pollutants and radiation by-products, by converting them to harmless salts that the body can eliminate easily.
Contain Anti-oxidants: Seaweeds contain lignans (naturally occurring chemical compounds) which have anti cancer properties.
Detoxifying: They are rich in chlorophyll (the pigment that makes some seaweeds green) which is a powerful, natural detoxifier that helps to draw out waste products.
Boost Weight loss: Seaweeds play a role in boosting weight loss and deterring cellulite build-up. Their naturally high concentration of iodine, helps to stimulate the thyroid gland, which is responsible for maintaining a healthy metabolism. At the same time, its' minerals act like electrolytes to break the chemical bonds that seal the fat cells, allowing trapped wastes to escape."

Moringa

"Moringa is used for “tired blood” (anemia); arthritis and other joint pain (rheumatism); asthma; cancer; constipation; diabetes; diarrhea; epilepsy; stomach pain; stomach and intestinal ulcers; intestinal spasms; headache; heart problems; high blood pressure; kidney stones; fluid retention; thyroid disorders; and bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections.

Moringa is also used to reduce swelling, increase sex drive (as an aphrodisiac), prevent pregnancy, boost the immune system, and increase breast milk production. Some people use it as a nutritional supplement or tonic."

Aloe Vera
"Aloe medications can be taken by mouth or applied to the skin. Aloe gel is taken by mouth for osteoarthritis, bowel diseases including ulcerative colitis, fever, itching and inflammation, and as a general tonic. It is also used for stomach ulcers, diabetes, asthma, and for treating some side effects of radiation treatment.

But most people use aloe gel topically, as a remedy for skin conditions including burns, sunburn, frostbite, psoriasis, and cold sores. Some people also use aloe gel to help surgical wounds and bedsores heal faster. There is some science supporting these uses. Some chemicals in aloe gel seem to be able to increase circulation in the tiny blood vessels in the skin, as well as kill bacteria. Together, these effects suggest that aloe gel might be effective in speeding wound healing. But it’s too early to come to that conclusion. Evidence is contradictory. One study suggests that aloe gel may actually delay wound healing.

Some people take aloe latex by mouth, usually for constipation. Less often, aloe latex is used orally for epilepsy, asthma, colds, bleeding, absence of menstrual periods, colitis, depression, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, bursitis, osteoarthritis, and glaucoma and other vision problems."



Soy

"Many plastics are made from soy. It is in everything from paints and inks, to candles and soaps."

If the government can find markets for people I believe these potential existing markets.
I use a paste made from 2 tablespoons of turmeric and moringa powder on my knee to get relief from pain. I have been using a good quality whole ground turmeric from horton spice mills (http://www.hortonspicemills.com/listing.php?pid=69 ), add black pepper as it helps in absorption, olive oil and mix it into a paste. It’s a nice alternative for fighting pain and chronic inflammation.
 

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You cannot build an economy on pot quite literally and figuratively (pun right there, intended or otherwise, there’s no other way to put this across).

Kenya has 55 million people, how many of them really care/approve of pot? This is crazy stuff. 99% of Kenyans don’t approve of this stuff - this is my gut feeling no official survey, would be happy to see official numbers. Talking of numbers, I know such a survey would not be authorized in kenya by the ministry responsible for research, it would not pass kenyan ethics standards and for that reason we will never see official numbers, just guesstimates.
 

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You cannot build an economy on pot quite literally and figuratively (pun right there, intended or otherwise, there’s no other way to put this across).

Kenya has 55 million people, how many of them really care/approve of pot? This is crazy stuff. 99% of Kenyans don’t approve of this stuff - this is my gut feeling no official survey, would be happy to see official numbers. Talking of numbers, I know such a survey would not be authorized in kenya by the ministry responsible for research, it would not pass kenyan ethics standards and for that reason we will never see official numbers, just guesstimates.
These “Kenyan ethics standards”, are they the same ones we use when we’re looting public funds or recklessly polluting our living spaces or are these a different set?
 

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Unfortunately instead of going the populism route no one is even asking for any medical research of Mary Jane.
 

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These “Kenyan ethics standards”, are they the same ones we use when we’re looting public funds or recklessly polluting our living spaces or are these a different set?
Bro you know they are different. Actually, you’ll be surprised how strict Kenya is in what it allows as research. And they monitor what you do. The reviews are thoroughly done. Extremely conservative. They have what I would call really good Kenyans on those teams - people who know what they are doing.m and they do their job. At least that was my experience running research projects.

How much they are paid after their review I have no idea. But I know there was no money paid by us apart from what was receipted and documented and required by regulations known to all.

Looting and pollution are a curse. I think there’s just laxity in law enforcement. We can and will do better.
 
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