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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
So here is the thread for all fortifications of Europe.I saw there are only threads about castles and stuff so I decided that we should have a thread for everything else :)
So here you can post pictures of any kind of fortification.It would be nice if you could also tell something about that fortification,like its history,is it a museum etc.

So I will first post about biggest fortification in my city.

Tvrđa (English: Citadel) is the Old Town of the city of Osijek in Croatia. It is the best-preserved ensemble of Baroque buildings in Croatia and consists of a Habsburg star fort built on the right bank of the River Drava. Tvrđa has been described by the World Monuments Fund as "a unique example of an eighteenth-century baroque military, administrative, and commercial urban center".
The star fort was constructed in the immediate vicinity of medieval Osijek after the defeat of the Ottomanforces in 1687, due to Osijek's strategic importance. Constructed to plans by Mathias von Kaiserfeld and then Maximilian Gosseau de Henef, all five planned bastions and two gates were complete by 1715. By 1735, the inner town was finished and three northern bastions had been added. When complete, it was the largest Habsburg fortress on the border of the Ottoman Empire. Tvrđa had street lights by 1717 and was the site of the first public water supply in Croatia, opened in 1751.
Tvrđa's military importance decreased after the Berlin Congress of 1878, with the increasing stability of the surrounding region. Parts of the fort were destroyed in the 1920s due to the obstacle they presented to the development of Osijek. While the fortifications have largely been removed, the fort's interior remains intact and is now home to churches, museums, schools and other public buildings, as well as numerous bars and restaurants. Tvrđa sustained significant damage during the Croatian War of Independence during the 1990s and was featured on the 1996 World Monuments Watch List of Most Endangered Sites.

Original plan of the fortress:



Today:




Some pics of this fortress
From air:







Water gates,the last gates (there were 4 gates,on east,west,south and north)







Few from old town:









Crown fortress on the other side of Drava river:









I dont have time for more pics but i will post later

:cheers1:
 

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Brilliant thread, I'd love to add a place from Italy.

This is the Cittadella of Alessandria, in Piedmont, north-west Italy. It is one of the best preserved example of citadels in Italy, built in the XVIII century and strategically located on the left bank of the river Tanaro. it has been used as a military stronghold by the army of the Kingdom of Sardinia and, after 1861, by the Italian army until 2007. It is now State-owned and used for concerts and other artistic happenings.

Screenshot from Google maps:



Uploaded with ImageShack.us

Other pictures are at everyone's disposal by clicking the following link: http://www.cittadellaemarengo.com/RaccoltaFotoCittadella/
 

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Discussion Starter · #3 ·
Slavonski Brod,Croatia (Largest forification of that type in this part of Europe)

The Brod Fortress from the Baroque period, was constructed during the Austro-Hungarian Empire to serve as a stronghold against the Ottoman Empire, which was situated on the other bank of the Sava river. It is in the Vauban style, named after one of the best European experts in the building of fortifications in 17th and 18th centuries. It is one of Europe's best preserved fortresses, and also one of the biggest on the former Austro-Hungarian Military Frontier. In a way, it is the continental obverse of Diocletian's Palace in Split, by its monumentality.






Panoramio (foto Ivica Kiš :))



How it should look like after reconstruction:







:cheers:
 

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Two fortresses in Northern Bohemia

Terezín / Theresienstadt





Josefov / Josefstadt



 

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Fortezza da Basso, Florence. Build up from 1534 to1537 by Pier Francesco da Viterbo e Antonio da Sangallo the younger for Alessandro dé Medici. it's nowadays used for exibitions and meetings.

(Photos from wikipedia)






 

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Wisegrad (Vysehrad) in Prague (gothic castle - first seat of czech kings -> fortress 1653) deserves to be mentioned here, too:







 

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The Netherlands

Bourtange


Willemstad


Heusden


Brielle


Fort Pampus


Naarden


Etc.

There are a hell of a lot of fortifications in The Netherlands and most of them are in good shape :)
 

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Discussion Starter · #9 ·
Netherlands have lots of those fortifications.They are in preety good shape I must say,my city has plans to re-build walls and trenches :)

This part is currently under reconstruction:



And it should look like this:





:)
 

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Venice, during various ages, built fortifications to prevent the access to the lagoon. These are some of the structures belonging to the fortification system of the Venetian Republic, whose project is due essentially to Michele Sanmicheli and which was realized during 16th century.
Forte Sant'Andrea










Alberoni octagon, one of five octagonal fortified islands




Photos from wikipedia
 

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Discussion Starter · #12 ·
those little islands are awasome :D
You can also post other types of fortifications like bunkers etc.
 

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One of the biggest fortress in Europe and one of the most famous in Italy, The fort of Fenestrelle, Piedmont.
The first fort was built in 1694, by order of Louis XIV, king of France. Few years later it passed to the duchy of Savoy and had a long history in wich was enlarged. It was used more as a prison than as a defensive structure. It is a series of 3 forts connected by a covered stairway. The lower part is at 1.800 m and the highest at 2.435 m of altitude.













the covered stairway:




Garitta del diavolo:

Photos from wikipedia
 

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Forts around Kaunas city (XIX century.) When Lithuania was occuped, tsar ordered to build forts around Kaunas city becose of German army invasion. Kaunas had become citadel for German army and stop them from going deeper in to Tsarist Russia occupying its teritory. Not all tsar plan worked well.
I FORT


II FORT


III FORT


IV FORT


V FORT


VI FORT


VII FORT


VIII FORT


IX FORT

 

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As far as fortifications go, you have to look very hard indeed to find a better one than 'The Rock' on British Overseas Territory - Gibraltar.

I am not talking about the old Moorish remains on the cliff face (although these in themselves are quite spectacular).

I am talking about the Great Siege Tunnels and carved living spaces built by the British that run inside the mountain they are about 30 miles in length.

Never captured once built, even after the Great Siege when Spain and France were both defeated by the British there during one of the longest ongoing sieges in history.

On his capture at the end of the siege in 1783, the Commander of the French and Spanish troops, the Duc de Crillon, on being shown the fortifications that had led to the defeat of his troops, commented " These works are worthy of the Romans".









 
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