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Discussion Starter #1 (Edited)
Human development : 2015 marks 25 years since the first Human Development Report introduced a new approach for advancing human flourishing. And while the expression “human development” is widely used, it is understood in different ways around the world. So on the occasion of the 25th anniversary year of human development reporting, we’d like to highlight how the Human Development Report Office (HDRO) presents human development.

Human development grew out of global discussions on the links between economic growth and development during the second half of the 20th Century. By the early 1960s there were increasingly loud calls to “dethrone” GDP: economic growth had emerged as both a leading objective, and indicator, of national progress in many countries, even though GDP was never intended to be used as a measure of wellbeing. In the 1970s and 80s development debate considered using alternative focuses to go beyond GDP, including putting greater emphasis on employment, followed by redistribution with growth, and then whether people had their basic needs met.

These ideas helped pave the way for the human development approach, which is about expanding the richness of human life, rather than simply the richness of the economy in which human beings live. It is an a(pproach that is focused on creating fair opportunities and choices for all people. So how do these ideas come together in the human development approach?

People: the human development approach focuses on improving the lives people lead rather than assuming that economic growth will lead, automatically, to greater opportunities for all. Income growth is an important means to development, rather than an end in itself.Opportunities: human development is about giving people more freedom and opportunities to live lives they value. In effect this means developing people’s abilities and giving them a chance to use them. For example, educating a girl would build her skills, but it is of little use if she is denied access to jobs, or does not have the skills for the local labour market. The diagram below looks at aspects of human development that are foundational (that is they are a fundamental part of human development); and aspects that are more contextual (that is they help to create the conditions that allow people to flourish). Three foundations for human development are to live a healthy and creative life, to be knowledgeable, and to have access to resources needed for a decent standard of living. Many other aspects are important too, especially in helping to create the right conditions for human development, such as environmental sustainability or equality between men and women.

Once the basics of human development are achieved, they open up opportunities for progress in other aspects of life.
Choices: human development is, fundamentally, about more choice. It is about providing people with opportunities, not insisting that they make use of them. No one can guarantee human happiness, and the choices people make are their own concern. The process of development – human development - should at least create an environment for people, individually and collectively, to develop to their full potential and to have a reasonable chance of leading productive and creative lives that they value.

The human development approach, developed by the economist Mahbub Ul Haq, is anchored in Amartya Sen’s work on human capabilities, often framed in terms of whether people are able to “be” and “do” desirable things in life*iii. Examples include

Beings: well fed, sheltered, healthy

Doings: work, education, voting, participating in community life.

Freedom of choice is central: someone choosing to be hungry (during a religious fast say) is quite different to someone who is hungry because they cannot afford to buy food.

As the international community seeks to define a new development agenda post-2015, the human development approach remains useful to articulating the objectives of development and improving people’s well-being by ensuring an equitable, sustainable and stable plane
http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/what-human-development
 

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Discussion Starter #2 (Edited)
Social development التنمية الاجتماعية

Social development is about putting people at the centre of development.This means a commitment that development processes need to benefit people, particularly but not only the poor, but also a recognition that people, and the way they interact in groups and society, and the norms that facilitates such interaction, shape development processes.

While the role of formal institutions and policies has become central to the development debate, the role of informal social institutions has received less attention. Debates on growth and poverty reduction have paid relatively little attention to the impact of, for example, norms of cooperation in villages and neighbourhoods, community oversight in the management of projects, or non-discrimination against women and minorities in education and health. Of course, micro-studies invariably highlight their importance, but can we measure such informal social institutions?

What exactly are these social institutions? We understand these as the behaviours, norms and conventions that pattern human interaction. Participation in local organisations, demonstrations, petitions, and elections are examples of such behaviours. Norms and conventions, often unwritten, govern human interaction, and are the lived relations between people. Norms of non-discrimination against groups based on ethnicity, language, or gender are examples of social institutions, as are norms of criminal behaviour and about civic activism.

Social development thus implies the change in social institutions. Progress toward an inclusive society, for example, implies that individuals treat each other (more) fairly in their daily lives, whether in the family, workplace, or in public office. Social cohesion is enhanced when peaceful and safe environment within neighbourhoods and communities are created. Social accountability exists to the extent that citizens’ voices are expressed, and heard by the authorities. Formal institutional reform – for example, the provision of legally enshrined rights, better law enforcement, or more participatory governance – are* part of the process by which institutional change is achieved, changing the way people relate to people is an equally important part of this.

The Indices of Social Development focus on measuring the informal social institutions, how they compare across countries, and how these changes over time. It does this by using existing databases, around the world, and combining these to find the best possible match with our definition of social development. Through an on-going process of expert discussion, and review of existing databases, we have organised the Indices of Social Development into five groupings:

Civic activism*refers to the social norms, organisations, and practices which facilitate greater citizen involvement in public policies and decisions. These include use of media, access to civic associations, and involvement in activities such as nonviolent demonstration or petition.

Clubs and associations*uses data on levels of engagement in local community groups, time spent socialising in voluntary associations, and membership of developmental organisations, to identify the extent to which people are part of social networks and potentially supported by community ties.

Inter-group cohesion*refers to relations of cooperation and respect between groups in a society; where this cooperation breaks down, there is the potential for conflict and acts of terror and riots.

Interpersonal safety and trust*measures the level of trust and confidence between individuals that do not know each other personally, specifically with regard to the likelihood of criminal violence and other forms of trust violation, and combines this with measures of rates of violence.

Gender equality*estimates the extent of discrimination against women, whether in the labour market, education, healthcare, or in the home
http://www.indsocdev.org/defining-social-development.html
 

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Discussion Starter #4
human and social development in morocco

2015 marks 25 years since the first Human Development Report introduced a new approach for advancing human flourishing. And while the expression “human development” is widely used, it is understood in different ways around the world. So on the occasion of the 25th anniversary year of human development reporting, we’d like to highlight how the Human Development Report Office (HDRO) presents human development.
 

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Discussion Starter #5
Social development التنمية الاجتماعية

Social development is about putting people at the centre of development.This means a commitment that development processes need to benefit people, particularly but not only the poor, but also a recognition that people, and the way they interact in groups and society, and the norms that facilitates such interaction, shape development processes.

While the role of formal institutions and policies has become central to the development debate, the role of informal social institutions has received less attention. Debates on growth and poverty reduction have paid relatively little attention to the impact of, for example, norms of cooperation in villages and neighbourhoods, community oversight in the management of projects, or non-discrimination against women and minorities in education and health. Of course, micro-studies invariably highlight their importance, but can we measure such informal social institutions?

What exactly are these social institutions? We understand these as the behaviours, norms and conventions that pattern human interaction. Participation in local organisations, demonstrations, petitions, and elections are examples of such behaviours. Norms and conventions, often unwritten, govern human interaction, and are the lived relations between people. Norms of non-discrimination against groups based on ethnicity, language, or gender are examples of social institutions, as are norms of criminal behaviour and about civic activism.

Social development thus implies the change in social institutions. Progress toward an inclusive society, for example, implies that individuals treat each other (more) fairly in their daily lives, whether in the family, workplace, or in public office. Social cohesion is enhanced when peaceful and safe environment within neighbourhoods and communities are created. Social accountability exists to the extent that citizens’ voices are expressed, and heard by the authorities. Formal institutional reform – for example, the provision of legally enshrined rights, better law enforcement, or more participatory governance – are* part of the process by which institutional change is achieved, changing the way people relate to people is an equally important part of this.

The Indices of Social Development focus on measuring the informal social institutions, how they compare across countries, and how these changes over time. It does this by using existing databases, around the world, and combining these to find the best possible match with our definition of social development. Through an on-going process of expert discussion, and review of existing databases, we have organised the Indices of Social Development into five groupings:

Civic activism*refers to the social norms, organisations, and practices which facilitate greater citizen involvement in public policies and decisions. These include use of media, access to civic associations, and involvement in activities such as nonviolent demonstration or petition.

Clubs and associations*uses data on levels of engagement in local community groups, time spent socialising in voluntary associations, and membership of developmental organisations, to identify the extent to which people are part of social networks and potentially supported by community ties.

Inter-group cohesion*refers to relations of cooperation and respect between groups in a society; where this cooperation breaks down, there is the potential for conflict and acts of terror and riots.

Interpersonal safety and trust*measures the level of trust and confidence between individuals that do not know each other personally, specifically with regard to the likelihood of criminal violence and other forms of trust violation, and combines this with measures of rates of violence.

Gender equality*estimates the extent of discrimination against women, whether in the labour market, education, healthcare, or in the home.

References

World Summit for Social development Copenhagen 1995,*http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/wssd/index.html
http://www.indsocdev.org/defining-social-development.html
 

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Discussion Starter #6 (Edited)
Human development التنمية البشرية

2015 marks 25 years since the first Human Development Report introduced a new approach for advancing human felourishing. And while the expression “human development” is widely used, it is understood in different ways around the world. So on the occasion of the 25th anniversary year of human development reporting, we’d like to highlight how the Human Development Report Office (HDRO) presents human development.

Human development grew out of global discussions on the links between economic growth and development during the second half of the 20th Century. By the early 1960s there were increasingly loud calls to “dethrone” GDP: economic growth had emerged as both a leading objective, and indicator, of national progress in many countries*i, even though GDP was never intended to be used as a measure of wellbeing*ii. In the 1970s and 80s development debate considered using alternative focuses to go beyond GDP, including putting greater emphasis on employment, followed by redistribution with growth, and then whether people had their basic needs met.

These ideas helped pave the way for the human development approach, which is about expanding the richness of human life, rather than simply the richness of the economy in which human beings live. It is an approach that is focused on creating fair opportunities and choices for all people. So how do these ideas come together in the human development approach?

People:*the human development approach focuses on improving the lives people lead rather than assuming that economic growth will lead, automatically, to greater opportunities for all. Income growth is an important means to development, rather than an end in itself.Opportunities:*human development is about giving people more freedom and opportunities to live lives they value. In effect this means developing people’s abilities and giving them a chance to use them. For example, educating a girl would build her skills, but it is of little use if she is denied access to jobs, or does not have the skills for the local labour market. The diagram below looks at aspects of human development that are foundational (that is they are a fundamental part of human development); and aspects that are more contextual (that is they help to create the conditions that allow people to flourish). Three foundations for human development are to live a healthy and creative life, to be knowledgeable, and to have access to resources needed for a decent standard of living. Many other aspects are important too, especially in helping to create the right conditions for human development, such as environmental sustainability or equality between men and women.

Once the basics of human development are achieved, they open up opportunities for progress in other aspects of life.Choices:*human development is, fundamentally, about more choice. It is about providing people with opportunities, not insisting that they make use of them. No one can guarantee human happiness, and the choices people make are their own concern. The process of development – human development - should at least create an environment for people, individually and collectively, to develop to their full potential and to have a reasonable chance of leading productive and creative lives that they value.

The human development approach, developed by the economist Mahbub Ul Haq, is anchored in Amartya Sen’s work on human capabilities, often framed in terms of whether people are able to “be” and “do” desirable things in life. Examples include:

Beings:*well fed, sheltered, healthy

Doings:*work, education, voting, participating in community life.

Freedom of choice is central: someone choosing to be hungry (during a religious fast say) is quite different to someone who is hungry because they cannot afford to buy food.

As the international community seeks to define a new development agenda post-2015, the human development approach remains useful to articulating the objectives of development and improving people’s well-being by ensuring an equitable, sustainable and stable planet
http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/what-human-development
 

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I wish you to search for 50 years National Report to see the statistics also includes huge part of Humain development history in Morocco , so Morocco is fixed for a long time in 128 place in Human development Report of United Nations,also there is a USA Program Millennium Challenge in 2 parts first part the budget of 700 Million $ and was finished in 2014 and the second part waiting for Approval in USA .

European Union Gifts Budget is very important to Morocco to Develop human development process and it is classifed as the first country who get these gifts according to the special place for Morocco as Partner with European Union in MENA zone.

Gulf Gifts and espacially Saudia Arabia , EAU and Qatar are important but these 2 last years , they obliged for Morocco to present to them real projects like CHU hospitals projects, Dams Projects.....

Moroccan Human Development Program which aims to reach 8 Million of the population which classifed as poor or suffer from poor infrasturacures is important to but this needs huge finacial resourses .
 
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