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Discussion Starter #1
Hello! I need photos of old buildings, reconstruction.
Interested in the following buildings Hungarian architecture: Castles, churches, public buildings.
Can upload photos here or send to me personally by e-mail:
[email protected]
 

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The medieval Hungarian architecture is a very huge topic. So maybe we start it with the architectural traditions of the Hungarian conquerors. The early medieval (5-10th century) architecture of the Eastern European steppe. The basic form was the sunken house. The average steppic peoples lived in this type of house and not in yurts or tents. Especially, since we do not have any sign, that the Hungarians ever used yurts and tents onto the basic dwelling. The peoples in the steppe lived in small villages, few sunken house and their farmyard, presumably a great family, the close relatives. The Hungarian name of this type of the village was "szer"

8th century remains of the sunken houses near the Donetsk river (Bulgarians):


9th century small village in the hillfort of Sidorovo (Donetsk region):


And excavation of a 10th century Hungarian sunken house:


The segment of the sunken house:


A reconstruction:


And a reconstruction of a small village (szer):


And finally a basic book about an excavation and reconstruction of an Árpád age sunken house: Bencze Zoltán, Gyulai Ferenc, Sabján Tibor, Takács Miklós: Egy Árpád-kori veremház feltárása és rekonstruckiója - Monumenta Historica Budapestinensia, 1999

But there was an another type of the buildings what the Hungarians used at this time, and this was the loghouse.

Remains of a 10th century Hungarian loghouse from Borsod:


And the reconstruction:


Remains of a 10th century noble residence (loghouse with stone base):


The reconstruction of the 10th century village:


source: Wolf Mária: A borsodi földvár - Edelényi füzetek, 2008
 

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The basic form of the fortifications in the Eastern European steppe was the earth-wooden structures (clay and stone in the arid region, but this not effected us). Dozens of huge and hundreds of small fortifications were being built in Hungary in the early 11th century. The huge castles (vár) were the county level centers of the royal administration, while the smallers were the castles of the nobles. And the motte was the basic type of the royal houses (curia), since this is the age, when the mottes style castles spread across the country also.

The wooden structure of these fortresses was very sophisticated:

source: Nováki Gyula, Sándorfi György: A soproni belváros "vörös sánca" kutatásának eredményei - Soproni szemle, 1987

The castle of Borsod (this castle build on the place of that village in the previous post):


These type of the buildings (except the mottes of course) were parts of the steppic architectural tradition of the Hungarians. And the age, the era of the christian kingdom started with this transition.
 

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The new architectural form between the Hungarians in the early 11th century was the church. Our first christian king ordered it that every ten villages (szer, look at the previous post!) build up a church, so this happened. But we do not have local traditions and even the conquered locals don't have architectural tradition after hundred years of pagan rule. So almost every stone and brick architecture was basically foreign origin in Hungary. Except the small churches, since the Hungarians or locals were skilled onto the fundamental masonry (look at the stone noble house for example in the previous post!). And the basic church building in the early 10th century was small and very simple. So there was a transition in the rural architecture and a huge foreign influence in the larger projects. The basic influence was North-Italian and Byzantine with some Caucasian tradition!

Öskü, 11th century rotunda. A typcial example onto the small rural churches of this age:


Tarnaszentmária is an example of hthe the medium size churc was being built with a nobiliary support from the 11th century and onto the Caucasian artistic traditons too:






A church was being built in all huge castles of the counties. The church of Szabolcs is a good example onto this bigger size buildings:




All of the early cathedrals destroyed so we have only reconstructions onto the main church buildings in the early 11th century. Székesfehérvár:


Or Kalocsa:
 

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We have very few knowledge about the secular architecture under our first kings. So I don't write about this, but after various coups and pagan rebellions started the consolidation of the christian kingdom and in middle of the 11th century great architectural projects started in Hungary. This is the story of the Hungarian romance architecture.

The common building material in Hungary was the brick everytime, because of the geographical situation (great plains and sedimentary origin hilly lands), while the stone architecture dominated the mountainous periphery and the rich centers only. So I start it with the Romanesque brick architecture.

Examples onto the small rural brick romanesque rotundas from the 11-12th centuries:

Szalonna:






Bény:



Examples onto the Byzantine/Caucasian style brick romanesque rotuntas from the 11-12th centuries:

Karcsa:




Gerény




Kiszombor


 

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Discussion Starter #7
Blogen- Thank you! Do you have a photo and reconstruction of the later medieval period?
Would have been interesting - following buildings: urban or rural market, mill( wind or water), castles , Palace ,tower, house, the University building, and so on.
And other public buildings.
 

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Blogen- Thank you! Do you have a photo and reconstruction of the later medieval period?
Would have been interesting - following buildings: urban or rural market, mill( wind or water), castles , Palace ,tower, house, the University building, and so on.
And other public buildings.
So not the medieval Hungarian architecture interests you, but only the late medieval public buildings!
 

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Hi!

St. Michael's Cathedral (Romanian: Catedrala Sfântul Mihail, Hungarian: Gyulafehérvári Szent Mihály érseki székesegyház) is the Roman Catholic cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Alba Iulia, Romania, and the oldest and the longest cathedral in the country.



Towards the end of the 11th century the transversal naves and the first part of the sanctuary of the present cathedral were built in the Romanesque style. During the Mongol invasion of 1241, the church was destroyed. In the middle of the 13th century the cathedral was rebuilt on the old foundation, in the transitory style between Romanesque and Gothic.
 
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