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dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #1 ·
I started this thread to discuss the big issue of "low cost" housing in IRaq.

first post, is the blurb from the national investment commission.
Dear Investors,

The National Investment Commission (the "NIC") is committed to bringing opportunities to the investor community that are essential to the Iraqi citizens, provide growth and development for the country and offer significant returns on investment. In line with these goals, we at the National Investment Commission are proud to be presenting this opportunity for investment in Iraq's housing sector.

This investment announcement to interested investors, parties, developers, financiers and construction companies is intended to begin a large-scale program addressing Iraq's significant housing and infrastructure shortages.

This announcement provides interested parties an overview of the proposed housing initiative and the preliminary requirements for project submission. If you have any questions on the memorandum below, or would like further information on the program, please communicate with us by email at [email protected]. The NIC will be conducting this process under Iraq's Investment Law (Law No. 13 of 2006). Timetables for this program are set under Timeframe below.

In response to this announcement, we require information regarding your company and your proposed approach on how to best address the housing and infrastructure needs, maintenance programs and overall development strategy. The same information will be gathered from all companies and will be used in the process of awarding of a development project hereunder. We look forward to hearing from those parties who want to be part of this historic effort.

Dr. Sami Al-Araji
National Investment Commission

The Iraqi National Investment Commission hereby announces the commencement of a housing program (the "Program") to develop approximately one million (1,000,000) housing units ("Housing Units") throughout Iraq. The NIC hereby seeks inquiries from investors and developers ("Developers") interested in participating in this program along with the terms explained below.

Overview of the Program
The NIC hereby announces the commencement of the housing program to develop approximately 1,000,000 housing units in total across Iraq's 15 Governorates and the Kurdistan Region. The number of housing units in each Governorate would be approximately those laid out in the table below entitled "Figure 1. Number of Housing Units in Each Governorate and the Kurdistan Region".

The basic aspects of the Program provide that the Iraqi National Investment Commission would grant a successful Developer of a project a plot of land and license - both on a conditional basis - to develop the requisite number of Housing Units allocated to a project, and potentially the required infrastructure as described further below.

The NIC will look favourably on Developers that seek to establish the developments using modern building technologies, which will allow them to complete the developments more efficiently in terms of cost and time. Upon completion of the development project, Investors/Developers would sell the housing units to individual purchasers, along the lines listed below under "Housing Purchase Program".

The NIC will oversee the implementation of the Housing Program throughout Iraq by coordinating its development through its various phases, including the granting of land to the Developers. The NIC will also coordinate the relationships between the Investors/Developers and appropriate Ministries, particularly the Ministry of Housing and Construction and provincial authorities to ensure a smooth development process, and to facilitate the activities of the Developers. The Trade Bank of Iraq ("TBI"), as lead financial arranger of the Program, will coordinate the financial packages related to the various developments throughout Iraq. With respect to the developments in Kurdistan, the NIC will coordinate this effort with the Kurdistan Investment Commission.

Housing Purchase Program
The Program will have the following features:

1. The Program will consist of a series of developments (each a "Development") across Iraq's 15 Governorates and Kurdistan Region. The aggregate number of Housing Units to be built on all the Developments will be approximately 1,000,000 housing units.

2. The Housing Units would likely be required to comply with certain basic criteria in considering size, layout, energy efficiency, construction material We believe that, in light of the housing shortages and the available plots of land in urban environments, the likely requirements in such areas would be that the units be in apartment buildings (depending on relevant municipal requirements and regional market demands) with each apartment having an area between 100 to 150 square meters (containing, at a minimum, three bedrooms, living room, bathroom, kitchen, and storage area). Accordingly, Investors/Developers should note the need for elevators in these apartment buildings when required.

With respect to locations in areas outside the major cities, we believe that the likely requirements in more rural areas would be for houses and smaller buildings, with the same size requirements for the apartments. The NIC would welcome creative design solutions that would amend these basic requirements with the goal of providing more optimal development arrangements.

3. We currently propose that the target sales price for each housing unit will not exceed fifty thousand US dollars ($50,000USD, given 100 square meter unit) or $500USD per square meter, taking account that the price for the unit in many governorates of Iraq will be less then the above mentioned price.

4. Currently, the program is set up whereby each purchaser of a unit will have an opportunity to finance a portion of the purchase. For example:
The purchaser will be required to make a down payment of 25% of purchase price upon signing a contract for a unit, which will be held in escrow with TBI (or approproved financial institution); with the remaining amount to be financed by a mortgage lender amortized over seven to ten years.
5. In connection with purchasing each property, each purchaser would be required to enter into a maintenance contract for the maintenance of the common areas of the Development (see "Maintenance Programs" below).

Infrastructure Costs
The Program will address the building of infrastructure in the following manner:

1. In each Development, further details will be provided regarding the existing infrastructure in the areas surrounding the subject Development location.

2. With respect to the infrastructure within the boundaries of the Development, each Investor/Developer will be required to build such infrastructure, the cost of which will be included in the sales price for the units on a pro-rata basis.

3. For purposes of each Development, it is anticipated that the infrastructure within the boundary will include among others: roads, water, sewage, electricity and telecommunications lines.

Mortgage Program
We understand that Investors/Developers will not want to become long-term mortgage lenders. Accordingly, the Program will include mortgage facilities, with TBI as lead financial arranger. The mortgage program will broadly include the following terms:

1. The mortgages to be offered to purchasers will be adjustable rate mortgages. NIC will also seek to make available in the mortgage program Sharia compliant housing finance.

2. TBI will establish appropriate credit criteria and monitoring systems with respect to the mortgagees. TBI, as administrative agent for the lending group, will obtain security in the form of a first priority lien on the title of each unit.

3. The Program intends to tap the significant liquidity available in the Iraqi banking sector. The Program also intends to tap other sources of liquidity both internal and external to Iraq.

4. The NIC and TBI will be coordinating their financing activities with multilateral financial agencies and institutions.

Maintenance Programs
The NIC understands that both purchasers and mortgage lenders would need to ensure that the value of the Housing Units would not deteriorate due to a lack of appropriate maintenance. The NIC envisages that, within each Development, all common areas and the outside of the units themselves would need to be well maintained. It is intended that specialized companies will be contracted to maintain these common areas. These companies would charge the owners of the housing units monthly management and maintenance charges.

Enticements for Investors/Developers and Certain Other Considerations
The Program will contain the following additional features:

1. In certain instances, the NIC will provide additional construction opportunities to the proposed Developments in order to supplement the Investors/Developers returns. Accordingly, the NIC would propose that particular Developments would contain certain commercial components, for which licenses would be conditional on agreeing to complete particular Housing Units. These commercial projects would include, but not limited to, Housing Units that do not have targeted sales prices, retail outlets (including shopping centers), hotels and office spaces. Input from Developers on the types of such associated commercial projects and on how their Development might be structured is welcome as part of Investors'/Developers' responses to this Announcement.

2. The NIC believes that each Development will contain requirements for the Developers to construct certain public services, such as schools, clinics and similar services.

3. In light of Iraq's housing shortage, the NIC will look favourably on Developers who intend to complete their proposed projects using modern building technologies, which would be anticipated to complete such Developments in a more timely and cost-efficient manner than the traditional building processes utilized in Iraq. Developers should note, however, that the NIC will review such modern technologies to ensure that quality would not be affected and that the materials and designs will be specific to regional requirements and market demands.

Response Process
The proposed program will be coordinated by the NIC under Iraq's Investment Law (Law No.13 of 2006). Accordingly, as this announcement has been delivered to interested parties, the NIC will establish additional procedures with respect to addressing specific Proposed Developments.

For questions regarding this announcement, you are welcome to contact the NIC via email at [email protected]

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #2 ·
so the main points are:

-target price of $50k per unit ($500/m2)
-25% deposit (15M dinar) - 75% mortgage with the trade bank of Iraq
-all roads sewages pipes etc included in headline price (but its not clear what they mean by "water and electricity" is it just the connecting pipes? or the actual generating units / RO machines?)

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #3 ·
part of the construction is done by the horrendous "ministry of housing and construction" (that spends most of its time OBSTRUCTING construction, rather than building).

here's a recent project in kirkuk (they build the typical low cost 3 storey "indian" blocks, due to their primitive technologies and to avoid expensive lifts and complex sewage systems).

Accomplish 95% of Panjah Ali Housing Estates Project in Karkuk

Ministry of Construction and Housing declared accomplish 95% of (Penjah Ali) housing estates in Karkuk.

A source in the ministry said that it was accomplished in a vertical way of building and it consists of 600 housing estates. It is consider as the first project of its kind that was executed by Al Mansour State Contracting Construction Company one of the Ministry of Construction and Housing formations in the province.

The source added that the work is continuing with a great effort by the project working staffs to accomplish it as soon as possible. It comes in the frame work of the ministry attempts to supply the suitable houses for all the citizens

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #4 ·
here's another Kirkuk housing estate built by the ministry of construction and housing... this is the "sayadin"

also 3 floor low cost "indian" type.

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #5 ·
on the ministry of construction and housing website there's a link to the "national housing policy" of iraq, supported by HABITAT (UN). This was published last month. English File iraq national housing policy.pdf

some excrepts.

Since the 1970s, the implementation of the General Housing Plan in Iraq stopped because of
the wars and governmental negligence of the housing sector at the time, despite being a major
engine of the national economy. This sector has the potential to create many and various job
opportunities, and to provide a social commodity to satisfy the Iraqi citizens’ basic need to
suitable and decent housing.
The current formula of the National Housing Policy in Iraq is the result of the fruitful intellectual efforts and
consultative expertise of Iraqi specialists and international experts over two years. The National Housing Policy
document constitutes a starting point for the Ministry of Construction and Housing and other sectoral bodies
in activating the basic elements of reform (in land, finance, legislation, building materials, dilapidated areas and
informal settlements), through which we aim to revive and create integrated and sustainable housing activity.
We put this national work in the hands of the Iraqi Government and the decision-makers with a view to adopt and
apply this policy and start executing it according to the strategies specified. This includes institutional and legal
reforms, and pilot projects as an appropriate kernel that can be reviewed and corrected in order to develop a more
appropriate form for the Iraqi reality, with a view to providing decent housing to Iraqis.

Eng. Istabraq Al Shouk
Senior Deputy Minister of Construction and Housing
Chairman of the Iraq National Human Settlements Committee

and from UN Habitat
As Iraq’s estimated housing shortage reaches approximately 2 million housing units, the
Government of Iraq has concluded that centralized systems of housing delivery can no
longer address the country’s increasing housing deficit. Through this policy the Ministry of
Construction and Housing outlines how the Government of Iraq will establish an enabling
environment to support the engagement of other actors in radically scaling up housing
provision; in particular the private sector.
Iraq’s experience reflects the global reality of unprecedented challenges in the housing sector as urbanization
leaves half of humankind living in cities and towns. Responding to this demand, the Habitat Agenda recognizes
that the formulation and application of effective enabling shelter strategies as critical to the realization of the right
to housing and the achievement of adequate shelter for all.
As such, the UN-HABITAT Iraq Program is confident that this policy sets Iraq on course to begin to address
its demands in the sector. The policy is built on thorough analysis of key thematic areas surrounding the
housing sector; access to land, access to finance, housing production, building materials, infrastructure, housing
management and maintenance and informal settlements, and has been developed through multi-stakeholder
debates and working groups, supported by national and global experts over an 18 month period.
However, this is just a starting point. Implementing the policy will require well considered institutional, legislative
and technical actions. UN-HABITAT remains committed to supporting the Government of Iraq as it implements
this policy, and looks forward to seeing the progressive realization of adequate shelter for all the people of Iraq.

A vibrant, flexible, and efficient system for the production of quality housing is essential for the continued
growth of the Iraqi economy. A major part of the capital stock of the country, housing supply must be built up
in line with infrastructure, industry, and community facilities such as schools and hospitals. Housing production
is a highly productive economic activity, capable of generating direct employment, income multipliers
and employment linkages at least equivalent to those of other conventional “productive” sectors such as
agriculture, industry, and services. Housing is also a social good, responding to basic needs of the citizens of Iraq.
The welfare of Iraqi individuals, families, and communities depends on the steady growth and improvement of
the housing stock.
This Housing Policy sets the broad parameters for the development of the housing sector in Iraq. It
reflects the need to accelerate housing production to meet demand and enable economic growth. The Policy
considers the fundamental role that housing must play in sustaining a productive and mobile population. It
considers as well the importance of the housing sector in responding to the needs of all Iraqis, consistent with the
changing demographics of the country. It also considers the importance of public investment both for the growth
of the sector as a whole and for the provision of housing to vulnerable and low-income groups.
While taking into account the rich Iraqi tradition of sustainable housing design and the country’s
considerable experience in mass production of modern housing, this policy is forward-looking. The recent
war caused widespread damage to the national economy, bringing many sectors to a standstill. Some housing
institutions critical to management of the sector in the past few decades are now moribund. The housing deficit,
already large at the close of the twentieth century, is greater still today. The housing policy is designed to address
the specific challenges of the post-war environment in Iraq and will be reviewed and revised in the medium term
to adjust to the changing social and economic conditions in the country. For now, there is both an opportunity to
accrue the housing benefits offered by housing production and a pressing need to introduce new housing delivery
mechanisms that can respond better and faster to the housing needs of people across Iraq.
As the national economy recovers, housing demand will increase, and more and more investment in

housing will be undertaken. This investment will, in turn, spur further economic growth. The policy seeks to build on
this positive, synergistic relationship to stimulate simultaneous improvements in the housing sector and the
national economy.
This policy addresses all housing in Iraq, including housing in urban areas, peri-urban areas, and rural
areas of the country. While most aspects of the policy relate to housing in all of these areas, some proposals are
specifically targeted at removing obstacles to efficient housing production and management in either urban or
rural settings.

the housing challenge in iraq

Analysis of the housing sector of Iraq reveals a broad set of challenges in the years ahead. Many of these challenges
“interlock” with others; that is, they form a constellation of interrelated factors that are best addressed in a
comprehensive manner. The main challenges are listed below in descending order of importance:
Substantial unmet housing demand as the supply side, constrained by a number of different bottlenecks,
has been unable to produce new housing in sufficient quantities to meet the needs of a growing population.
Current estimates suggest that about 2 million dwellings will be required in urban Iraq by 2016. This
represents 200,000 dwellings per year for the next ten years or about one dwelling every 45 seconds of
the working day.
Acute shortage of buildable land in urban areas. The land management system does not systematically
convert land to residential use or make land parcels available to various potential builders and developers.
Near absence of formal housing finance. There is little capital readily accessible today for either home
improvement loans or long-term mortgage financing.
Incomplete legal and regulatory system for private sector investment in housing. Efficient and low-cost
mortgage lending can only thrive where the value of the underlying asset can be converted to money.
Infrastructure backlogs in many residential areas and declining infrastructure service levels owing to
inadequate maintenance.
Many households cannot afford decent housing. There are no scaled-up programs to make these
individuals and their families potential consumers of housing in a market system.
Deteriorated housing conditions owing to underinvestment in housing maintenance. The capital stock
of housing is continuing to decline as a result.
Undercapitalized construction sector dominated by low-producing public companies. There are few
investor/developers to serve lower- and middle-income groups and sparsely populated areas.
Lack of established procedures for improving or redeveloping unplanned settlements.

housing policy objectives
This Housing Policy was developed to achieve the following objectives:
To facilitate access to decent housing for all Iraqis. “Decent housing” is understood to afford an adequate
amount of space, adequate protection from the elements, and access to basic infrastructure, social services,
and employment areas.
To increase efficiency in the production of housing.
To increase choice among Iraqis as to the type of housing, location, and tenure characteristics.
To increase the ability of the Government to address the needs of special groups and those unable to
afford suitable housing.
To improve the quality, including energy efficiency and environmental impacts, of new housing.
To improve the ability of homeowners to improve and expand existing shelter.

Five key principles guide the formulation of the housing policy.
1. The role of the public sector must be clarified and focused. A clear and concise role for the Government in
the housing sector is essential. Among the key elements of that role are:
• Overall guidance for the provision of housing by all players, in the context of managing urban growth and
advancing the public welfare.
• Analyzing the demand for housing based on current conditions, anticipated growth in population, and
changing demographics.
• Monitoring the overall production of housing of various levels of quality, service, and cost, and making
adjustments as required to promote housing production that can increasingly meet housing demand.
• Coordinating with other relevant bodies in the provision of infrastructure for residential areas.
• Attending to legal, administrative, and technical impediments to the growth of the housing stock in line
with demand.
• Paying special attention to the needs of the indigent and particular groups with unique needs.
2. A sufficient pace of housing production will require contributions from a variety of actors. The private
sector will continue to be the largest overall provider of housing. Specific strategies are necessary to support large,
medium, and small private sector builders and developers. Strategies are also required to enable households to
develop their housing units more efficiently and at an appropriate standard. At the same time, any public sector
housing developers should focus on underserved population segments and/or remote geographic areas.
3. A housing finance system must be rebuilt as a matter of urgency. The further development and expansion
of key financing institutions to enable short/medium/long term financing for the development, renovation,
extension, and purchase of housing is central to the success of the housing policy. Since housing is a long-term
investment and can serve to spark economic activity, it is fundamental that resources flow to the sector in an
efficient manner for all income groups and in all parts of the country. A key feature of a well-performing housing
finance system is sustainability: funds must be recovered efficiently from borrowers at all levels and then re-used
to finance additional housing activities.
4. Decentralization from the national to local governments for land use and infrastructure planning is
favored wherever possible. For resources to flow effectively to secondary cities and rural areas, participation by
lower levels of government will be vital.
5. New approaches to accelerate housing production. In addition to the systemic issues addressed in the
Policy, specific pilot approaches for implementation in the immediate term are necessary. Examples include
public-private partnerships, competitive sourcing for new housing development (“Request For Proposal [RFP]
Process”), and land wholesaling to developers. Housing and development standards must be continually reviewed
to ensure affordability of housing while not compromising key health and safety concerns, nor compromising
environmental conditions. Continual innovation in design, materials, energy efficiency, and environmental
impacts is to be supported.
On the basis of these principles and with a view to achieving the objectives

land management

There is a great need to increase the supply of affordable land in urban and peri-urban areas in Iraq. The demand
for land for housing exceeds the combined ability of public and private suppliers to respond. This is creating a
major challenge for both central and local governments.
At present, responsibilities and resources for land management and urban planning are highly centralized
in the Ministry of Municipalities and Public Works and the Baghdad Mayoralty. The Provincial Powers Act of
2008 stipulates, however, that such responsibilities and resources are to be devolved to governorates and larger
municipalities, and the abilities of these entities to meet such needs are to be strengthened.
Land for housing needs to be considered in relation to land for other uses, such as work and leisure.
Commercial and industrial uses generally command higher land prices than housing, and land used for high-
income housing commands higher prices than land used for low-income housing. Given these disparities where
the value of land, particularly in urban areas, is largely determined by its use, there are considerable prospects
for generating internal cross-subsidies within development schemes that include different land uses. Professional
expertise can maximize the surplus from high-yield uses to reduce unit costs for less commercially viable ones,
such as housing for lower income groups, while remaining within the discipline of market-based prices.
Issue: Many existing residential areas have been only partially developed: they either lack basic infrastructure, or
have large vacant land parcels within the existing urban fabric.
Policy 2.1.1: Rationalize land and housing development efforts by first undertaking infill development,
then extending infrastructure networks to existing, partially serviced peripheral subdivisions, and finally
developing new “greenfield” subdivisions on vacant land.
Rationale: In an effort to facilitate increased housing production, it must be taken into account that some types
of investments are more economically efficient than others. Infill development—the construction of new housing
units on existing vacant land parcels—is the most efficient, since basic infrastructure such as roads, water supply
networks, and sewerage already exists at the edge of the site. Infill development will respond to the need to increase
the supply of residential land while minimizing land development expenditures. High priority will be given to
developing centrally located infill parcels at least 5,000 square meters in area.
The second most efficient form of housing investment in Iraqi cities involves completing the servicing
of existing subdivisions. Plots in these subdivisions have been allocated, but often infrastructure was not installed,
and on many plots houses were not built. Making infrastructure improvements in these areas will stimulate
housing construction by existing holders of use or ownership rights to the land, thereby increasing the housing
Finally, where infill development and servicing existing subdivisions cannot satisfy local housing demand,
then greenfield development should be undertaken. This involves the conversion of peripheral land to urban use,
subdivision of the land, and installation of basic infrastructure to create fully serviced land plots that can enter the
housing market. Priority will be given to lands which have low agricultural value.

Issue: There are few institutional mechanisms for creation and marketing of serviced land plots for
residential use.

Policy 2.1.2: Use land wholesaling to mobilize expertise and capital for land development.
Rationale: Most residential subdivisions are created by public sector developers, of which the overall output
is insufficient. Sub-national governments will “wholesale” land for residential development. Provincial or local
governments will identify a large parcel of land (e.g., 50-100 hectares), provide any off-site infrastructure required,
subdivide the parcel into a number of sub-parcels, and transfer development rights to those sub-parcels at market
prices to private land developers. The private land developers will develop their sub-parcels, subdividing the land
and providing basic on-site infrastructure services, and then market the plots prospective households that will
develop their own housing units on the sites.
This approach will be tested in pilot projects during the initial phase of policy implementation. Based
on the results of the pilot projects, the approach will then be refined and rolled out to other locations in the
country. In all cases, the identification of individual projects will take into account the land uses and zoning
permitted under local development plans in effect.
Issue: Sub-national governments have inadequate information about the land and housing development
opportunities in their jurisdictions.
Policy 2.1.3: Sub-national governments will prepare inventories of serviced plots and land close to
services and assess the suitability of this land for housing development within current and future city
development plans.
Rationale: Even though there are substantial quantities of vacant serviced and un-serviced plots in Iraqi cities, the
public sector has inadequate information about the location and size of available land. Sub-national governments
can contract out the inventories to private firms and then publicize them through the most appropriate available
channels (real estate agents, municipal web sites, posting in public venues, etc.) to make the information available
to professionals and consumers in the market.
Issue: Land prices are subsidized in an inefficient manner that does not meet the needs of low-income families
and vulnerable groups.
Policy 2.1.4: The current heavy subsidies on allocation of public land will be progressively removed and
prices will ultimately be based on market values. Measures will be introduced to facilitate access to land by
low-income households and other vulnerable groups. These measures include reductions in minimum official
plot sizes, permission to subdivide existing larger plots to increase private rental housing provision, and
inclusion of social housing components in some commercially funded residential developments.
Rationale: To offset high and increasing land prices in the private market, the price of public land has been held
down for many years to the point where, in some areas, it is nearly free. This effectively distorts the land market since private developers cannot compete with subsidized government projects. The slow pace of Government in
developing public land further intensifies demand for land available in the private market, adding to inflationary
pressures. To reduce these distortions and establish a well regulated and sustainable land market, the regulatory
framework of planning and building standards and administrative procedures must be reviewed and changes made
where appropriate. Pilot projects for public-private partnerships, such as joint venture companies, requests for
proposals, and planning briefs can demonstrate effective development pathways despite land market distortions.
Issue: The land registration system is antiquated and not comprehensive.

Policy 2.1.5: Government will establish and maintain an electronic national title registration program, with
data entry in local offices, of information on physical, legal, and financial attributes of land and improvements
to land. All paper-based copies will ultimately be transferred to the electronic system.
Rationale: While the land registration system is minimally effective and not a hindrance in housing development,
issues remain over false and forged titles, multiple ownership claims, and informal settlements reducing percentage
plot coverage. RERD records are hard copy only. There is little up-to-date data on land ownership and transactions.
Residents in established squatter communities generally lack title to land, although there have been some land
titling regularization efforts (especially for martyrs’ families, veterans, poor families and widows).
Issue: There is no effective real property taxation.
Policy 2.1.6: Sub-national governments will institute and enforce a fair and appropriately scaled system of
real estate taxes.
Rationale: Although there are laws in Iraq to value property and tax housing transfers accordingly, and to tax
rental incomes, there is no annual tax on occupied property and the established tax on vacant land is not collected.
In the absence of annual property taxation, local authorities are missing out on an important revenue stream for
funding local services. Property values rise with infrastructure investments. A tax on all real estate, including
housing and the land it rests on, would allow infrastructure providers such as municipal authorities to recover
part of the cost of building roads, water systems, wastewater systems, and other shelter-related infrastructure. Very
low-income owners may be exempted as a welfare measure as necessary.
Issue: There is inadequate variety in plot sizes to respond to the full range of housing demand based on income
and household characteristics.
Policy 2.1.7: Local governments will be encouraged and supported in providing a wide variation of plot
sizes, especially to involve the household in providing rented rooms through extension of their housing units,
effectively leveraging household resources for housing investment.
Rationale: Most residential plots in Iraq are in the 180-250 square meters range. Similarly, dwelling size varies
little with a general range of 140-215 square meters. These norms impose costs that are not affordable to all
households. A range of plot sizes would increase access to housing for low-income households and encourage the
subdivision of larger plots to provide rooms for rent. Borrowing rules for mortgage finance will be accordingly
amended to allow holders of use rights to small plots to be able to use them to secure collateralized mortgages.
Issue: The process of converting agricultural land to urban uses is inefficient and lacking in transparency.
Policy 2.1.8: The process of converting agricultural land to urban uses will be streamlined and publicized.
Information will be provided to the public, including holders of use rights of peripheral land, on the process
(regulatory systems and procedures) to transfer agricultural land to urban uses. Preference for conversion will
be given to desert land and land of poor agricultural quality, where available. In the case of towns without
an updated master plan, a two-step process will be adopted: 1) Rezone a limited area to respond to any
surplus demand (above and beyond infill and peripheral incomplete subdivisions); 2) After the master plan is completed, rezone more land consistent with projected future housing needs.
Rationale: While priority should be given to the development of urban infill plots and vacant land on the urban

periphery, the conversion of some agricultural land to urban use will also be necessary to meet current and
future housing needs. Most of this land now lies beyond municipal boundaries and municipalities lack the
authority (and resources) to extend services. As master plans are updated, more of this land may be included in
municipal areas, and some farmers would be ready to partner with developers in subdividing and selling their
land. By defining, streamlining (as required) and publicizing the process, sub-national governments will enable
participation in the process by current holders of use rights to peripheral land, which will increase the land supply
and allow land owners to capture some of the benefits of land development.
Issue: Planning, implementation, and management of land is centralized and therefore inefficient and
unresponsive to local needs.
Policy 2.1.9: Authority to prepare and implement projects and manage land will be devolved to the appropriate
local level. Staff and the resources to employ staff will be progressively transferred from line ministries to local
levels, although central authorities may continue to manage these responsibilities for smaller municipalities
not yet able to do so themselves. Integration between the departments of the Ministry of Municipalities and
Works and their branches in provinces will be augmented at the planning and executive levels.
Rationale: The recent decentralization law passes responsibility for the provision of land for housing projects
from the Ministry of Municipalities and Public Works and Baghdad Mayoralty through to municipal councils,
the Governorates, or the Directorate of Investments. The current arrangements, in which plans are made at
central level and implemented locally, will be replaced by investing in governorates or municipalities the authority
to develop and implement their own land use plans. This change will require new laws and implementing
Iraq has a rich tradition of housing design and construction. In recent years, the key housing producers – most
of them public companies – have been unable to build enough housing to satisfy demand. To respond to the
growing housing deficit, a broad range of housing producers will have to be mobilized. Iraq’s housing needs are
not only great, but also diverse. Some urban residents require high-density multi-story housing, which is typically
constructed by large, well-capitalized builders. At the same time, there is substantial demand for single-family
and low-rise housing, to which a broader array of builders can respond. Most housing in Iraq is constructed by
small-scale builders who work for individual clients that provide the design and financing for the house. While few in this group will ever produce large multi-story projects, their contribution in the aggregate is nonetheless
important. Any steps that can be taken to lower the fixed costs of operation for these builders and to stabilize
the demand for the housing they provide will serve to benefit these companies and ultimately serve the housing
needs of Iraq. The housing industry also needs to respond to demand in peri-urban and rural areas across the
country. Disparities in construction costs around Iraq are indicative of bottlenecks in building materials and labor
markets, but also reflect legal and administrative impediments to housing construction. These impediments drive
up housing costs and eventually housing prices. In a competitive environment, rising housing costs diminish the
profits of builders and discourage further housing production.
The State Commission for Housing can make a significant contribution by changing the way in which
public housing is provided, to be more relevant to local conditions and needs. The Government’s role in direct
housing production will become smaller as the private sector’s role grows. Limited public resources will ultimately
dictate a more targeted production role for public entities to serve those who cannot be well-served by the private
sector owing to income or special circumstances.

The IHMS survey highlighted the owner-builder and incremental path to housing as an important
current and future approach to improving and expanding the housing stock. This is a business model with
which many Iraqis are comfortable, and which must continue to play an important role even as other models are
encouraged over time. In a market economy, the construction sector cannot be separated neatly from housing
development as a speculative business. The potential to make profit drives private investment in housing, which
in a well-functioning market increases housing supply efficiently. While much of the single family housing today
is built for the owner, as the economy improves, developers need to help provide a steady delivery of housing
in anticipation of demand. At the larger scale, the ability of construction companies to work effectively with
investors, foreign and domestic, is also important. This requires more advanced financing and bonding systems as
well as more innovative contracting and subcontracting relationships.
Innovation will be key to improving conditions in the housing sector. Just as innovative designs and
building materials will improve the quality of housing units, innovative housing production methods will enable
supply to approach demand. Public and private sector entities need to find new, productive ways of working
together on housing projects and programs. Iraq can take advantage of existing international models for public-
private partnerships and develop some indigenous mechanisms that are particularly suited to the regulatory,
economic and social climate of the country.
The overall approach is to increase housing production by enabling private sector builders and developers
to enter the market. The public sector regulates the sector, creating the incentives and/or removing the obstacles
to increased private sector activity. At the same time, public housing construction companies are to be refocused
to serve vulnerable or underserved population groups.
The transition to an enabling framework in which private builders provide most new housing in Iraq
will take time. The reduction in public construction of housing will be done at a pace commensurate with the
increase in privately built housing. Other parts of the housing policy (Land Management, Housing Finance and
Affordability) also contribute significantly to this paradigm shift. Policies that are specific to Housing Production
are identified below.
Issue: There are few existing mid-sized housing developers that can produce small and medium multi-unit housing
projects in Iraqi cities.
Policy 2.2.1: The public sector will facilitate the emergence of capable, mid-sized private housing developers
by (1) creating a level playing field where private developers can compete fairly against public ones; (2)
facilitating access to land and finance; and (3) providing technical assistance on a project basis to improve
developers’ technical and managerial capacity.
Rationale: All Iraqi cities have small-scale builders that can construct houses for private clients. Some cities have
large developers that can build and market large subdivisions. But the middle of the industry is underdeveloped,
and more mid-sized developers are needed to contribute to housing production by building projects in the
range of 5 to 50 dwelling units. To create a level playing field, government will discontinue fiscal and financial advantages enjoyed by public-sector housing producers: interest-free loans, waivers of requirements to provide a
bank guarantee, tax exemptions, and land at concessional prices. Sub-national governments will facilitate access
to land through land wholesaling (see policy under “Land Management” above.) Through the reform proposals
for housing finance (see below), commercial banks will be enabled to provide construction finance to housing
developers. Government will provide industry-specific technical assistance to developers to structure public-private
partnerships for housing development (see policy under “Land Management” above). Moreover, developers will be
encouraged to participate in other training programs focusing on general business, management and marketing
skills offered to the private sector in Iraq.
Issue: State-owned construction contractors are not making a significant contribution to addressing the housing
Policy 2.2.2: The Ministry will rationalize its portfolio of public-sector construction contractors by
consolidating them in to a smaller number of entities and orienting them towards production of low-income
Rationale: The existence of inefficient companies with an unclear mandate is detrimental to the sector owing to
inefficiency and the potential to crowd out participation by private companies. The scope of these companies,
their status, and their mandate must be made more transparent, and their contribution to the sector more targeted to areas where the private sector is less apt to respond. MOCH will conduct a comprehensive review of
each of the contractors and consolidate them into a smaller number of companies with a more specific mandate.
Some contractors will have the production of housing for low-income households as their explicit mandate. In
this way, the public housing contractors will complement the growing private housing development sector, which
will service middle- and high-income households. Public sector contractors will be corporatized in the short term
and privatized within a five-year period. As part of corporatization, the contractors will act as independent cost
centers that procure inputs without state subsidies (market-rate finance and land), are obligated to pay the same
taxes as private companies, and have the right to keep any profits that they generate.
Issue: There are few institutional mechanisms available for housing development.
Policy 2.2.3: Use public-private partnerships and cooperatives to mobilize expertise and capital for housing
Rationale: Sub-national governments will help to structure public-private partnerships (PPP) by bringing
professional, private land developers and existing owners of large land parcels suitable for residential development.
In such partnerships, the land owner will provide the land, the developer will bring expertise and financing,
and the sub-national government will provide off-site infrastructure, as required. The roles and responsibilities
of the different parties will be regulated by a Development Agreement, a standard commercial contract. The
partnership, led by the private developer, will subdivide and service the land, then build and market housing
units. This approach will be tested in pilot projects in the initial phase of policy implementation. Based on the
results of the pilot projects, the approach will then be refined and rolled out to other locations in the country. In
all cases, the identification of housing projects will take into account the land uses and zoning permitted under
local development plans in effect.
International housing developers can play a role in developing the PPP mechanism in Iraq. Government
will encourage entry of international developers into the market to mobilize their financing and expertise for
housing production. Joint ventures between international and domestic housing developers are useful for
transferring expertise. In the long run, the goal is to develop high PPP capacity among Iraqi developers and their
PPPs can also be used not only for “greenfield” projects (new development), but also for redevelopment
of existing areas. Some city-center areas with high land values currently have deteriorated, low-density housing on
them. The highest and best use of such land may include higher-density housing mixed with commercial or other
uses. In such cases, governments can join forces with private developers through a Request for Proposals process
to implement redevelopment projects. The feasibility study will establish the social, economic, and environmental
feasibility of such projects. Existing residents can be offered units within the finished project, or can be offered
other just compensation in kind or in cash. The details of informal housing redevelopment projects (see Policy 2.7
below) also generally relate to redevelopment projects involving other types of housing.
Government will also enable the revival of the cooperative housing movement, in which cooperatives pool their
resources, develop small residential subdivisions, and distribute serviced land plots to their members for house

Issue: The completion rate for permitted housing is low.
Policy 2.2.4: The Government will enable incremental development of housing through new financing
mechanisms, apply “sunset clauses” to land distributed for residential use, and enforce construction deadlines
through improved development control.
Rationale: There are 1.0-1.5 million vacant plots in existing, partially developed subdivisions in cities around
Iraq. Many of these subdivisions lack basic urban services; many of the owners are holding the land for investment
purposes only, with no intention to build housing in the near future. These existing plots represent a resource
that Iraq must exploit in filling the housing deficit. Government will retroactively impose “sunset clauses” on the
owners of land use rights to such plots. Owners/lessees will be required to achieve substantial completion of a
dwelling unit within a specified time period (e.g., three years). Owners/lessees that do not comply will use their
use rights to the plot, which will revert to Government for sale to another party. The sunset clauses will also apply
to new land subdivisions developed by government agencies.
Government will link efforts to enforce compliance with sunset clauses to initiatives to improve access
to housing finance, including mortgage loans and medium-term loans for incremental housing construction.
Improved development control can also help to ensure that housing development projects (large or small) are
completed on a timely basis, thereby making a contribution to increasing housing supply. As development control
responsibilities are devolved to lower levels of government, concomitant regulatory measures and institutional
capacity building programs need to be carried out.
Issue: There are few socially, aesthetically, and environmentally successful models for housing projects in Iraq
Policy 2.2.5: MOCH will develop and promulgate models for alternative design models for housing projects,
with an emphasis on medium-density, low-rise, multi-family housing.
Rationale: Iraq has a long tradition in developing sustainable housing. The traditional models of low-rise, party-
well housing developed in Iraq and other countries in the region have stood the test of time, offering their
inhabitants a comfortable, secure environment in which to live, work, and interact with the community.
As Iraq’s housing sector continues its post-war recovery, these traditional models have had limited impact
on the types of housing projects being undertaken. Many new projects are Western-style subdivisions with detached
single-family housing on individual plots. Others are medium-rise apartment complexes that offer residents little
contact with nature, even at a small scale. Residential towers are also being built in some neighborhoods.

MOCH will promulgate good housing design by developing a number of different housing design prototypes.
The variety is as important as the nature of the models themselves.
Some prototypes will involve low-rise, medium-density housing, multi-family housing such as attached and semi-
attached terrace housing. Units can be between two and four stories tall. Terrace housing allows residents to have
a private or shared back yard and direct access down the stairs and to the street (no long double-loaded corridors).
Since terrace housing creates a near-continuous “street wall” (façade), streets tend to be more comfortable and
pleasant to walk through, and neighborhoods are often be more dynamic as a results.
Housing projects composed of many apartment buildings set out geometrically on the land do not
generate that kind of dynamic street environment. However, higher-density apartments (4-5 story walkups) can
be used to fit more housing into a smaller area, thereby increasing cost efficiency and reducing the environmental
footprint of each unit. Therefore, some design prototypes developed by MOCH will feature apartment blocks.
The buildings will be oriented toward public spaces, such as the street, parks and open spaces, and recreational
While residential towers may be appropriate for some high-value central urban neighborhoods, they
will not be encouraged as a primary model of housing development, given their higher cost, greater energy
consumption, and weaker connection between the household and the community, on the one hand, and the
natural environment, on the other. High-rise development, whether residential or commercial, will also
located by city-wide development plans in designated clusters, rather than being distributed throughout the city.
Single-family detached housing, while not as environmentally successful as terrace housing, will nonetheless be
included as one of the housing design prototypes because of (1) its ability to facilitate a strong connection to the
land and (2) the strong preference of many Iraqi households for this type of housing.
Housing accounts for a major share of household and national finances. Building or buying a house is the largest
single financial investment that most families will ever make. At the same time, housing finance accounts for a
large share (in developed economies, often trillions of dollars) of the whole financial sector.
While housing finance has the potential to general significant economic benefits for a wide range of actors,
the housing finance sector in Iraq is not performing well today. It is important to distinguish between housing
construction finance, which is high risk commercial financing, and mortgage finance, which when effectively
underwritten is a lower risk type of finance that can stimulate the demand for new and existing housing. At
present, there is no systemic mortgage financing in Iraq. A system to convert the massive housing need in Iraq to
effective housing demand through long-term mortgage finance and short- to medium-term housing improvement
loans is sorely needed. Several interrelated aspects of this conversion were considered in the formulation of the
With respect to institutional aspects of housing finance provision, the expansion and development of a
system of key financing institutions, both public and private, is essential to enable resources to flow to the sector
in an efficient manner for all income groups in all parts of the country. However, the oldest institution in the
sector, the REB, after ceasing lending in 2003, only resumed making loans in 2007. Owing to a high default rate,
most of its loans have been written off and it is now undercapitalized. The NHF began making housing loans in
July 2005, but to the end of December 2008 only 6,560 loans throughout the Country had been made, or about
1% of a national housing need estimated at 674,412 in 2006 by the IHMS.
Commercial banks have not played a major role in housing finance, mainly lending to large depositors

and known entities for bridging finance. In most countries, commercial banks, either through savings deposits or
investor capital in the form of stocks and bonds, have become the principal means of extending mortgage finance
throughout the country.
As concerns financial aspects, Government-sponsored subsidies that are not accurately targeted and
enforced can destroy the viability of any housing finance system. The present lending terms of both the REB
and the NHF are heavily subsidized. This should allow the REB and the NHF to target low-income households.
However, in order to qualify for a loan, their borrowers must have a registered title to a serviced plot, secure
employment for at least seven years, and plans for a detached (usually ground plus one storey) house. As a result,
most of the loan recipients have been middle to upper-income borrowers, and most moderate and low-income
families, for whom housing need is greatest, do not qualify.
Although low-income borrowers wishing to upgrade their houses or build small ones on existing plots in
peripheral subdivisions might not qualify for construction loans, they could qualify for smaller, short-term loans.
The mechanism for establishing and implementing such a loan product to improve and upgrade the housing stock
is an integral part of any housing finance system. On the legal side, a housing finance system must be based
on a comprehensive housing finance law that provides for enforcement through foreclosure, repossession, and
resale of collateral, namely the unit being financed. At present, Iraq does not have such an all-inclusive mortgage
foreclosure law.
While both the REB and the NHF have detailed qualifications for obtaining a loan, the loans themselves
must be based on legally enforceable loan agreements. These agreements typically set out the terms of repayment,
amortization tables, and the actions to be taken in case of loan delinquency or default. In addition, it is not
certain whether loan applications for either institution are based on a standard national application form. Critical
information, such as the purpose of the loan, the overall cost of the unit to be purchased, and recourse in the case
of false information, should be conveyed through standardized language for all lenders.
Issue: There are few institutional mechanisms available today to lend money for the construction, extension or
rehabilitation of housing.

Policy 2.3.1: MOF and MOCH will diversity sources of housing finance by encouraging and enabling
commercial banks to enter the mortgage finance business.
Rationale: In most countries commercial banks are the main institutions issuing both housing construction and
mortgage loans. Given that mortgage finance can be a highly profitable, low risk type of lending for any bank,
commercial banks that wish to expand their operations are well-positioned to become the primary mortgage
lenders in the country.
Issue: Direct lending by the REB and NHF for the construction or purchase of housing units does not meet the
housing finance needs of the country.
Policy 2.3.2: MOCH and MOF will establish REB and NHF as second-tier housing finance institutions that
would undertake commercial wholesale lending to commercial banks.
Rationale: In order to expand the institutional base for housing finance, the REB and/or the NHF can best
function as second-tier institutions undertaking wholesale lending to commercial banks, which in turn would
make primary mortgage loans to individual borrowers.
Issue: Most houses being built today are not affordable by middle and low-income households.
Policy 2.3.3: In collaboration with MOF and participating commercial banks and based on updated income
data, MOCH will establish new parameters to increase the affordability of housing for middle, moderate,
and low-income households.
Rationale: In order to increase affordability for middle and low-income households, the maximum size of the
loan should be determined by three factors: (i) maximum affordability of the borrower at some 30% of household
income; (ii) maximum cost of the unit; and (iii) maximum loan-to-value (LTV) ratio of the unit. Setting these
parameters judiciously will vastly increase housing affordability for Iraqi families, while limiting the financing of
oversize and costly units and lender exposure on any one unit.
Issue: Existing subsidized interest rates for housing loans, while crowding private lenders out of the market, do not benefit the neediest socioeconomic groups.
Policy 2.3.4: Low interest government funds should be targeted to low-income households, low-income
women-headed households, and disabled people.
Rationale: With interest rates from 9% to 14% per annum, commercial banks will never enter the housing
finance sector as long as the REB continues to lend at 2% for up to 20 years and the NHF at 6% for up to 15
years. These concessionary funds could therefore be channeled through commercial banks to priority population
segments who cannot afford market rates. Beneficiary households can be in cities or in remote, rural, or less
developed areas of the country. As wholesalers of housing finance, REB or NHF can set up a dedicated revolving
fund for this activity.
Issue: Low-income borrowers wishing to upgrade their houses or build a new “starter” dwelling unit on an
existing plot have difficulty qualifying for mortgage loans.
Policy 2.3.5: In order to increase the quality of the housing stock, MOCH will encourage more extensive use
of housing extension and improvement loans.
Rationale: Such lending could be comprised of smaller loans for smaller unit construction, housing additions,
and housing improvements. Collateral for such loans should be movable property so that in the case of default of
a housing improvement/addition loan, the lender does not repossess the whole house.
Issue: Loans intended for long-term housing finance are easily diverted for short-term commercial purposes.
Policy 2.3.6: A representative sample of commercial mortgage loans will be field audited in order to determine
that the stated purpose of the loan is the same as the final use of the loan.
Rationale: Diversion of funds from the housing sector can quickly undermine financing programs fundamental
to expansion of the housing stock. With effective auditing and legal authority, the lender would have the power
and capacity to recall the outstanding balance on loans not being used for the stated purpose or based on false
applicant information.
Issue: Without an effective legal basis, unsustainable losses could happen to any commercial bank wishing to
participate in the sector.

Policy 2.3.7: In collaboration with MOCH and MOF, the Ministry of Justice will draft a comprehensive
housing finance law to provide for foreclosure, repossession, and resale of collateral.
Rationale: A sustainable housing finance system must have a legal basis. A comprehensive housing finance law can
establish a dedicated judicial route that allows banks to avoid the courts and take their cases to special tribunals
established for this purpose. Provisions to enable the emergence of mortgage insurance will be included in the law.
This will help encourage private commercial bank investment in housing, including by foreign banks.
Issue: Effective wholesale lending from the REB and/or NHF to commercial banks will not occur unless the REB
and NHF have recourse to the banks for repayment of their loans.
Policy 2.3.8: In order to prevent de-capitalization of the REB and/or the NHF, the housing finance law will
contain clauses providing for recourse to commercial banks for bad loans.
Rationale: With a legally enforceable loan agreement between the REB and/or the NHF and the commercial banks
setting out the terms of repayment, amortization table, and the actions to be taken in case of loan delinquency or
default, commercial banks will have the incentive to enforce all primary mortgage loans.

infrastructure for housing

Iraq’s infrastructure providers are dedicated to providing full infrastructure for all planned housing areas as they are
implemented. They have the conventional role of providing infrastructure on empty land ahead of development;
this will continue to be a major part of their work in the future, but at a scale needed to keep up with growing
demand as the economy improves and builders respond to pent-up demand for housing.
Apart from this ongoing challenge to respond to the infrastructure needs of new residential development in Iraq,
there are three other contexts in which infrastructure is a constraint on housing development now in urban Iraq:

Land that is already serviced but in need of major improvements in services provision (serviced
Land that is formally allocated and may be developed, but for which infrastructure has been inadequately
provided (unserviced neighborhoods);
Land that has been developed informally and has not been serviced (informal settlements).
In areas that are already serviced, there is nearly universal coverage of the basic infrastructure — water,
sanitation, electrical power, and roads. However, the quality of the existing service measured in service interruption
(water and electricity) and reduced local capacity (sanitation, drainage and roads) are often well below standard
and overall system capacity. There is an urgent and on-going need to restore adequate levels of service through
the current infrastructure. Extending services to existing unserviced and developing areas is a priority for housing
supply as a lack of serviced land is a major bottleneck to housing production. In addition, services are needed in
informal areas that are being regularized and in areas allocated for future development.
Issue: Shelter-related infrastructure services are characterized either by low coverage levels or uneven
service levels.
Policy 2.4.1: The public sector will improve shelter-related services through a combination of increased
capital investments and better maintenance and management.

Rationale: While coverage rates for some services (e.g., water supply, sanitation) are relatively high across urban
Iraq, the quality of service is generally low. Treatment of liquid and solid waste, for example, is inadequate.
In order to improve living conditions and stimulate more efficient, higher density utilization of urban land,
government must improve roads, storm water drainage, water supply, sewerage, electricity, street lighting, and
solid waste services. While end users can be expected to cover the O&M costs of the systems, some capital costs
will likely have to be borne by the State, given the low ability to pay of many urban households. Through more
rigorous planning and development control, government entities will not allow housing project construction to
proceed in advance of infrastructure provision.
To ensure coordination between the different service providers, local governments will convene Land Development
Working Groups with participation from relevant departments and utilities. On a zone-by-zone basis, specific
and detailed schedules for infrastructure improvements will be drawn up and agreed by all parties. Monthly
meetings of the Working Groups will enable follow-up and increase the efficiency of land development actions.
Issue: Existing, city-wide infrastructure systems are sometimes overwhelmed by the requirements of new housing
Policy 2.4.2: Upgrade trunk infrastructure as required to make system capacity sufficient to accommodate
additional demand from new, large residential subdivisions or significant densification of existing residential
Rationale: There is little excess capacity in many urban infrastructure systems, including roads, water supply,
sewerage, solid waste, and electrical power. As new housing is built, demand grows, and infrastructure systems
become overtaxed. By systematically evaluating the impact of housing development on infrastructure systems,
government can anticipate future needs and make timely improvements to primary (trunk) infrastructure.
Payments by developers can be used to finance some of these improvements.
Issue: Shelter-related infrastructure suffers from inadequate amounts of financing and low operational efficiency.
Policy 2.4.3: Promote private sector involvement in the development and management of shelter-related
Rationale: Private sector participation can mobilize capital for infrastructure investment, lead to innovation, and
improve operational efficiency. Sub-national governments can examine specific opportunities to achieve these
benefits in such shelter-related infrastructure as such as water and wastewater systems, solid waste management,
and road maintenance.
Issue: Many urban infrastructure services use outdated technologies and are inefficient.

Policy 2.4.4: New infrastructure provision will utilize locally appropriate technologies and designs rather
than simply extend existing networks. In particular, water-saving systems, non-sewered sanitation systems,
sustainable energy provision, and waste disposal that are less costly and more environmentally sustainable
will be emphasized.
Rationale: The extension of existing networks will prove too cumbersome and resource-intensive in some
instances, and is inappropriate for rapidly-developing cities extending many miles beyond the planned core. More
localized grids and networks, smaller-scale treatment methods, and fulfillment of the international sustainability
agendas should be considered.

housing management and maintenance

While most of the housing stock in urban Iraq is in good or fair condition, between 30% and 50% of housing
in older, central city areas is in poor condition (needing major structural rehabilitation) or uninhabitable. To
improve the condition of this substantial portion of the housing stock, more financing for housing repair and
rehabilitation is required. The housing finance dimensions of the housing maintenance challenge are discussed in
Section 2.3 above.
The potential loss of old housing due to physical decay is a particularly pressing problem in historic
urban areas. Historic preservation has understandably not been accorded a high priority during Iraq’s recent years
of conflict and hardship. In the past few years, preservation efforts have picked up in Baghdad and other cities.
Historic preservation as a discipline and an objective is broader than housing per se, given that old neighborhoods
with architecturally distinct structures and/or remarkable histories encompass a broad range of land uses. However,
as most historic buildings are houses, it will be important for housing to be incorporated into the emerging policy
and practice of historic preservation in Iraq.
An even more acute management challenge is posed by rental housing in Iraqi cities. About 90 percent
of landlords reportedly make no investment in maintenance or rehabilitation whatsoever. The poor conditions
of private rental housing (which accounts for more than 90 percent of the urban rental housing stock) is
complemented by the poor quality of services to the housing. One-half of households complain of poor water
supply and one-quarter about the water quality itself.
Conditions for renters are of particular concern as Iraq revitalizes the sector. The historic reliance on
rental housing in a variety of settings is an important resource that adds needed flexibility to the overall housing
mix in urban Iraq. Yet the rental market is now out of balance owing to slow or even negative growth in supply in
recent years and a shift in demand as incomes fell and many families were displaced. Rent control has artificially
suppressed prices for some rental housing at below-market levels; revenues from rent-controlled housing are
insufficient to ensure adequate maintenance.
The 5-10% of the rental stock that belongs to the Government is beset by a different set of concerns.
First, many of these units are in high-rise buildings for which maintenance is more complicated and potentially
costly. Second, rents are low and generally bear no relationship to the underlying value of the property or even
its recurrent costs. Third, the implicit subsidy that results is not targeted to low-income or vulnerable groups,
distorting the rental market overall and eliminating any opportunity to generate revenue for maintenance and
expansion of the housing stock.
Issue: The private rental housing stock is deteriorated owing to very low expenditures on maintenance.
Policy 2.5.1: Government will increase inspections of private rental housing units, using innovative and
community-based pilot methods, to improve compliance with minimum housing standards.
Rationale: In the tight housing market that prevails in many Iraqi cities, renters are at a particular disadvantage as owners have little incentive to repair units to attract or retain tenants. Deteriorating conditions decrease area
property values while potentially undermining public health.
Issue: Maintenance of public rental housing is inadequate.
Policy 2.5.2: Government will encourage the privatization of maintenance services for all government
entities managing housing stock.
Rationale: Opening up the maintenance of government housing to private vendors will increase price competition
and may result in lower cost services. Housing maintenance companies require little start-up capital and can
thereby quickly mobilize and offer local employment opportunities.
Issue: Maintenance of common spaces in multifamily housing is inadequate.
Policy 2.5.3: Government will revise the regulatory framework for management and maintenance of
multifamily housing.
Rationale: The existing cooperative law provides the framework for management of multifamily housing
today. Not only is maintenance of common spaces inadequate, but it is also difficult and complicated to sell an apartment in one cooperative building and purchase one in another. To facilitate easy transfer of housing assets
and generally improve the framework for multifamily housing management, the existing cooperative law and its
implementing regulations will be revised.
Issue: Occupancy of the Government rental housing stock does not favor lower-income families.
Policy 2.5.4: Government will develop guidelines to give priority to lower-income families for vacant units
and for new projects.
Rationale: Tenants in Government-built housing have, on average, significantly higher incomes than tenants of
private rental housing. The sub-market rents in Government units amount to a misplaced subsidy that favors
higher income Iraqis. Poorer Iraqis who must rely on the private rental market cannot benefit from this subsidy.
The Ministry of Construction and Housing can accelerate its alignment of subsidy with societal need through
a concerted effort to privatize existing stock that largely serves middle-class renters, allowing the Ministry to
refocus its resources on poorer families and vulnerable groups.
Issue: Many historic urban areas are threatened by poor maintenance and lack of investment in preservation of
the building stock.
Policy 2.5.5: Government will enable greater preservation of historic mixed-use urban areas through
creation of historic districts, improvement of the investment climate, and catalytic public-sector investments.
Rationale: Creation of historic districts will allow local governments to exert more stringent control over the
redevelopment of buildings located therein. Proposals for changes to any buildings in the district will have to
undergo more stringent plan review against historic and other criteria. Owners will be prohibited from making
changes to the exterior of selected buildings identified in advance as having particular architectural value.
The single greatest driver of rehabilitation of historic neighborhoods is perceived investment value. By
improving the investment environment for old housing, local governments can make rehabilitation more attractive
to owners and potential developers. Local government investment in infrastructure and in catalytic rehabilitation projects in historic neighborhoods will create value for existing property owners, thereby incentivizing additional
investment. Infrastructure investments can include improvements to the public realm, such as streets, any open
spaces, and landscaping. Local governments can rehabilitate public buildings in the area and/or purchase and
rehabilitate selected old homes. Some of these can be converted into museums. Religious authorities can also be
encouraged to invest in the rehabilitation of such buildings as mosques and madrasas.

construction materials

Iraq has the potential to satisfy its own buildings materials needs. Currently, however, the domestic building
materials industry is under-producing. Public and private sector manu¬fac¬turers suffer from aging infrastructure,
lack of spare parts, inadequate supply of electricity, post-war looting, and general neglect during the years when
Iraq was under sanctions and at war. These factors constrain operational efficiency and limit production, resulting
in the need to import basic materials such as cement and manufactured parts such as windows, plumbing supplies,
and electrical equipment. High retail prices, which are caused in part by supply bottlenecks, constrain the
production of affordable housing. Building materials producers cite as their most pressing problems: high prices
and shortages of raw materials, transportation difficulties, poor quality of inputs, and frequent lack of electricity.
Building materials produced in Iraq include cement, bricks, glass, tile, PVC pipe, gypsum, and concrete
block. Cement firms are government-owned, while brick producers are almost all under private ownership. Private
companies and parastatals both produce ceramic tiles and PVC piping. In an operating environment characterized
by subsidized energy and few rewards for strong performance, there is little incentive for public-sector producers
to increase their oper¬ating efficiency or output. The building materials sector concerns not only residential
construction, but also non-residential construction. The issue of performance in this sector is therefore broader
than housing per se, and cannot be completely addressed within the context of the national housing policy. The
following policy proposals relate directly to buildings materials for housing construction.
Issue: Building materials production companies lack financing to rehabilitate their existing factories or build new
Policy 2.6.1: Facilitate access of building materials producers to funding for rehabilitation and construction
of production facilities.
Rationale: To meet future demand for materials for residential construction, companies need to access more
financing in order to invest in their production facilities. The inchoate nature of the financial sector in general
and the lack of credit available to firms in particular are limiting the ability to make capital improvements.
Government should facilitate lending by commercial banks to building materials producers on market terms.
Additional loans can be provided through other sources such as the Industrial Bank. Some grant financing is also
available through donor assistance. Government should assist building materials producers to tap into a broad
range of financing sources.
The impediments to this process are similar to those of expanding mortgage lending, as described in Section
2.3 above. The laws and processes regarding recourse to collateral in case of non-payment of debt need to be
strengthened in order for finance to flow more freely.
Issue: Building materials producers today are inefficient by international standards and often lack ready access
to the latest production technologies and the capital resources needed to upgrade their facilities and operations.
Policy 2.6.2: Promote the use of joint ventures between building materials producers for knowledge transfer
and access to capital.
Rationale: Joint ventures between public building materials producers and private companies can provide access
to new funding for factory rehabilitation and construction. At the same time, private partners can bring expertise
in improved production methods and technologies. Public producers of cement, ceramic tiles, and PVC piping
will benefit from such joint ventures (JVs).
Private Iraqi building materials producers will also benefit from JVs with international building materials
producers. The benefits to private companies of associating with international firms are similar to the benefits
to public companies identified above: innovation, production know-how, and additional financing for capital
Issue: Fiscal and financial advantages to publicly owned building materials companies give these companies an
unfair advantage and inhibit the entry of private buildings materials companies into the market.
Policy 2.6.3: Standardize the operating environment for all building materials producers, importers and
Rationale: By creating a level playing field where all companies can compete, Government can stimulate
private sector investment in the building materials sector. Current fiscal and financial advantages of public
companies, such as preferential tax treatment, customs duties exemptions, and concessional financing, will
be removed. The same taxes and duties will apply to all materials producers, regardless of ownership (public,
private, or joint venture). Similarly, taxes and duties will be standardized for building materials importers
and distributors.
Issue: State-owned building materials companies are not making an efficient contribution to addressing the
backlog of housing construction materials.
Policy 2.6.4: Government will rationalize publicly-owned building materials companies by carrying out a
full assessment of each company and developing for each a specific plan that may include liquidation, re-
capitalization, partial and full privatization, re-organization, or some other approach.
Rationale: The large majority of the building materials companies in Iraq are privately owned and operated.
The state-owned companies in cement, glass, ceramics, and other materials are inefficient and under-productive.
Following a case-by-case assessment of individual companies, Government can generate revenues and improve
sector performance by selling shares of the company to local or international investors. This can include the joint
ventures discussed above. The entry of international building materials producers into the national Iraqi market
would promote efficiency gains and innovation.
Issue: The most commonly used materials for residential construction in Iraqi cities have high environmental
costs. Cement production is energy-intensive, while conventional brick-making consumes valuable agricultural
soil and emits significant amounts of greenhouses gases.
Policy 2.6.5: Promote the production and use of locally produced, environmentally friendly building
materials through economic incentives and research.
Rationale: The introduction of “greener” building materials such as modern insulation can help reduce the
environmental costs imposed by the housing sector. The closer the production facility of such materials to
the consumer, the lower the transportation requirements, and the smaller the ecological footprint. Economic
incentives to producers of environmentally friendly materials will help to encourage increases in production.
Government will also finance additional research in green building materials to help develop new products. The MOCH’s existing Knowledge and Training Center will include green building materials on its agenda.
Issue: Some domestically produced building materials are of low quality compared to analogous
international products.
Policy 2.6.6: Improve quality control of domestic building materials producers.
Rationale: By enforcing existing quality control standards, Government can stimulate an increase in quality of
building materials produced in Iraq. Better quality materials will contribute to better quality buildings and make
Iraqi products more competitive in relation to imported construction materials.

informal housing

Iraq has historically enjoyed a low level of informal housing development. In recent years, however, there has
been an increase in informal housing, including squatting in public buildings and proliferation of small informal
settlements. This is a result of the war, consequent internal displacement of some peoples, and a relaxation of
development controls. This is an anomalous condition specific to this period in Iraqi history. While diverse,
informal settlements in Iraq have in common the characteristic of having been developed outside the law: residents
either do not have use rights to the land, or the buildings have been constructed without government approval.
As in other parts of the Middle East and North Africa, informal settlements often mimic formal
settlements, using use simple street layouts and standard plot sizes and building setbacks. Conditions in informal
settlements vary, as some lack piped water, sewage networks, electricity, solid waste collections and paved roads
while in others four-fifths of residents enjoy electrical power and piped water supply. The variety of conditions
obtaining in Iraq’s informal settlements makes it important to have a range of policy responses.
The overarching policy with regards to informal settlements is to adopt a case-by-case approach to
informal settlements. Blanket policies will not prove successful, given the range of conditions obtaining in
informal settlements. The essential choice is between upgrading the settlements or redeveloping them. Upgrading
informal settlements consists of in situ development, in which most houses and residents will remain in place.
Physical improvements to infrastructure such as water supply, sanitation, drainage, roads and power are part of
the upgrading processes. Land tenure is also often regularized. Upgrading works best when there is extensive
consensus and collaboration between residents, land owners, local governments, and infrastructure providers.
Redevelopment of informal settlements involves removal of most or all existing buildings and construction
of new ones, often with more high-yield land uses (e.g., commercial) and higher densities. Redevelopment usually
entails relocation of part or all of the existing residents, although some schemes provide them with new on-site
dwelling units. Resettled residents are accommodated in other areas by the entity in charge of redevelopment
through providing serviced plots, dwelling units and/or financial compensation. Based on the above, the following
policies are set out for informal settlements.
Issue: Living conditions in informal settlements are substandard: low availability of services, public health risks
from inadequate liquid and solid waste collection and treatment, and poor transport links to off-site jobs and
Policy 2.7.1: Informal settlements will be upgraded or redeveloped on a case-by-case basis. A standardized
assessment of the specific settlement will be used to select an approach and design tailored interventions for
each settlement.
Rationale: As Iraq is facing a housing deficit, informal settlements are often a result of the inability of the
government or markets to provide housing. They represent a significant contribution to the housing stock.
Demolishing them would exacerbate the housing deficit. In situ upgrading of these existing settlements will
facilitate improvement of living conditions for local residents. This in turn could help alleviate the housing
deficit. Pre-feasibility studies on a given settlement will use the following criteria to select the upgrading or
redevelopment approach:
1. Suitability of the proposed upgrading area for long-term residential use;
2. Redevelopment potential of the site, as measured by the economic return on similar parcels in the
same town with other land uses (retail, office, industrial, etc.) or developed at a higher density (e.g.,
blocks of flats), in comparison with the current economic return generated by the informal housing
3. Willingness of the community to participate actively in an upgrading activity or to be relocated to
another site in the case of redevelopment;
4. Institutional capacity in the public and/or private sectors to undertake an upgrading (difficult) or
redevelopment (very difficult) project.
Where upgrading is selected as the preferred intervention in a specific neighborhood, sub-national
governments will be sure to enforce development controls city-wide so as not to encourage or allow additional
informal settlement. This will only work if low-income households are given other opportunities to access decent
housing; therefore coordination with land and housing development initiatives outlined in early sections will
be essential. In the case where an informal neighborhood to be upgraded is located on land formerly zoned
for industrial or commercial uses, alternative sites will be found for the necessary industrial and commercial
Issue: Resettlement may not result in comparable housing conditions for the current residents of informal
Policy 2.7.2: Resettlement will be done fairly, based on thorough consultation with the affected community,
and residents will be compensated justly according to the law.
Rationale: In many countries, resettlement has proven unsuccessful and informal settlements are often relocated
to peripheral areas and far from urban centers which is not a just compensation. Resettlement as a result of
redevelopment should provide housing in areas with access to job markets, transportation and urban amenities.
The 2006 Iraq Housing Market Study notes that proximity to work remains the most desirable characteristic of
a neighborhood followed by social services (family and kinship included) and familiarity of the area. This must
be taken into account when designing redevelopment projects. The integration of affected households into the
planning process through stakeholder participation will contribute to the design of appropriate resettlement

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #6 ·
housing policy implementation

implementation strategy

Improving the performance of the housing sector is a complex undertaking that requires many different,
ultimately complementary initiatives. The underlying approach for implementing the Iraq National Housing
Policy is to improve the operating environment at higher levels of government while simultaneously formulating
and testing pilot projects at the local level. Illustrated in the figure below, this approach will both set the stage for
sustainable development of the housing sector over the long term and begin to meet pressing housing needs from
the earliest stages of policy implementation.

The sector reform component, which will be implemented largely but not entirely at the national level,
will work along two related tracks: institutional reform and regulatory development. Laws and regulations will be
drafted and/or revised to enable the private sector to produce housing, shift the public sector into its new roles,
and unblock flows of key housing inputs such as land and finance. At the same time, public-sector institutions
will be “retooled” to fulfill their new roles through structural and procedural changes as well as human resources.
Institutional reform and regulatory development are treated in greater detail in following sections.
At the local level, pilot projects in key areas such as infill housing development and public-private
partnerships for development of new subdivisions will be undertaken to test and verify the innovative approaches
contained in the policy. Successful projects will be rolled out to other locations around the country. Critical to
the success of both sector reform and pilot projects will be communication and promotion. The policy represents
a paradigm shift from top-down housing provision to an enabling approach in which government regulates the
sector and private companies produce most of the housing. Engaging private sector firms to build housing, lend
money for housing development, and/or extend and manage shelter-related infrastructure will require extensive
promotional efforts to “get the word out” on the new approach and to convince them that rewards outweigh
risks. Another cross-cutting component is Action Research, in which key topics will be the subject of further
examination in order to refine policies and/or implementation mechanisms over time.
It is anticipated that the main actions of the housing policy can be undertaken within a five-year period.
While it will take longer to achieve the policy’s objectives, it is possible at least to begin all of the major initiatives
before 2015 in order to begin reaping the benefits of a rationalized, productive housing sector that increasingly
meets the needs of the people of Iraq. This does not mean that reform is expected to be achieved overnight. On the
contrary, the overall shift from public sector to larger-scale private sector provision of housing should be gradual,
taking place over a number of years as the capacity of the private sector improves in response to growing housing
demand in an increasingly secure, economically vital Iraq. Similarly, housing lending by commercial banks is not expected to grow at an exponential pace. The sooner the commercial banks enter the market in a substantial way,
the better. But given the long time required to reform the legal framework, it is likely that many banks will stay
on the sidelines until the necessary guarantees and avenues of recourse are in place. The policy adopts this gradual
approach not because changing slower is better, but because it is more realistic to expect changes to take place at
a gradual pace.

institutional reform

The institutional and regulatory framework of post-war Iraq is a work in progress. While the constitution
establishes clear guidelines for the exercise of many powers, the laws and regulations related to many key economic
activities are still in the process of being defined. This is the case for housing. There is no overarching housing
law, and the ways in which housing-related institutions will exercise their new responsibilities in future have not
yet been specified.
The inchoate nature of the housing sector represents both a challenge and an opportunity for Iraq. On
the one hand, there is a lot to do in order to effect the transition to an enabling framework for private sector
production of housing and housing inputs. On the other hand, there is an opportunity to “get the framework
right,” establishing a strong and well articulated foundation on which the sector can build for generations to
come. The evolution of the housing sector depends not just on the content of this housing policy and the quality
of its execution, but on the larger changes and developments in Iraqi society. The implementation plan for
the housing policy is built on the assumption that the security situation will continue to improve and that the
national economy will continue to recover in the short and medium term.
It is important that the new Housing Policy be implemented with the full and visible support of the
top level of the Iraqi government. To this end the policy reform process will be overseen by a high-level body
such as the existing but currently inactive Supreme Council for Housing under the direction of the Council of
Ministers. This body would meet periodically to review overall progress in implementing the new Housing Policy.
A technical support unit set up by the Ministry of Construction and Housing within the State Commision for
Housing will answer to the Supreme Housing Council and be responsible for the following:

Tracking progress in the sector in implementing the organizational changes, regulations, procedures,
and consultations necessary for implementation of the new housing policy.

Tracking housing production, rehabilitation, and home improvement activity across Iraq in relation to
the needs of various elements of the population, in order to 1) determine if the new policies are having
an effect, and 2) develop specific proposals for the Policy Unit to consider.

Assisting the governorates and other subnational government entities to set up their own monitoring
and technical support units to track housing demand and supply and formulate interventions to try to
achieve market equilibrium.

Monitoring and evaluating pilot efforts by the MOCH and by other ministries participating in the
implementation of the national housing policy.
As articulated in the Housing Policy Principles in Section 1, it is fundamental to the housing policy that
production responsibility shifts increasingly to the private sector. This does not in any way represent an abdication
on the part of government for outcomes of the housing sector, as has occurred in response to the enabling
approach in some countries. On the contrary, the public sector must move up the value ladder, assuming with
increasing effectiveness the role of leader and regulator of the housing sector, while opening up space below for the
private sector to come in and build houses, provide housing loans, manage infrastructure networks, etc. Under
the policy, the Ministry of Construction and Housing must strengthen its capacity to monitor the housing sector
and put into place the policy and regulatory changes needed to keep supply in line with demand, among other
objectives. At the same time, government will put into place the policy changes and do the required promotion to
bring more large-scale private housing developers into the market to increase production. Developers in this range
are expected to produce perhaps one-quarter of all housing in Iraq by 2020. Production by small and medium-
sized private builders and developers is also anticipated to increase dramatically in the next ten years as it becomes
easier to access land and get land serviced, on the one hand, and households can access housing finance more
easily, on the other.
At the same time, public sector housing contractors will focus their housing production activities more
sharply on the needy and vulnerable groups in society, such as the poor, refugees, and internally displaced peoples.
Overall production by the public sector is expected to decrease.

The figure makes the distinction between small-medium builder/developers and large developers
because the latter are under-represented in Iraq today and can make a much more significant contribution to
housing production in the future. But in fact there exists a continuum along builder/developer size. The enabling
approach should facilitate the emergence of private housing producers of all sizes, striving not only to promote
the involvement of more large developers, but also more medium-sized ones, so that eventually a broad range of
company sizes will be active in the housing market in Iraq.
The targeted evolution of the housing finance subsector is similar in that the public sector will move
up from the retail market to establish a secondary housing finance market, while opening the retail sector up to
commercial banks. At the same time, government will ensure the regulation of the housing finance market as part
of the overall financial sector. The following graphic shows the proposed deepening of housing markets and the
increased involvement of private sector lenders.

regulatory development

The policy and institutional changes set out in previous sections will require revision and extension of the
regulatory framework for housing. While the broad outlines of decentralization of urban management and
housing functions to subnational levels is defined in the proposed Provincial Law No. 21 of 2008, neither the
law nor the implementing regulations have yet to be put into effect. Regulations will be required for new modes
of housing production such as public wholesaling of land to private firms and public-private partnerships for
housing development. Operating versions of such regulations should be promulgated in the near term to allow
the design and implementation of pilot projects at the local level. The lessons learned from such projects will be
incorporated into future revisions of the regulations to make them more appropriately tailored to conditions on
the ground.
Another major axis for regulatory development will be in the area of housing finance, where a new
housing finance law and accompanying implementation regulations are required to ensure that lenders have
adequate access to assets in case of default on loans. This will require a comprehensive new law to provide for
foreclosure, repossession, and resale of collateral.
Rather than using one overarching Housing Law to regulate the sector, the Government of Iraq will
pursue a more incremental approach in which the regulatory framework for a number of different aspects of the
housing sector are changed through new laws or amendments to existing laws. This could include, for example,
a new housing finance law, implementing regulations to the new Provincial Law, an amendment to the existing
regulation on the State Commission for Housing, and other modifications.

2,325 Posts
I didnt read the whole thing .. but ya i thnk the ministry just wants a number ignoring everything else !

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #8 ·
Governor of Baghdad: the agreement with the United Nations to build 50 000

The governor of Baghdad,Dr.Salah Abdul-Razzaq announced an agreement with the United Nations to build 50 000 housing units for the displaced families and the squatters on state land.
Dr.Abdul-Razzaq in a statement reported by his press office said:" It has been agreed with the United Nations to allocate 300 million dollars to build 50 000 housing units for displaced and squatters on state land, "

Noting that the Governorate has allocated land for the construction of these units. He pointed out to the implementation of a similar project in the province of Diyala to the construction of eight thousand and 500 housing units. "He emphasized that the governorate has an integrated program and plans to eliminate the housing crisis and the establishment of housing units, either through reliance on the governorate budget or the investment project .. pointing at laying the foundation for three housing projects in Baghdad.

On the other hand,Dr.Abdul-Razzaq,said "an extended meeting held in the General Secretariat of the Council of Ministers included representatives of the Ministries of Housing, Municipalities,transportation, relevant officials in addition to the governorate of Baghdad,Baghdad Provincial Council,the Secretariat of the capital and security leaders to promote the urban and the service reality of Baghdad,explaining that the meeting dealt with developing a plan extend to six months to upgrade the services and overcome the red tape and speed up project delivery and the lighting of the streets, especially the important ones such as Rashid,Abonwas,Sadoun and Jimhouriya Streets,the reduction of concrete barriers in addition to the maintenance of bridges, garages and improve building facades.

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #9 ·
once again. the government makes a hodge podge, disorganised and uncoordinated attempt at solving the housing issue for the poor. with each department doing what it wants to do... without any holistic approach.

Governor of Baghdad: the establishment of residential complexes for the low-income citizens.

Dr. Salah Abdul-Razzaq Governor of Baghdad briefed on the preliminary designs which were presented by (PeaceBoat) company for the construction of residential complexes for the low-income citizens .Governor of Baghdad confirmed

the importance of housing projects in easing the burden on the citizen in facing the housing crisis, adding that the governorate made deliberate plans to eliminate the housing crisis, declaring that it was allocated 25% of new housing units for the poorer classes which are built by the Iraqi government or by investment companies, pointing out that the government and the governorate will bear the costs of purchasing the housing units from the investor, and is distributed free of charge for the classes mentioned. He also stressed that the governorate is currently negotiating with international companies for the implementation of major housing projects in different parts of Baghdad.

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #10 ·
Private Funding Needed to Build 2.5m Homes
Posted on 29 November 2010. Tags: Housing
Iraq’s housing fund is falling short of its goals and will struggle to raise fresh capital after spending more than two-thirds of its budget, its director said in an interview with Bloomberg.
The fund, which started in 2005 with 300 billion Iraqi dinars ($257 million), has spent 210 billion dinars building 14,000 homes in Iraq, Khairi F. Awn said at the Iraq Housing Development Summit in Amman, Jordan.
“We are far away from achieving our goals,” he said. “A crisis of this size can’t be resolved by any government, even using all its resources. The private sector and foreign investment have to be there to resolve the problem.”
Iraq’s Housing Minister, Bayan Dizayee, said on Monday that the country needs 2.5 million homes to be built by 2015. Awn estimates that 300,000 homes must be completed every year to keep up with the increase in population.
Raising capital is the main issue facing the fund, which provides loans to government employees and retirees as well as financing developments, Awn said. Selling bonds is “out of the question” because of legal hurdles and the wait for Iraqi’s new government to be formed, he said.
“The fund was developed in a rush,” he said “The law was weak and the budget was not big enough to help achieve one of our main goals, which is providing financing for projects,” Awn said.
In March, Iraq’s Council of Ministers approved plans to build one million apartments from 2010 to 2014 for lower -and middle -income families.

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #11 ·
question is, are they actually going to heed and listen to the recommendations in the HABITAT report? or keep their heads in the sand and refuse to change the laws...

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #12 ·
Baghdad needs $100 billion for new homes: mayor

By Aseel Kami and Jason Benham
BAGHDAD | Mon Nov 29, 2010 11:28am EST
(Reuters) - Iraq needs an investment of $100 billion under a plan to build a million new homes in the capital and meet a shortfall in residential property for its growing population, Baghdad's mayor said on Monday.

An eight-month delay in forming a government after a March election has deterred many foreign developers from entering Iraq to take advantage of efforts to rebuild its capital, Saber al-Issawi told Reuters in an interview.

"They were afraid of the critical political situation, so there was some inaction, anticipation and waiting until the government is formed," Issawi said.

Last week President Jalal Talabani formally asked Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki to form a government, giving him 30 days to choose a cabinet from Shi'ite, Sunni and Kurdish factions.

Issawi said that around 80 percent of the total figure would come from investors and 20 percent from the government.

Baghdad has earmarked $1.5 billion for residential and infrastructure spending in 2011 but this figure has yet to be approved by the government and could be revised lower, he said.

Iraq faces an acute shortage of houses after years of war and sanctions and needs 2-3 million new homes. Of the country's estimated 30 million population, some 7 million live in Baghdad.

Baghdad will invest $10 billion over 10 years to build 150,000 homes in the capital's sprawling Sadr City slum, one of the main projects the government is focusing on. Sadr City is home to almost half of Baghdad's population.

Issawi said the government would hold a tender on December 9 to build 82,000 homes in the district from 11 short-listed foreign developers.


Issawi said the government is also looking to spend around $850 million on giving the city a facelift ahead of the Arab League Summit to be held in March 2011, the first major event Iraq is to host since the invasion.

"It is a chance to develop some of Baghdad's face," he said.

Some $350 million will be spent on renovating seven former luxury hotels in the city, $300 million on streets and $200 million on the main road into the city from Baghdad's international airport, Issawi said.

The road, known by many Iraqis as the "Route of Death," was frequently targeted by militias during the height of the country's sectarian violence in 2006-07.

The government hopes a sharp fall in violence in the past two years, and a new investment law allowing foreigners to own land for housing projects, will entice foreign investors.

Iraq's National Investment Commission said earlier in November it had signed a memorandum of understanding with a South Korean group to build 500,000 homes all over Iraq.

Executives from Gulf Arab companies told the Reuters Middle East Investment Summit in October that while they see growing opportunities in Iraq, they retained a degree of cautiousness that slows plan execution.

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #13 ·
امانة بغداد : استبعاد الشركات الايرانية من مشروع (10×10)
بواسطة: mano
بتاريخ : الأحد 19-12-2010 12:43 مساء

بغداد(الاخبارية)..كشف مدير العلاقات والاعلام في امانة بغداد حكيم عبد الزهرة عن استبعاد الشركة الايرانية من تنفيذ مشروع (10في 10).
قال عبد الزهرة في تصريح خص به(الوكالة الاخبارية للانباء)اليوم الاحد:تم استبعاد الشركة الايرانية من تنفيذ مشروع (10في 10) لعدم تقديم المشاريع بالشكل المطلوب.
واضاف عبد الزهرة:ان امانة بغداد تنتظر الانتهاء من فتح العطاءات واختيار عدد من الشركات منها تركية وتايلندية وغيرها لتنفيذ المشروع .
واشار عبد الزهرة الى ان موضوع الاختيار تحت الدراسة وتحليل العطاءات لاختيار الفائز منها من خلال اللجان المشتركة لرفع الموضوع الى رئاسة الوزراء.
ومن جانب اخر قال مدير العلاقات والاعلام في امانة بغداد في اجابة على تساؤل حول اسباب تأخر الامانة في انجاز مشاريع تدوير النفايات :ان مشروع تدوير النفايات يعد من المشاريع المهمة وان امانة بغداد لم تهمله ، لكن تاخير تنفيذه لعدم وجود البنى التحتية ومحطات تحويلية ومعامل فرز النفايات .
واكد ان مشروع تدوير النفايات تم العمل على التهيئة له قبل عدة سنوات وقد وصلنا الى مرحلة متقدمة، اذ تم التخطيط لإنجاز 9 مشاريع،5 في الرصافة و4 في الكرخ.
واضاف من المؤل ان يتم تنفيذ المشروع خلال الربع الاول من السنة المقبلة./انتهى/(3.ر.م)

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #15 ·
The Sunni Endowment, during its 1st investment conference, offered opportunities on Saturday to build 100,000 housing units all over Iraqi provinces, on lands it owns, within a three-year period, according to a report from Aswat al-Iraq.
“The Endowment has already obtained a go-ahead from the Iraqi National Investment Commission (NIC) to build these units as part of a national strategy to construct one million houses,” the Endowment Chief, Ahmed Abdul-Ghafour al-Samarraie, told Aswat al-Iraq news agency.
“One of the problems facing the investment venture is that investors have difficulty getting allocated land in Baghdad, compared to other provinces,” he added.

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #16 ·
A major project for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of west Baghdad’s al-Sadr City will employ between 75,000 and 100,000 people during its implementation period, and another 50,000, Baghdad’s Mayor, Sabir al-Issawi said on Wednesday.
According to the report from Aswat al-Iraq news agency, Issawi stressed that the project would comprise the construction of several multi-storey buildings, along with social, environment, and administration facilities, as well as hospitals, a university, schools, kindergartens, stadiums, sport and trade centers.
“The project, in its first phase, comprising the construction of 82,000 housing units, shall be implemented by an international company on an 18 square kilometer area east of al-Sadr city, which will be implemented by the High Committee for the Main Design of Baghdad city,” he concluded.
The project is valued at $11.3bn, and will be carried out by six Turkish contractors, includung Kur Insaat, Kazova Insaat, Iskaya AS and Kocoglu Insaat.

1,261 Posts
depends the most important thing is maintenance
will the inhabitant of that low cost house will he think of it as a home and maintain it or as a slum and leave the house to rot

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #18 ·
depends the most important thing is maintenance
will the inhabitant of that low cost house will he think of it as a home and maintain it or as a slum and leave the house to rot
In shared blocks, in theory, there is a system whereby a maintenance fee is charged by a third party maintenance company who manage the repairs, cleaning and upkeep of the apartment blocks and surrounding areas (landscape and car parks). However in practice Iraqis don't pay the maintenance fees, therefore no maintenance happens. That is the problem with the Iraqi mentality, they look at TV footage of Dubai or other "modern" cities, but simply can't fathom that those shiny looking buildings and landscapes dont magically stay in shape without expense $$$. (and here I am actually not talking about illiterate street people, but contract managers at provincial investment commissions!)

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #19 ·
Visitors: 165
The general manager of the investment Muthanna investment opportunities available in the province with the Executive Director of the Danish company Dan Cash, Mr. Ali Al-Tamimi, where he made ​​the latter company's desire to invest in the housing sector through the establishment of a residential complex integrated services in the province.

Said Mr. Ali Al-Tamimi Managing Director of the Company and its officers in (the rationale behind the Koppen), said his company plans to invest in the province for its potential to help the success of investment in various sectors, especially the housing sector.

For his part, said Director General of the need to maintain to build thousands of housing units to contribute to solving the housing crisis faced by the province and provide jobs for the unemployed.

The Muthanna Investment Commission had earlier announced the availability of investment opportunities to build (22) a thousand housing units are distributed on the status of the province and districts to solve the housing crisis at the Muthanna

dreams of Babylon rising
13,685 Posts
Discussion Starter · #20 ·
Visitors: 220
After the success in the field of construction of housing units in the governorates of the Kurdistan region and a number of other provinces Company has expressed willingness to create a Star Scheinin housing complexes in the province of Muthanna.

This came after the visit, organized by the delegation from the company to Muthanna Investment Commission under the chairmanship of Mr. Nizar Abdel Qader, head of one of the company, who said about the possibility of building (1400) housing units distributed among the districts and the areas of maintenance are performed with the latest global designs adopted.

Adding that the company will present three models of buildings of varying sizes and prices will be determined by the appropriate mechanisms for the sale of such units through direct sales or a way that the monthly installments.

The company referred to Scheinin Star classified among the largest companies specialized work of the Iraqi general trading and real estate investments that have already done considerable work including the construction (60) villas and residential complexes in the province of Sulaymaniyah, in addition to other works in different parts of the country.

For his part, The Director General of Al Muthanna Investment Yasiri just inside the body is ready to provide all facilities and privileges of the company and facilitate its entry to maintain and complete the formalities with the relevant departments
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