Ilocos Norte is the northernmost province on the western side of Luzon. The northern part of the Cordillera mountain range separates Ilocos Norte from the provinces of Cagayan, Apayao, and Abra on the east. A narrow coastal plain connects it to the province of Ilocos Sur to the south. It is bounded by the South China Sea on the west and the Babuyan Channel on the north. Before the coming of the Spaniards in the 16th century, Ilocos was a single province. It was divided into north and south on February 2, 1818 by virtue of a royal decree, thus creating the province of Ilocos Norte.
Long before the coming of the Spaniards, there already existed an extensive region (consisting of the present provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra and La Union) renowned for its gold mines. Merchants from Japan and China would often visit the area to trade gold with beads, ceramics and silk. The inhabitants of the region believed to be of Malay origin, called their place "samtoy", from "sao mi toy, which literally meant "our language".
In 1571, when the Spanish conquistadors had Manila more or less under their control, they began looking for new sites to conquer. Legaspi's grandson, Juan de Salcedo, volunteered to lead one of these expeditions. Together with 8 armed boats and 45 men, the 22 year old voyager headed north.
On June 13, 1572, Salcedo and his men landed in Vigan and then proceeded towards Laoag, Currimao and Badoc. As they sailed along the coast, they were surprised to see numerous sheltered coves ("looc") where the locals lived in harmony. As a result, they named the region "Ylocos" and its people "Ylocanos".
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