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Moenjodaro city, Pakistan

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Moenjodaro - The Ancient Indus Civilization of 3000 BC

Mohenjo-daro like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization, some 80 km southwest of modern Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is somewhat better preserved than Harappa, and therefore a more informative source on its parent civilization. Mohenjo Daro was about 400 miles away from Harappa. It was probably built between four and five thousand years ago, and was abandoned around 1700 BCE, probably due to a change of course of the river which supported the civilization. It was rediscovered in the 1920s by archaeologists.

Mohenjo-daro is a remarkable construction, considering its antiquity. It has a planned layout based on a grid of streets, with structures constructed of bricks of baked mud, sun dried bricks and burned wood. At its height the city probably had around 35,000-40,000 residents. It had an advanced drainage system, a variety of buildings up to two stories high, and an elaborate bath area. The bath area was very well built and had a layer of natural tar, to keep it from leaking. Being an agricultural city, it also featured a large well, granary, and central marketplace. Perhaps most unexpected, it even had a building with an underground furnace (hypocaust), possibly for heated bathing.

Mohenjo-daro was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time, the new cities were built directly on top of the old ones. Flooding by the Indus is thought to have been the cause of destruction.

The city was divided into two parts, the Citadel and the Lower City. Most of the Lower City is yet uncovered, but the Citadel is known to have the public bath, a large residential structure designed to house 5,000 citizens, and two large assembly halls.

Monk quarters near the bottom of the Stupa



Rear view of Stupa





View from the top - next to the Stupa



Steps leading to Stupa



Wide view of Stupa walls around it



The bath house



Canals which fed water to the bath house



View from the outskirts of the city



Wide view from a hill of the city center





Main walkway leading to another part of the city



One of 400 wells found in the city



One of 400 wells found in the city



Walkways through the bazaar area



The main road through the city - believed to stretch 3 to 4 kilometers



More of the bazaar area



These formations in the ground were used to make pottery



A sign written in the ancient Indus language



A building of religious significance used to house statues of various gods





Recently surfaced artifacts - the white is a 5000 year old leg bone remain and other pieces are mostly pieces of pottery



Walkway leading to the city center







The main temple mound:









The Great Bath











 
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