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O eucalipto em Portugal

1833 Views 10 Replies 5 Participants Last post by  PedroGabriel
Ora vamos lá outra vez abrir o tópico dos eucaliptos.
Aqui fica uma breve história da sua (infeliz) introdução em Portugal :eek:hno:
Ruben, fica sabendo que a saga começou precisamente em Coimbra :D

The Tallest Tree in Europe?

1829 – Swan River, western shores of New Holland – First privately funded settlement in Australia. Fremantle is founded in Western Australia. Some months later, Perth. 1500 free colonists live there by 1832. Conscript labour force will be demanded by 1846.

1847 – Bremen , Germany – Ferdinand Jacob Heinrich Mueller (1825-1896), Freiherr von Müller, German botanist and pharmacist, departs en route to Southern Australia . By 1853 he will be based in Melbourne as Government Botanist of Victoria . From 1857 to 1873 he will direct Melbourne 's Botanical Gardens, become a key reference on Australian flora for visitors and correspondents from overseas and will be a life long promoter of the distribution of Eucalyptus seeds and knowledge worldwide. He would be later honoured four times with E. muelleri (Miquel, 1856; Naudin, 1885; Moore, 1885; Deane, 1902) and one with E. muelleriana (Howitt, 1890).
1856 – Perth, Western Australia – The first of 31 vessels delivering conscript labour force arrives. Up to 9668 workers would arrive until 1868. Among their activities, logging of jarrah (E. marginata) and karri (E. diversicolor) forests both as a timber resource and to clear land for agricultural use. First giants are discovered.

1863 – Melbourne, Australia – Mueller describes karri samples recently collected by Augustus Frederick Oldfield (1829-1887) at Wilson's Inlet in Western Australia as E. diversicolor. His collector would be later honoured with E. oldfieldii .

1866 Coimbra , Portugal – Planting of thirty five thousand eucalypts as corrective measure to control soil erosion does begin along the margins of River Mondego and at Mata do Choupal. It would last up to 1870. First cultivated forests of Eucalyptus in Portugal are established .

1867 – Coimbra, Portugal – Mata Real do Vale de Canas (Royal Forest of the Valley of Canas ) is acquired by the Portuguese Government and becomes Mata Nacional as source of pine timber needed for hydraulic works against flooding being implemented at Choupal. Between 1866-1870 it will be reafforested with both native and exotic plants, some sourced from France and Germany under the guidance of Manoel Afonso D'Esgueira in collaboration with the Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra. From Australia seeds of 32 species of Myrtaceae, including Eucalyptus, will be sourced.

1869 – Melbourne, Australia – Mueller describes further samples of gigantic specimens of karri as E. colossea . Some years later he would write on karri: "One of the grandest trees of the globe and one of the grandest wonders in the whole creation of plants! Astounding records on the height of this tree have been given. Messrs. Muir saw trees with stems 300 feet long up to the first branch, and I myself noticed many trees which approached 400 feet in their total height".

1873 - Melbourne, Australia – William Robert Guilfoyle (1840-1912), English landscape gardener and botanist, is appointed curator of the Royal Botanical Gardens replacing Mueller. He would expand and develop the gardens for aesthetic and recreational purposes. He will be later honoured with E. guilfoylei (Maiden, 1911).

1873 – Coimbra , Portugal – Prof. Júlio Henriques (?- 1928) becomes director of Coimbra Botanical Gardens until 1918. During his directorship a high number of herbarium samples and seed exchanges are performed with the Royal Botanical Gardens of Melbourne. Soon an important collection of Eucalyptus will develop with up to 51 different species, one of the most important in European gardens.

1879 – London, England – First publishing of “Eucalyptographia: a descriptive atlas of the Eucalypts of Australia and the adjoining islands ” by Mueller. It will be finished by 1884, and will become the first specialised text on eucalypts widely available in Europe. He would state about E. diversicolor: “It became distinguished temporarily as E. colossea, under which very impressive designation it chiefly still passes in the countries around the Mediterranean Sea, where this noble Eucalypt, with numerous other species, was first introduced by the writer ”

1880 – Abrantes , Portugal – The biggest Eucalyptus forest in Europe to date becomes established. Six hundred hectares are planted with Eucalyptus in Nova Australia
2007 – Spain & Portugal – Some 1.3 billion Eucalyptus, mainly E. globulus, grow in cultivated forests scattered along the coasts of Atlantic Iberia. A small number of them, survivors of the early days of gum tree discovery and acclimation or proof of impressive growth, are heritage trees. Some of these colossal plants, but not all, are fully protected as natural monuments.
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eles aqui comem tudo e cada vez mais:eek:hno:
******* eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), also called Tasmanian *******, is one of the world's best known eucalyptus trees. It is the "type" species for the genus in California, Spain, Portugal, Chile, and many other locations. One of the first tree species introduced to other countries from Australia, it is now the most extensively planted eucalyptus in the world.
Although ******* eucalyptus has great climatic adaptability, the most successful introductions worldwide have been to locations with mild, temperate climates, or to high, cool elevations in tropical areas (8). The ideal climate is said to be that of the eastern coast of Portugal, with no severe dry season, mean annual rainfall 900 min (35 in), and minimum temperature never below -7° C (20° F)
In Portugal, almost 15 percent of the land area is planted to this species. Most stands are on soils developed from sandstone and limestone, which have been badly degraded by cultivation since ancient times. Best yields occur on the heavy texture clay-loams and clays (11).
Dão dinheiro a muita gente em Portugal, não só grandes empresas como a Portucel, mas também a muito pequeno agricultor que tem neste tipo de plantação a forma mais rentável de explorar a sua floresta :)
esgotanto os solos.. porque nao se produz mais azeite de qualidade, ou cortiça?
Por causa deles os solos ficam áridos pois chupam a água de todo o terreno envolvente... rentável, mas porque cresce rápido aproveitando-se dos recursos dos outros... e queima-se floresta autóctone para os eucaliptos... :eek:hno:
Por causa deles os solos ficam áridos pois chupam a água de todo o terreno envolvente... rentável, mas porque cresce rápido aproveitando-se dos recursos dos outros... e queima-se floresta autóctone para os eucaliptos... :eek:hno:
Rentável porque a madeira é boa, cresce rápido e vende-se bem :)
A custa da secagem e morte das outras... que praga... :eek:hno:
A custa da secagem e morte das outras... que praga... :eek:hno:
Por mim era o extremínio da espécie em Portugal. São um atentado ao nosso património!
^^Exterminio tambem nao concordo.. por exemplo em casos pontuais como Vale de Canas aqui em Coimbra ate' fica bem.. agora esta concentraçao claro que nao.. vai tudo abaixo!

espectáculo. Adoro eucaliptos, cheiram bem e gosto de rebuçados de eucalipto.

Continuo a achar inacreditavel que a arvore não seja nativa de Portugal, sempre pensei que fosse. :lol: é que existem remedios tradicionais de eucalipto contra a constipação, por isso acho incrivel...
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