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Paiwasta Reh Shajr say..
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Ancient Gandhara, coutrsey of Circle of Ancient Iranian studies


Gândhâra has become widely known as the center of the so-called Gandhara Art, which flourished in the early first millennium C.E. This art is characterized by strong influence from the Hellenistic and Roman West.

The geographical position of Gândhâra as the ancient gateway to India is not only indicated by the Gandhara Art, but also by much earlier finds. In particular it is linked to the so-called Gandhara Grave Culture, which flourished between ca. 1500 and 500 B.C.E. in this area. Relevant finds have been found along the banks of the Swat and Dir rivers to the north, Taxila to the southeast, and the land along the Gomal river to the south. The Gandhara Grave Culture shows unmistakable links with finds from South Central Asia and the Iranian Plateau, also dating to the second and first millennia B.C.E.


GANDHARA (OP. Gandâra), a province of the Persian empire under the Achaemenids. The name of Gandhâra or Gandhârî occurs in ancient Indian texts as the name of a people, obviously the inhabitants of Gândhâra, a district traditionally placed in the extreme northwest of the Indian subcontinent. It was located along both banks of the Indus, around the famous cities of Takshas‚ilâ (Taxila) and Pushkalâvatî (modern Charsada, northeast of Peshawar).

The name Gandhârî first occurs in the Rigveda (I, 126,7; late 2nd millennium B.C.E.) in the phrase Gandhârînâm avikâ (ewe of the Gandharans), and also in the somewhat later Atharva Veda. The name is used, around 400 B.C.E., by the Indian grammarian Pânini (Monier-Williams, pp. 346, 353), who himself probably hailed from Gândhâra and who listed the land as one of the major provinces of India. The name of Gandhâra was still used in the 11th century C.E. by Abû Rayhân Bîrûnî (q.v.), who referred to Wayhend (I, p. 206) as the capital of Kandhâra (a place probably to be identified with Und near Attock).
 

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Paiwasta Reh Shajr say..
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Heracles depiction of Vajrapani as the protector of the Buddha, 2nd century Gandhara, British Museum.
 

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Paiwasta Reh Shajr say..
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Archaeological sites in Pakistan

Pakistan is a land of many different cultures and traditions. The land of Pakistan has seen many phases in its (One of the oldest ) History of Pakistan. The remains of all those people, who inhabited this land and contributed their spice to its culture, are spread all over the country. There are hundreds of known archeological sites in the country and many are not even identified yet.

Below are just a few of the worth seeing sites beside numerous others. Please do return to this page as we will be adding more information on all these sites from time to time.

1. Mahar Garh 7000 BC

The site of Mahar Garh is located at the foot of Bolan Pass, Balochistan. When you drive from Sukkur to Quetta you can take a left turn Just before Bolan pass and reach the site. Mehar Garh is probably the oldest village culture found in Pakistan. 7000 BC. We have found mud & stone houses some tools and interesting figurines of women with heavy jewelry from this Site. Ceramics of very fine quality were also found from the site which shows that they had mastered the art in a span of many centuries. All these are Kept in Karachi , Sibbi , Quetta and Islamabad Museums.

2. New Archeological Site - Lakhan Jo Daro discovered in Sukkur - 5500 BC

Sukkur A new archeological site Lakhian Jo Daro was discovered near Goth Nihal Khoso in the factory area of Sukkur, The archeological remains belong to pre Moen Jo Daro period. The professors at the Khairpur University did the excavation and found artifacts similar to those of Mehar Garh. They also discovered semiprecious jewelry from the site.

The Archeologists believe the site is about 5500 yers old and is of pre Moen Jo Daro or Kot Dijian era.

Discovered in 2009, Lakhan jo Daro, located a mere 100 km away from Moenjodaro in the Sukkur industrial area, is believed to predate the ruins which have attracted such attention recently and is the second largest city belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. Developmental activities are, however, pushing the site towards destruction.

The excavation is being now cunducted with the Studentsts and staff of the Shah Abdul Latif University and some volunteers of the area. They have also found a seal from the site which is similar to that of Mehar Garh and dates back to 7000BC hence the actual age of the mound could be 9000 years.

3. Kot DG & Amri 3300 BC

They are two sites of pre Harappan period. Kot DG is located at a distance of 50Kms from Sukkur and Amri is located on the Indus Highway between Hyderabad & Sehwan. A village culture developed after Mahargarh. People have made house with stones and mud. They built better ceramics and probably had trade links with some western lands.

4. Moen Jo Daro & Harrappa 2500 BC

One of the most Important archeological site. The main city of Indus civilization. The site was probably built around 3000 BC and was destroyed 1700 BC. It was nearly the same period when Mesopotamia and Egypt were at boom More info on our Moen Jo Daro Page. Harrappa is the sister site of the same period and is located in Sahiwal District on the road between Lahore& Multan

5. Post Moen Jo Daro Sites 2500-1700BC

There are many sites in the province of Sindh , Punjab and Baluchistan from 2000 - 1000 BC most of them are simply identified and not excavated.

6. Taxila 516 BC to 6 AD

Just 40 Kilometers from Islamabad the present capital this site was the capital of Gandhara the eastern most province of Achminidian empire of Persia. Later this site was conquered by many invaders including Alexander the great and Temurlane. This was the site where Buddhism flourished and The famous Gandhara art emerged. The site has over 40 different cities , Monasteries and Stupas , excavated in 1911 this site has a lot to offer for a general tourist and for an experienced archeologist.

7. Takht Bhai (2nd to 6th Century AD)

Most well preserved Buddhist monastery. Located 90 Kilometers from Peshawar, on the way to Swat. It is a complex of a well defined monastery a large stupa and over 35 votive stupas. The excavations are quite well restored and give a picture of the grander of the Monastery. Best way to visit Takht Bhai is either while driving from Peshawar to Swat or vice versa.

8. Gandhara Sites in Peshawar valley. (2nd to 6th Century AD)

There is a large group of Ghandharan sites in Peshawar valley Staring from the Stupa at Khyber pass , Charsadha , Shehbaz Garhi, Jamal Garhi and many other sites from 2nd to 6th century AD built during the Kushan Period. The Peshawar Museum has big collection of the statues from these sites.

9. Swat Group of Buddhist Sites.

There are over 150 Buddhist sites located in the valley of Swat from 2nd to 8th century. Main sites Include Butkara1, Butkara2 , Udegaram , Haibatgaram , Ghalega , Shingardar and Saidu.

10. Gilgit Chitral & Skardu pictographs and sites

In the 4th century Buddhism had already reached China through the high mountain valleys of the river Indus. There are several sites where one can see the rock drawings of those Buddhist Pilgrims who passed by these valleys and left their Marks. In Gilgit there is a Rock Buddha too so are some sites in Skardu & Chitral.

11. Sindh & Punjab sites of Buddhist period 2 - 5th Century AD.

The Stupa on Moen Jo Daro , Kahoo Jo Daro and some other un-excavated Stupas can be classified as the lower Indus basin sites. They are different in art & material. Mud & terracotta is widely used instead of stone.

12. Post Buddhist period 6 to 8th century.

Though there is not much excavated but there are many sites of this period. Aror in Sukkur Banbhore Thatta are from this period.

13. Arab or Muslim period 711AD

Banbhore , Mansura , Multan & Aror are a few examples of this period. With the arrival of Arab Muslims there was a big change in the structure of the towns and the art which can be seen in those places.

14. Moghul period Architecture:

From the 16th century to 18th century we have the Golden period of Lahore which gave birth to the magnificent Architectures Like Taj Mahal. There are numerous buildings of this period in Lahore and there is also the Mohabat Khan Mosque and Shahjehan Mosque very well preserved to boast the greatness of those architects

15. Uch & Multan Architecture.

Beautiful mausoleum in Multan & Uch Sharief built with terracotta and blue glazed tile present a class of architecture in it self. Mostly built by the local Kings these buildings are incredibly beautiful and must be part of any tour in Pakistan.

16. Cholistan Forts and Mosque in Derawar.

I personally feel this be classified as a separate school of architecture as the material and the design are unique and so is the period and status of people who built them. They are all located near Bahawalpur in Derawar , Dingarh and Chanan pir areas. The forts are beautifully built with baked bricks and the Mosque in Derawar is built with white Marble.

17. Makli Thatta & Chaukundi type sites

This group of architecture is very unique . Stone has been carved as wood and motifs and designs are taken from the ancient symbols local life and warriors. In Makli alone there are dozens of beautiful buildings specially to be mentioned are the Mausoleums of Jani Beg , Baqi Beg Uzbek, Mirza Isa Khan Turkhan , Mirza Jan Baba (IKT) and the glorious mausoleum of Jam Nizamuddin. Chaukundi is rather different but can be grouped together due to the region and the similar motifs. Only at a distance of 27 Kilometers from Karachi it is most unique cemetery in the world with beautiful stone carving , differentiation of Males & female graves by turbines & Jewelry. Clic here for a daily tour from Karachi to Thatta
 

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Paiwasta Reh Shajr say..
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9,458 Posts
1. Nousharo



Female figurines are plentiful but around 2700 BC appear also male clay figurines, the reason is not entirely clear.

Nausharo 3000 - 1900 BC

Nausharo may be the bridge between Mehrgarh and the Indus Valley culture. If the dates given in Wikipedia are correct Nausharo is not contemporary with early Mehrgarh.
 

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Paiwasta Reh Shajr say..
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4. Harrappa


The so-called Pashupati seal, showing a seated and possibly ithyphallic figure, surrounded by animals.
 

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Desert Rose
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Dai Anga Tomb


Zeb Un Nisa aka Dai Anga, was a wet nurse of Mughal King Shah Jehan and was well respected in the royal family. The tomb of Dai Anga is known as the Gulabi Bagh. Her family was closely associated with the Mughal empire. Her husband Murad Khan served Emperor Jahangir as Magistrate of Bikaner, and her son Muhammad Rashid Khan, was the best archers in the kingdom, and died fighting in the service of Shah Jahan's eldest son Dara Shikoh. Shah Jahan highly regarded Zeb Un Nisa.


Photography by : Salman Azeem Photography











 
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