Skyscraper City Forum banner
1 - 20 of 587 Posts

·
Moderator
Joined
·
12,509 Posts
Discussion Starter · #1 ·
Pakistani scientist wins laurels

ISLAMABAD, Jan 1: A Pakistani scientist working at the Institute of Space Technology (IST) has invented the world’s lowest profile omni-directional antenna with dual polarisation that does not require a ground plane.

Dr Mohammad Amin, who is listed in the biographical directory Who’s Who in the World of 2008 published by Marquis, said in mobile communications, it was important not only to have adequate signal strength, but the direction of the electric field should also be parallel with the antenna.


He said: “I have developed the world’s lowest profile antenna that can generate equal vertical and horizontal electric field components.” Mr Amin said the antenna had a helical shape and had a feed at the centre of the helical section of one side. Furthermore, the antenna, known as side-fed bifilar helix antenna, does not require a ground plane.


However, the scientist said that because of the scattering environment, a part of vertical electric field generated at the transmitter could turn into horizontal and vice versa.


According to Dr Amin, an antenna capable of receiving or generating equal amplitudes of electric fields both in horizontal and vertical directions will improve reception by providing diversity.


He said the simplest form of such an antenna was a crossed dipole, which consisted of two dipoles orientated at 90 degrees to each other. The crossed dipole provides equal vertical and horizontal electric field over narrow regions and its height would be approximately half wavelength, he added.


Dr Amin said many applications such as in mobile handsets and aerodynamic surfaces at jet speeds the antenna had to be low profile either to appeal the aesthetics or to reduce air resistance.


In addition, equal amplitude of electric field both in vertical and horizontal directions is required in all directions for reliable communication, he added.



Source: Dawn
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
609 Posts
yea... read the news....

Wow... atleast we did somethihg... but the fact that matters here is that our media must project this at the highest level... like we do of all the killings.. riots.. terror..

I wish our media promot things like this in the same manner... which unfortunately wont happen...!!
 

·
Musharraf Ka Danda!
Joined
·
10,199 Posts
yea... read the news....

Wow... atleast we did somethihg... but the fact that matters here is that our media must project this at the highest level... like we do of all the killings.. riots.. terror..

I wish our media promot things like this in the same manner... which unfortunately wont happen...!!
They think they can fix Pakistan by presenting the negative things in extreme light.
 
  • Like
Reactions: OmI92

·
Honorary Scouser
Joined
·
11,934 Posts
Pakistan Science & Technology

Post articles and news relating to Pakistan Science & Technology developments here.


Standing tall

Given that Pakistan is in a seismic zone, architects need to focus on building structures that are more earthquake resistant, writes Sabiha Essa

THE recent earthquake in China brought back the horrific memories of the devastation that Pakistan had faced in October 2005. Even now, people living in the Northern areas are picking up pieces of their lives as they try to settle down in a regular routine. The rebuilding process — especially in terms of buildings — is still on the go. This rebuilding becomes far more important and a responsible task given that many areas in Pakistan are in a seismic zone, and susceptible to natural disasters like earthquakes. Hence, the need for seismic resistant buildings.



It is very rightly said that, “Earthquakes don't kill people, buildings do.” As the frequency in the number of earthquakes build up in different parts of the world, scientists and engineers are trying to study the impact of earthquake on buildings and other structures. After scrutinising how structures respond to earthquakes, they are using the knowledge to improve the ability of structures to survive major earthquakes. Some countries, like Japan, have already been successful with these attempts which have saved many lives.

Designing and constructing large structures has always been a challenge which gets further complicated when they are to be built in earthquake-prone areas. There are certain regions of Pakistan, including Karachi, which lie on the seismic belt and are at risk of frequent, sudden earthquakes. Keeping this fact in mind and the previous irreparable losses of human lives, we must gear up our energies in building safer and earthquake or seismic resistant buildings and structures like bridges, dams etc.



Seismologists or the earth scientists work to identify the places which are more prone to suffer from earthquakes. They design maps indicating the faulty zones with unresisting, poor construction, flood plains, areas at risk of landslides or to soil liquefaction. Using such maps, construction planners design zoning restrictions for preventing the construction of hazardous structures in earthquake prone areas. Unlike our country, architects and engineers around the world give importance to the safety and seismic resistance of their buildings when designing and constructing them. But since this is an expensive task to achieve, it is not economically possible to build all structures seismic resistant, even though some dams and public buildings of importance, like schools, hospitals, and densely populated residential areas are on the priority list. However, with extensive researches it has been found that the cost of repair is a fraction of the cost of earthquake-proofing of these buildings.

Seismologists began researching on earthquakes during 1880’s and in 1940 they were able to create instruments which could be installed in buildings in order to measure their response to the jolts of the earthquake. The information provided by these instruments not only helped in calculating the intensity of earthquake and understanding the forces produced by shaking of earth, but it also helped in defining the building codes. The building codes help in formulating the frontline safety measures against future earthquake damages to the public life. In many countries, earthquake recording instruments.

link
 

·
Honorary Scouser
Joined
·
11,934 Posts


Asif Masood discusses the importance of using renewable energy sources as an alternative to electricity in Pakistan World Environment Day was on June 5

WITH electricity becoming a scarcity and Pakistan now resorting to various means to save energy, perhaps it is high time that we look to renewable energies to come to our rescue. The total installed electricity generation capacity of Pakistan is 19,500MW. This excludes most of the rural population that does not have access to electricity and still depends on traditional biomass fuel, such as wood and coal, etc.

Now, with most forms of fuels like kerosene, and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) becoming either inaccessible or very costly, it is imperative to move away from pollution producing sources of energy in Pakistan and rely more on renewable energy sources.

Renewable energy — as the name implies — is energy that can be obtained from a constant source, such as wind, sun and water. Despite developing a number of energy policies and plans, the priority accorded to renewable energy in Pakistan has remained very low. While in most of policy documents authorities have widely acknowledged renewable resources as an alternative source of energy, little substantive actions have been taken to implement these plans. Hardly any specific incentives have been offered to nurture a full-fledged industry based on alternate technologies to generate energy.

The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS), which was approved by government of Pakistan in 1992, became a component in the eighth five year plan. It provided the first all encompassing framework for addressing environmental concerns in the country.

At this point, what we need most is a joint effort at both the government and private sector levels to meet the up coming challenges. For example, the alternate energy sources should be indigenous so that they reduce dependency on energy related imports. A long term policy for the promotion of renewable energies requires across the board initiatives encompassing a wide range of policies pertaining to energy, environment, employment, incentives, taxation relief, competitive return on investment, funding for research and development policies. WIND ENERGY It is difficult to undermine the importance of wind power since it is the kinetic energy of wind which can generate electrical energy by driving wind turbines. Wind power became the least expensive form of new power generation, coming well below the cost per kilo walt-hour of coal fired plant. Wind power is growing faster than any other form of electricity generation. In late 1990, the cost of wind power was about five to six times compared to what it is now and this downward trend is expected to continue as larger multimega watt turbines are being produced by many commercial companies.

SOLAR ENERGY Most areas of Pakistan receive ample amount of sunshine, averaging about 300 sunny days a year. Solar energy applications, therefore, are particularly feasible in the country. Although, small scales photovoltaic (PV) system exists for small scale level application, what we need is a large scale adoption of solar energy. This is mainly because of the high cost of PV and Thermal panels. However, a design improvement has resulted in dramatic reduction in manufacturing cost over the last decade.

Solar energy’s use is also limited because of a host of practical issues, such as energy conversion and storage, mismatched supply and load profiles and maintenance costs. Moreover, an absence of a clear cut policy and lack of fiscal support mechanisms for promoting the local manufacture of low-cost dispersed systems have also contributed to its limited use.

Presently, PV technology on small scale is being used for emergency telephones on highways. Solar water pumps for drinking water, refrigeration systems for cooling buildings and for hot water for domestic use are the other applications of energy from sun.

Solar energy is viable specially in villages in Balochistan and Sind which are spread over large distances and do not have road connections. The transmission connections in such areas are also not economically viable. Under these circumstances, it would be quite feasible to develop and promote solar thermal technologies (like solar cookers) in such remote areas.

The use of solar cookers in rural areas can also save a lot of trees and mitigate the risk of deforestation, which is causing serious environemental problems in Pakistan. In Nepal, for example, the Netherland Refugee Foundation (NRF) has distributed 6000 parabolic cookers among the 102,000 ethnic Nepalese from Bhutan who fled due to Bhutanese government’s oppression in early 1990. One 90-dollar cooker is shared between two families. This has enabled these refugees not to rely on wood for their food preparation.

Going solar not only helps preserve precious fuel supplies but also cuts down smoke pollution thereby, reducing damage to our lungs. The manufacturing/assembly of cookers also create local employment. The fuelless operation prevents the cutting of trees and roots the removal of which leaches nutrients from soil and can cause landslides.

Properly assessed renewable energy options can become economically viable and be easily implemented in the form of projects based on hydropower, wind or biogas. This is particularly true for the more difficult, remote and underdeveloped areas, where renewable energy can have the greatest impact. Renewable energy can also supplement the pool of national energy supply in Pakistan, thereby expediting economic empowerment, productivity and development of currently marginalised segments of the population.

Decentralised renewable energy systems can also help to reduce energy distribution losses. The industry based on renewable energy would generate employment and business opportunities among manufactures and service providers. Therefore, the economic benefits are limitless to improve the quality of life for end-users across the country.

Cost-effective renewable energy will definitely improve Pakistan’s economic performance. Energy efficiency along with conservation measures can result in profitable business units. Use of indigenous resources can help Pakistan in diversifying its energy mix. This will reduce the country’s dependence on any single source, particularly imported fossil fuel. Local environmental and health hazards introduced by fossil fuel powered electricity generation plants can be largely circumvented through clean renewable energy alternatives.

By using renewable energy, we can also elevate Pakistan‘s present low per capita consumption. Issues relating to social equity, such as equal rights and access for all citizens to modern energy supplies and poverty alleviation among the deprived section of society can also be addressed significantly through widespread renewable energy deployment.
link
 

·
Honorary Scouser
Joined
·
11,934 Posts
Agricultural engineering Food for thought

By Sahar Majid



GIVEN that Pakistan is an agricultural country and a large part of its economy depends on agriculture, one would think that a ca reer in this field would be a feasible option. Unfortunately, this is not the case.

According to environmentalist Dr A.A. Qureishi, agriculture department in the education sector is going through an extremely bad situation.

“The students are not provided with practical equipment and field experiment facilities. They are just taught theory, and therefore, when they enter the work field, they cannot implement their knowledge since they do not have any exposure to the practical aspects of crop growing,” says Qureishi adding that the situation of agriculture education is far better in Punjab when compared to Sindh. In fact, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad is offering quality practical resources to its students so that they can perform better on the fields.

The NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar and Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences — Uthal, Balochistan are the main universities offering degree courses in agriculture in the respective regions.

An agriculturist is a scientifically trained expert in agriculture, and his/her job is to use his/her knowledge of agriculture to produce food and fibres. S/he utilises the expertise to improve the quality of crops and also communicate new ideas to farmers.

However, it not just the mediocre quality of education that serves as deterrent, but a lack of professional opportunities as well. Says Dr Asghar Ali, Professor and Chairman, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, “The seats or the number of vacancies are not enough to place all graduating students. Agriculturists do have opportunities in Pakistan to work in consultation firms, research and development companies and in corporate sector, but the problem is that the jobs are not enough to absorb all graduating students.” As far as the salary packages are concerned, corporate sector — other than banks — does not offer more than Rs10,000 per month to fresh graduates, while those who are fortunate enough to be employed by banks’ agriculture credit department, get good salaries and other benefits as per banks’ policies..

But despite not-so-bright career prospects for agriculturists, says Asghar, the enrolment of students in agriculture universities is on the rise. The prerequisite to get admission in an agriculture university is an inter- mediate degree in either pre-medical or pre-engineering. Student with HSC certificate in humanities are not eligible to apply for a degree programme in agriculture since it is a purely a scientific field.

With growing population and an increasing food shortage, the basic challenge for an agriculturist in developing world is to adopt techniques to increase crops’ productivity in order to prevent food-shortage. And this is only possible if they are giv en proper training both at educational and professional levels. National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) based in Islamabad is an institute that is aimed to improve the skills and increase the technical knowledge of agricultural scientists, technicians and farmers. Similar institutes that provide on-job training and a well-collaborated system between educational institutes and corporate sector can definitely pave way for a better future for our agriculturists. Also, establishing more research organisations for better cultivation is also a great way to generate more job placements for agri graduates.
link
 

·
Everythin bubble of water
Joined
·
20,618 Posts

·
Farigh Admi
Joined
·
1,799 Posts
Pakistan is way behind India in the field of Electronics. Telecommunication, however, has some future in our country but no way for Electronics. The situation is much alarming as the Karachi city alone is producing more than 1500 Electronic Engineers every year and we have no large-scale corporations to absorb that huge number of engineers. That is the reason why most of our Electronic Engineers are now preferring the Telecom specialization in their Final Year.

The saturation in the field has emerged after the increment in the seats of Electronics by Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology to 1000 from 700 and every other university has also started the undergraduate programs in Electronics.

And about comparing the two countries, I must say that Indians have got an edge over Pakistanis with their programming skills, that is what Electronics is all about.
 

·
Honorary Scouser
Joined
·
11,934 Posts
I don't really know about India's science & technology sector, but they definitely are a lot more ambitious and proactive than us. The Indians are attracting a lot of FDI and a lot of companies are setting up R&D centres there.

Hopefully a few of these electronics graduates are going to be smart enough to start their own firms and continue to make them grow to a level where they can employ more future engineers.
 

·
Honorary Scouser
Joined
·
11,934 Posts
A. A. Khan

20 June 2008 | EN

Pakistan's new government has increased science spending in its maiden 2008–2009 budget, but high inflation is set to cancel the increase out.

The government earmarked 37,041 million Pakistani rupees (around US$553 million) to public sector science and technology (S&T) in its budget presented to the National Assembly last week (11 June).

The budget contains an increase of 2.95 per cent for S&T spending — but the rise is negated by the 11 per cent inflation rate set for the next fiscal year, beginning 1 July.

The current allocation for S&T makes up 1.84 per cent of Pakistan's US$30 billion federal budget, less than last year's allocation of 1.92 per cent. This is contrary to the trend set by former science minister Atta-ur-Rahman who secured massive science spending for the country.

Pakistan's S&T spending is spread across different ministries and departments, which have received uneven cuts in funding this year.

An allocation of around US$45 million has been made to the Ministry of Science and Technology — 16.2 per cent less than last year's allocation.

The Higher Education Commission will spend US$181 million of its unchanged US$267 million budget on science and technology related research and education projects, including establishing six science and engineering universities (see Pakistan plans 'state of the art' science universities) and strengthening existing ones.

The Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock has been given US$27 million, a cut of 17 per cent, for projects including establishing and enhancing crop research centres. An allocation of US$24 million — a 23 per cent decrease — has been made to the Ministry of Information Technology.

The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission's share is US$228 million, an increase of 25.5 per cent, for power generation and medical imaging projects.

Razina Alam Khan, chairperson of the Senate Standing Committee on Science and Technology, told SciDev.Net the cut in S&T and education spending is negative for vital development projects like energy and agriculture.

But science ministry sources deny any shift in policy and say under-utilisation of funds from last year is responsible for current reductions in allocation.
 

·
Honorary Scouser
Joined
·
11,934 Posts
United States - Pakistan Cooperation in Science and Technology​

Joint Committee on Science and Technology:

Within the framework of the commitment by the Government of Pakistan and the Government of the United States to broaden and deepen the bilateral relationship in diverse fields, the two sides underscored their resolve to expand US-Pakistan cooperation in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and higher education. In this context, the sides have decided to establish the Joint Committee on Science and Technology at a higher level. The two countries signed an Agreement on Science and Technology in June 2003 to strengthen scientific, technological and engineering capabilities and expand collaboration between the scientific and technological communities and institutions of both sides.

The high-level Joint Committee will foster expanded cooperation and promote collaborative relationships between the scientific and technological entities of the two countries, as well as scientists serving in government agencies, private enterprises, science foundations, and academia in order to further scientific endeavors and increase the quality and quantity of researchers in Pakistan. The Joint Committee will meet periodically. The Joint Committee will likely be composed of representatives from the scientific, governmental, and industrial communities of each country.

Pakistan- United States Cooperation in Environment:

The Joint Committee on Science and Technology will address the institutional capacity of Pakistan to enhance the prospects and opportunities for economic growth in a manner that accords priority to environmental protection, including in the impact of climate on the water and agricultural sectors of Pakistan.

U.S.- Pakistan Science and Technology Initiative:

The United States and Pakistan are working together to strengthen cooperation in science and technology in Pakistan and to broaden mutual understanding between our countries. The second year of the science and technology program is underway with new projects to increase Pakistan’s capacity for science and technology education and research in the public and private sectors. Eleven new projects will focus on water resource management, engineering, food science, plant science, air quality, forensic science, and renewable energy.

The eleven new projects:

  • Develop a strategic model to improve construction project management education, research, and practices.
  • Develop guidelines for asphalt pavement recycling.
  • Develop computational mechanics infrastructure and human resources for advancing engineering design practices.
  • Establish an extrusion center at Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
  • Increase salt tolerance in wheat through genetic engineering.
  • Increase understanding and control of plant viral disease complexes in Pakistan.
  • Determine heavy metal and polycyclic hydrocarbons in airborne particulates in Lahore, Pakistan and Madison, Wisconsin.
  • Develop and strengthen capacity for surveillance, containment, and diagnosis of antimicrobial disease resistance through public-private partnership.
  • Intensify forensic services and research at the Center for Applied Molecular Biology.
  • Improve living conditions for populations in remote areas of the Federal Administered Tribal Areas through renewable energy.
  • Build research, education and training capacity for water resource management.
 

·
Honorary Scouser
Joined
·
11,934 Posts
Pakistan inherited four laboratories, one university and one agricultural college at the time of independence in 1947. Since its inception, Pakistan realized the importance of science and technology for socio-economic development, however, due to various reasons, mainly financial constraints and political instability in the country, science and technology could not become the priority agenda of successive governments. Despite these constraints, considerable progress has been made in science and technology. At present, there are 83 major S&T organizations with over 224 laboratories and research stations in Pakistan working in different areas of science and technology. In addition, there are 109 universities in the country, about half of which are in the private sector.

For making the role of parliament in the development of science and technology more efficient and well-organized, various mechanisms have been devised in Pakistan. In this regard, the National Commission for Science and Technology (NCST) is the most important institution which was created in 1984. The 27-member Commission is the apex Science and Technology policy laying body that provides guidance for scientific and technological efforts in the country. It has a cross-cutting function of determining policy across many government ministries and agencies and, it does not have any administrative function. The Commission is headed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and includes Federal Ministers for Science and Technology, Education, Agriculture, Industries and Finance along with Ministers for S&T Departments of the provinces. Federal Minister for Information Technology and Telecommunications, who is currently not a member of NCST, is also being included in the Commission.

The Commission has an Executive Committee that is responsible to coordinate, oversee and review the Science and Technology policies, research and development programmes and implementation of the policy decisions taken by the Commission. The Executive Committee is headed by the Federal Minister for Science and Technology and consists of 29 members, mainly secretaries of ministries concerned and heads of science and technology organizations.

Pakistan Council for Science and Technology is the designated secretariat of NCST and in this capacity, it plays a very important role in the science and technology policy formulation and decision-making process. Chairman, PCST, supported by a small technical workforce, serves as the Secretary of the Commission.

Both house of parliament, i.e. National Assembly and Senate, have Standing Committees on Education, Science and Technology. Presence of these Committees provides political oversight over the functioning of the science and technology organizations in the country. These Committees which include parliamentarians from the ruling party and the opposition examine the administration, legislation, expenditure, public petitions and policies of the Ministry and its associated organizations. Recently, a Sub-Committee of the Senate Standing Committee on Science & Technology considered the issue of linkage between Industries and Research Institutes. The Sub-Committee gave constructive recommendations for constitution of framework and mechanism for the linkage between Industries and Research Institutes of Science and Technology so that the benefit of scientific research may reach to Industries, Agriculture and the common man.

Ministry of Science and Technology, created in 1972, is the focal point on all important matters regarding science and technology including developing science and technology policies and plans and, coordination of science and technology at the government level. Keeping in view the importance of Information Technology and acknowledging its central role in the future economic progress, recently a separate ministry was created for Information Technology and Telecommunications. Other important federal ministries with regard to science and technology are ministries of Education, Agriculture and Industries. Their Ministers have a central position in the decision-making process and play an important role in the Science and Technology policy development as members of NCST.

Higher Education Commission (HEC) and Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) are other important bodies where science and technology decisions, pertaining to their spheres of work, are made. Both the organizations are also represented on the NCST through their heads. Chairman, HEC, who has recently been posted as Advisor to the Prime Minister, is responsible for higher education, including education, research & development in basic and applied sciences and engineering & technology. He works independently of the Minister for Education, who is mainly responsible for the primary and secondary education. Chairman, PAEC is under the Prime Minister’s Secretariat and is a key-figure in science and technology decision-making process related to the defense and security of the country.

There are a significant number of Research & Development organizations, mainly in the area of agriculture, working under the administrative control of the provinces. Policies and decisions regarding these organizations are normally made in the concerned provincial departments. While heads of science and technology organizations working under the administrative control of different federal ministries, mainly science and technology and, agriculture, are responsible for governance of these organizations at the local level.
 

·
Honorary Scouser
Joined
·
11,934 Posts
First photovoltaic modules manufacturing unit established

FAISALABAD (June 24 2008): First modern unit for the production of Photovoltaic (PV) modules for solar panels has been established at Hattar with German collaboration. A spokesman of the company said here on Monday that solar panels produced locally by this company range from 5 watts to 250 watts.

"In an integrated production system, the plant manufactures highly efficient PV modules using best quality raw material produced by top three solar cell manufacturers in the world". The manufacturing plant with latest machinery has annual capacity of 37 mega watts. All PV modules are 100 per cent tested using the latest technology ensuring the delivery of reliable and high performance products to the market, said the spokesman.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
14,129 Posts
Man, what we sorely miss right now is a visionary leader!

China became the factory of the world.
India, the software factory.

Powered partly by our enery crisis, we should screw IT, etc. and focus ALL our needs on solar/wind and all these gay technologies (I hate them, but gotta be realistic, everybody else loves them). The way things are going worldwide, these things will be in such high demand that it won't even be funny. I don't know how it would happen, but it's one thing Pakistan can take lead in. Maybe the gov can set up a small town for this purpose, invite foreign PhDs in the field, pay them good money, and finance all the research. We can then recoup this investments thru exports. The demand would literally explode in the next decade. We, of course, won't be anywhere near the likes of what Sharp and Sanyo are making, but still be good enough. And if we are good, then such companies can build their plants here. Not a bad dream, eh?
 

·
Farigh Admi
Joined
·
1,799 Posts
India is far ahead in the field of Wind and Solar Power. They are making the world's largest project of Solar power in Rajasthan Desert as far as I remember. One thing I always say, we have mastered in the missile technology, we have known that ways to enrich the Uranium in the most efficient ever way but we cannot cope up with the problem which the West and most of the Asian countries have got rid of decades ago.

My aunt lives in Incheon,South Korea, she told me that once electricity had went off there and it had been powered on again in not more than 3 seconds.

Our obsession has gone wrong way. We should have incorporated our available resources and energies in the fields of technology which are fruitful for the countrymen. They say that DEFENSE is a lot more important than anything else and I say that gone are the days when aggression against any country was easy.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
14,129 Posts
Well, we can still make some money by working on it. We have yet to witness the Alternative Energy Boom, so there's time.
 

·
Moderator
Joined
·
12,509 Posts
Discussion Starter · #20 ·
Pak agri scientist evolves 5 varieties of long rice

LAHORE: Pakistan agriculture scientist sets a new record in Asia by successfully evolving five new best quality varieties of "long and extra long hybrid rice" in Pakistan in a short span of seven years.

According to details, Dr Ghulam Mustafa Avesi with 35 years rich experience in rice research, successfully conducted uninterrupted hectic field research in various rice growing areas for developing new varieties with best yield per acre for long and extra long hybrid rice, especially suitable to climatic condition of the areas for obtaining more bumper crop than traditional rice crop.
 
1 - 20 of 587 Posts
Top