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Discussion Starter · #5 ·
X-posting from IR thread..


காரைக்குடி, புதுக்கோட்டை வழியாக பெங்களு&
காரைக்குடி, புதுக்கோட்டை வழியாக பெங்களூர், சென்னைக்கு தினசரி பகல் நேர ரயில் இயக்க வேண்டும் என இந்திய கம்யூனிஸ்ட் கோரிக்கை விடுத்துள்ளது.
இந்திய கம்யூனிஸ்ட் கட்சியின் மாவட்ட செயலாளர் செங்கோடன் விடுத்துள்ள அறிக்கையில் கூறியிருப்பதாவது:
காரைக்குடி, புதுக்கோட்டை, திருச்சி, கோவை வழியாக பெங்களுர் மற்றும் சென்னைக்கு தினமும் பகல் நேர ரயில்கள் இயக்க வேண்டும். ராமேஸ்வரம், கோவை தடத்தில் வாரத்திற்கு ஒரு முறை வந்து செல்லும் ரயில் தினந்தோறும் இயக்க ரயில்வே நிர்வாகம் நடவடிக்கை எடுக்க வேண்டும்.
நாடாளுமன்றத்தில் ஏற்கனவே அறிவிக்கப்பட்ட தஞ்சாவூர் புதுக்கோட்டை புதிய ரயில்பாதை அமைப்பு பணிகள் இன்னும் ஆரம்பிக்கப்படவில்லை. அதனை உடனடியாக தொடங்க வேண்டும்.
மேலும் அதேபோல் பட்டுக்கோட்டை, ஆலங்குடி, புதுக்கோட்டை, மணப்பாறை வழியாக புதிய ரயில் பாதையும், அறந்தாங்கி, புதுக்கோட்டை, மணப்பாறை வழியாக புதிய வழித்தடமும் உருவாக்க வேண்டும்.
இக்கோரிக்கையை மத்திய அமைச்சர் ப.சிதம்பரம், மத்திய ரயில்வே நிலைக்குழு தலைவர் டி.ஆர்.பாலு ஆகியோர் ஏற்று நிறைவேற்ற நடவடிக்கை எடுக்க வேண்டும்.
இவ்வாறு அவர் அறிக்கையில் தெரிவித்துள்ளார்.
 

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vinothkumaran2012
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புதிய வழித்தடங்களில் அதிகரிக்கும் பஸ் இ&

புதுக்கோட்டை: அரசு போக்குவரத்துக் கழத்தில் புதிய வழித்தடங்கள் அதிகரித்துவரும் நிலையில், போதிய டிரைவர், கண்டக்டர்கள் இல்லாததால், பழைய வழித்தடங்கள் முடங்கி வருகிறது.
புதுக்கோட்டை அரசு போக்குவரத்து கழகம், (கும்பகோணம் டிவிஷன் -4) புதுக்கோட்டை, அறந்தாங்கி, பட்டுக்கோட்டை, திருச்சி, பொன்னமராவதி ஆகிய ஆறு கிளைகளுடன் இயங்கி வருகிறது. இவற்றின் மூலம் மாவட்டத்தின் உள்ளூர் பகுதிகள், வெளிமாவட்டங்கள் மற்றும் வெளி மாநிலங்களுக்கு நாள்தோறும், 400 பஸ்கள் வரை, இயக்கப்படுகிறது.இவை தவிர அமைச்சர்கள், எம்.பி., எம்.எல்.ஏ.,க்கள் மற்றும் கலெக்டர் ஆகியோரின் பரிந்துரையின் பேரில், புதிய வழித்தடங்களிலும், வழித்தடம் நீட்டிப்பு செய்தும் பஸ்கள் இயக்கப்படுகிறது.நேற்று முன்தினம் (16ம் தேதி) முதல் புதுக்கோட்டை புதிய பஸ்ஸ்டான்டில் இருந்து, குமுளி, கொடைக்கானல், பொள்ளாச்சி மற்றும், காவேரிநகர் வழியாக திருச்சி ஆகிய, நான்கு புதிய வழித்தடங்களில் பஸ்கள் இயக்கப்படுகிறது. இவை தவிர கந்தர்வக்கோட்டையிலிருந்து, சமுத்திராப்பட்டி வழியாக வல்லம் வரை, வழித்தடம் நீட்டிப்பு செய்தும் பஸ்கள் இயக்கப்படுகிறது.
புதிய வழித்தடத்தில் பஸ் போக்குவரத்தை அமைச்சர் சுப்பிரமணியன் துவக்கி வைத்தார். எம்.எல்.ஏ.,க்கள் விஜயபாஸ்கர், கார்த்திக்தொண்டைமான் உட்பட அ.தி.மு.க., பிரமுகர்கள், அரசு போக்குவரத்துக்கழக அதிகாரிகள் பலர் பங்கேற்றனர்.புதுக்கோட்டை அரசு போக்குவரத்துக் கழகத்தை பொறுத்தமட்டில் ஏற்கனவே, 137 டிரைவர் பணியிடங்கள், 142 கண்டக்டர் பணியிடங்கள், 67 டெக்னிக்கல் பணியாளர் பணியிடங்கள் காலியாக இருக்கிறது.ஒப்பந்த அடிப்படையில் கண்டக்டர் மற்றும் டிரைவர்கள் சிலர் பணியில் அமர்த்தப்பட்டும், பற்றாக்குறையை சமாளிக்க முடியாமல் நிர்வாகம் தத்தளித்து வருகிறது. பண்டிகை காலங்களில் பயணிகளின் நெருக்கடியை சமாளிக்கும் விதமாக சென்னை, கோவை போன்ற தொலைதூர பகுதிகளுக்கு அதிக பஸ்கள் இயக்கவேண்டிய கட்டாயம் ஏற்படுகிறது.
இதுபோன்ற இக்கட்டான சூழ்நிலைகளை சமாளிக்க டிரைவர், கண்டக்டர்களுக்கு, இரண்டு முதல், மூன்று டூட்டிகள் வரை தொடர்ந்து வழங்கப்படுகிறது. இதுவே சாலை விபத்துகளுக்கும் வழிவகுக்கிறது.இந்நிலையில், புதிய வழித்தடங்களில் பஸ்கள் இயக்க, வெளிமாவட்டங்கள் மற்றும் மாவட்டத்தின் உள்ளூர் பகுதிகளுக்கு இயக்கப்படும் பஸ்களின் எண்ணிக்கை குறைக்கப்பட்டும், கலெக்ஷன் குறைவாக உள்ள வழித்தடங்கள் முடக்கப்பட்டும் வருகிறது.குறிப்பாக புதுக்கோட்டையிலிருந்து திருச்சி, பொன்னமராவதி, அறந்தாங்கி, கீரனூர் உள்ளிட்ட வழித்தடங்கள் குறைக்கப்பட்டு வருகிறது. இதில் பணியாற்றி வந்த டிரைவர், கண்டக்டர்களை வைத்து புதிய வழித்தடங்களில் பஸ்கள் இயக்கப்படுகிறது.புதிய வழித்தடங்களில் பஸ்கள் இயக்குவது, வழித்தடம் நீட்டிப்பு செய்வது போன்றவை பாராட்டுக்குரியது என்றாலும், பழைய வழித்தடங்களில் பஸ்களின் எண்ணிக்கையை குறைப்பது, வழித்தடங்களை முடக்குவது போன்றவை மக்களை பாதிக்கும் விஷயமாக உள்ளது.எனவே காலியாக உள்ள டிரைவர், கண்டக்டர் பணியிடங்களை பூர்த்தி செய்து, முடக்கப்பட்ட வழித்தடங்களில் மீண்டும் பஸ்களை இயக்க, புதுக்கோட்டை அரசு போக்குவரத்துக்கழகம் முன் வரவேண்டும், தொழிலாளர்கள் அமைப்புகளும், பொதுமக்களும் கோரிக்கை விடுத்துள்ளனர்.
 

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Discussion Starter · #7 ·
Organic SRI motivates seed production by small farmers

In the last five years the group has supplied 60 tonnes of paddy seeds

At a time when farmers are heavily depending on State owned seed corporations and private seed companies for their seed needs every cropping season, a group of organic farmers in Nallangalpatti village in Tamil Nadu is engaged in a silent revolution to completely reverse the situation through collective action.


They are not only involved in producing their own seeds and exchanging it among themselves, but also supplying the seeds to Government owned seed farms.
Thus, they have proved once again that farmers are the masters in taking all characteristics and aspects in mind for developing quality seeds, multiplying them and saving them for reuse.

Target villages

Nallathangalpattti is a small village of Puliyur Panchayat of Kulathur taluk in Pudukkottai District and has around 70 farm families. This village has been one among the target villages of Kudumbam, an NGO working with resource-poor farmers in establishing sustainable agriculture alternatives in Pudukkottai District.
Over the years, Kudumbam organised a mixture of capacity building programmes like village awareness creation meetings, on-field demonstrations of bio input preparation and facilitating farmers’ field schools for the farmers’ group of this village.


The process of participatory learning and sharing methods had motivated and acclimatized them to organic farming methods. Paddy has been the predominant crop for this village under irrigated condition.

Vegetables, black gram and groundnut are also grown. Under rain fed condition groundnut, red gram, varagu, and cowpea are grown.

During 2003, Kudumbam initiated steps to introduce SRI (System of Rice Intensification) method in this village. Since, it was a new technology at that time, it approached one of the experienced organic farmers’ groups in that village and discussed with the farmers whether they would be interested in experimenting with SRI.


The Organic Farmers Group (Iyarkkai Vivasaayegal Kuzhu) came forward and expressed its interest in experimenting with SRI method of paddy cultivation.

Long experience

Though, the farmers’ group had long experience in organic farming methods, initially the farmers were a little reluctant in experimenting with a technology like SRI. Hence, the farmers’ group decided to experiment involving two farmers.

In the same period of time, the State initiated steps to popularise SRI method in paddy cultivation.
“The major difference between the Nallathangalpattti farmers’ group and the State sponsored SRI programme was that the latter’s focus has been SRI with application of chemicals while the Nallathangalpattti farmers confined SRI to organic methods,” says K. Suresh Kanna, deputy director of the NGO.

Better yield

Since the two farmers’ fields were already practicing organic farming, with the application of the SRI method they have increased their yield from 22 bags/acre to 32 bags/acre.

Thus, the increased yield motivated them to continue organic SRI method in the following season along with another 5 farmers from their group.

The successful organic SRI paddy cultivation by this farmers’ group has attracted many outside visitors to their paddy fields including many local, state and central agriculture officials who appreciated their work.

After seeing the cultivation methods and better grain quality, the local agriculture officers suggested the farmers to sell the seeds to the Government seed farm at Kudumiyanmalai as it would help fetch better income. The officials also helped the farmers enter into an agreement with the seed farm.
All the registered farmers are supplied with seeds from the farm. The district seed certifying officer also makes periodical visits (at least 3 visits) during the cropping season and offers his technical advice to the farmers. Thus, the linkages have started from 2007 and the farmers started to cultivate paddy exclusively for seed promotion purpose.

More income

“When we sell our paddy as seed we are able to get more — between Rs.350 and Rs.400 per bag, says Mr. Govindaraj, the leader of the farmers’ group.



“Hence, the price for the 10kgs is extra gain for us, if we sell it as seeds,” says Dharmaraj, another farmer of the group.
“As we are informed by the State Seed Farm well in advance about the type of paddy seeds and the quantity required, we are able to supply the required quantity according to their needs without any problem,” says Mr. Govindaraj.


The success in paddy has motivated them to involve in seed production for other crops like black gram and groundnut. During the last five years, the farmers’ group has supplied around 60 tonnes of Ponni paddy, 80 tonnes of ATD paddy variety and one ton of groundnut seeds.
For more details readers can contact Mr. Govindaraj, Nallathangalpatti village,


http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/agriculture/article3915171.ece
 

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hi friends ! good evening.

though trichy is my home city and a permanent place of setllement, my native village is in pudukkotai district limit.( just 6 kms from KODUMBALUR).


i think , pudukkotai and its surrounding areas in the erstwhile karaikudi region are of under-utilised , but of awesome tourist destinations.

places like kodumbalur, sttanavasal, kudimiyanmalai, etc are of great historical importance. :)




here are some of the facts and informations.

i hope, everyone would love to visit these places when they finish reading the facts.


1) KODUMBALUR


Kodumbalur (கொடும்பாளுர்)

Kodumbalur is the site of some structural temples of great beauty. Their merit marks them out as among the most outstanding monuments in India. Two monuments alone are survived. They are the celebrated Muvar-koil (மூவர் கோயில்) and Muchu-kundesvara-koil (முசுகுந்தேஸ்வரர் கோயில்). There are survivals of an Aivar-koil (ஐவர் கோயில்) and of another Siva temple. It is Muvar-koil, which is the centre of attraction. These temples are considered to be the forerunners of the great Imperial chozha temples. Some important inscriptions are also found here.

Kodumbalur is located on Pudukkottai-Kudumiyamalai-Manapparai (புதுக்கோட்டை-குடுமியாமலை-மணப்பாறை) main road about 35 kilometres from Pudukkottai. And it lies 5 kilometres away from Tiruchi - Madurai highway. Bus facility is available from Viralimalai (விராலிமலை) and Manapparai (மணப்பாறை).



The MUVAR-KOIL (மூவர்கோயில்)

The Muvar-koil (‘temple-of-three’) is a beautiful temple of early-Chozha period, built by the Irukkuvel (இருக்குவேள்) chief Bhuthi-vikrama-kesari (பூதி விக்கிரமகேசரி). According to his inscription he built these three Siva shrines, one on his own behalf and, the other two on behalf of his wives, Karrali (கற்றளி) and Varaguna (வரகுணா).

As far as the dating of Bhuthi-vikrama-kesari and his Muvar-koil is concerned, there is more than one opinion. Some experts date them to the second half of the 10th century and some others to the last quarter of 9th century. In any case, one can say they belong to the early Chozha period (9th - 11th centuries AD).

In spite of inscriptional evidences, fanciful interpretations have been given to explain the term Muvar. Some claim that the Saiva saints Appar (அப்பர்), Sundarar (சுந்தரர்) and Manikka-vachakar (மாணிக்கவாசகர்) constructed one shrine each. Others claim that the Muvarasar (மூவரசர்) or the three kings - the Chera, the Chozha and the Pandya - built one each. Yet another ingenious interpretation is that the shrines were intended to house the Trimurthi-s - Brahma, Vishnu and Siva, one in each.

The first impression about Muvar-koil is one of enchanting beauty, perfect composition in stone. The poise of the vimanam, the beauty of the supple figures that have been modelled with loving care and the refined contours of the domical terrace edgings, all indicate the Pallava style for delicacy of structure and form. The Pallava influence, it is believed, is due to the marital relationship of the Irukkuvel-s with the Muttaraiyar (முத்தரையர்)-s, who were the vassals of the Pallava-s.

The Temple Complex

This is an interesting parivara type temple which had three main shrines and many (fifteen or sixteen) sub-shrines, in the same compound.

The three main shrines stand side by side in a row, along the north-south direction, facing west. Out of these three, only two, the central and southern vimanam-s are now extant. Of the third or the northern shrine, the basement alone remains. Each of the shrines had a closed ardha-mandapam (அர்த்த மண்டபம்). Now only the basement of the ardha-mandapam-s survives.

There stood once a common maha-mandapam (மகாமண்டபம்), in front of the main shrines. Only basement of these structures remains now. It measures 91 feet by 41 feet. Remains of the basement of a nandi-mandapam (நந்தி மண்டபம்) and a bali-pitham (பலி பீடம்) or a dhvaja-sthambham (கொடிமரம்) could also be seen, in front.

Surrounding this group are remnants of the original 15 or 16 symmetrically arranged sub-shrines, or parivara shrines. Each of these sub-shrines had a garbha-griham (கர்பகிரகம்) and an ardha-mandapam.

The main shrines and the sub-shrines were encircled by a madhil (மதில், compound wall). This massive stone wall had perhaps two gates, one in the west and another near the north-eastern corner.

The north-eastern gate leads to a well, approachable by a flight of stone steps. Outside the temple complex, near the road on the northern side, is a shed which is a gallery of fine sculptures.

The Temple

Makara-head

The plinth of the three shrines rests on a lotus base. Above it runs a frieze of vyali-s (யாளி) with makara-head-s, with human figures inside the mouths. The pilasters on the walls are tetragonal, giving the whole temple a slender effect. The niches on the walls are surmounted by makara-torana-s (மகரத்தோரணம்), while friezes of bhutha-gana (பூதகணம்) playing on different kinds of musical instruments run on the top of the walls. These impish figures, in their abandon, show the uninhibited frolics of the Siva-gana (சிவகணம்). Over the cornice are the vyali-s with projecting makara heads at the corners.

Bhutha-gana frieze



Vyali-frieze

The vimanam of the temples

The vimanam is of three tiers, diminishing in size. The edging of the lower tier has a line of domical cells with an ornamental railing. The lowest has niches surmounted by 'wagon-shaped' tops, reaching up almost to the top of the tier above. The second tier contains pilasters on either side of the wagon tops. On the top tier is the square grivam (கிரீவம்). It has niches topped with a chaitya arch. The arch itself is embellished with scrolls and bas-relief sculpture. Four beautifully moulded nandi-s (நந்தி) adorn the four corners of the grivam. The terraces culminate in a square curvilinear sikharam (சிகரம்).

Relief Sculptures in the Niches

Decorating the niches in the walls are some of the finest sculpture of our country. The sculptor's devotion and intensity of religious fervour are reflected in the depiction of these gods.

The beautiful Ardha-nareesvara (அர்த்தநாரீஸ்வரர், 'half-woman') is eloquent in its declaration that the male and the female principles are inseparable and found together in cosmic evolution.​
The youthful Siva with an enigmatic smile depicted as Vina-dhara Dakshina-moorthi (வீணாதாரதக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி, 'Veenai holding south facing deity') is an arresting figure.​
It is with dignity of pose and careless elegance we have Siva as the rider of the bull, Rishabha-rudha (ரிஷபாரூடர்), with his bent arm attempting to rest on His vahana.​


A sculpture of Siva in sitting pose. He is depicted with four hands and along with his vehicle, Nandi​
A figure of Siva as Gaja-samhara-moorthi (கஜசம்ஹாரமூர்த்தி), A destructive mood of Siva. The fierce ecstasy portrayed on the face of Gaja-samhara-moorthi is awe-inspiring.​
The lord Kalari (காலாரி) is arrested in a movement of the chatura pose of dancing. One feels that at any moment he may renew the dance. There is so much suppressed action in the soft moulding of the thighs and legs. The look of sublime compassion on Siva's face while dancing over Kala is superb.​


The play and the sequel; Shiva-Parvathi on the north side of south temple​
On the walls of the southern temple is a play in stone enacted the Pallava way. In the top niche is Siva as Gangadhara in a sportive mood and lower down its sequel. In the top we find His face is sufficed with a tender, but mischievous, smile while Parvathi has moved away in mock anger. The whole composition of the Goddess trying to edge away by squeezing Herself into the narrow space of the niche shows great aesthetic sensibility.​
Below in the next niche, in its sequel, the Devine Couple is now reconciled and Parvathi's face is lighted up with happiness as she is encircled by the arm of Her Lord. The touch itself is light and the gesture almost casual.​
A chawri-bearer ('flywhisk-bearer') stands a little further away discreetly fanning the couple from behind a ledge. Her slender elongated limbs remind once again of the Pallava sculpture at Mahabalipuram. The artist has shown an exquisite sense of restraint.​
Indra
The Art gallery

Outside the temple complex, near the road on the northern side, is a shed which is a small museum of fine sculptures.

Sapta-matrika frieze

Some loose sculptures

An inside view of the gallery




friends , i have just posted a pArt of it.




for more details on such interesting places in pudukkotai district , please visit the following websites: :)


1) http://vintage.pudukkottai.info/main.html





2) http://varalaaru.com/Default.asp?articleid=640




really pudukkotai and its surrounding areas are a citadel of marvellous history and temples :)


to be continued...................
 

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2) KADAMBAR-MALAI


Other interesting sites on Kadambar-malai

Here you can see some other attractions at Kadambar-malai (கடம்பர் மலை).

The lake

There are two tanks near the hillock. The smaller one near the temple is the Mangala-thirtham (மங்களத் தீர்த்தம்) mentioned earlier. The other one is a bigger one, which is little west of the first.

The big tank on the western side

the fort wall

The traces of fort wall on the west side

On the northern side as well as on the western side of the Kadambar-malai are traces of a fort wall. Both of them are starting from Kadambar-malai and extend up to Kottai-malai (கோட்டை மலை). The one on the northern side is bigger and built using bigger granite boulders dressed in to rectangular slabs.

There is a tarn on the Kadambar-malai, on the western side. It has a brick wall on the west side. According to the ‘Manual of the Pudukkottai State’ (1944), there are two tarns on this group of hills. One of them Kannimaar-sunai (கன்னிமார் சுனை) takes its name from the shrine of the Kannimaar or Sapta-matrika-s (சப்த கன்னியர்) close by. The other is Pozhutupadaa-sunai (பொழுது படா சுனை), which is situated under an overhanging rock so that the sun does not shine on it even at mid-day. But our team could not identify them.

The sunai on the Kadambar-malai

Adventurous people can climb the hill, for it is steep in certain places and there is no clear-cut path. One can start climbing from the northern side, near the fort wall mentioned earlier, and go up to the top. It is advisable to seek the help of local boys to act as guides.

Those who manage to reach the top will be rewarded with excellent view of the Narttamalai village and hills like Uvachchan-malai (உவச்சன்மலை), Paraiyan-malai (பரையன்மலை), Kottai-malai (கோட்டைமலை), Aluruttimalai (ஆளுருட்டி மலை) and, a long-shot of Vijayalaya Chozhisvaram (விஜயாலய சோழீஸ்வரம்) on the south.

A view of the village and the surroundings from the top

Kadambar-malai complex offers an excellent location for picnic and trekking.


THE KADAMBAR-KOIL (கடம்பர்கோயில்)

The Kadambar-koil is another beautiful temple complex in Narttamalai, situated at the foot of the Kadambar-malai (கடம்பர் மலை), north-east of Mela-malai (மேலமலை). In fact the rocky hillock, Kadambar-malai, is named after this temple. The temple has an air of simple grandeur, with its background of hills and beautiful natural scenery.

The Kadambar-koil complex with its background of Kadambar-malai

There are four monuments in this complex that attract the visitors. They are the main Siva shrine, the Amman shrine, another Siva shrine called Nagarisvaram (நாகரீஸ்வரம்) and a large inscription on the rock surface.

The main shrine is ascribed to the reign of Raja raja I Chozha (முதலாம் இராஜராஜ சோழன்) (985-1014). The earliest inscription in the temple belongs to the 22nd year of Raja raja Chozha (1007 AD). The presiding deity is called Malaik-kadambur Thevar (மலைக்கடம்பூர் தேவர்). The other two shrines belong to the reign of the Pandya King Mara-varman Sundara-pandya I (முதலாம் மாரவர்மன் சுந்தரபாண்டியன்) (first half of 13th century).

Here, there is a plethora of inscriptions. The inscriptions range over the entire Chozha period starting from Raja raja I Chozha till Rajendra III (மூன்றாம் இராஜேந்திரன்), the last of the Chozha rulers.

Approach

At about a kilometre from the highway to Narttamalai village a mud-road branches off on the right, which leads to the Kadambar-malai and Kadambar Koil.

Kadambar-malai lies within 500 metres from the Narttamalai road and on the western side of the village road. The Kadambar-koil complex is located on the south-west of the hillock. One needs to get down at the foot-hills of the hill and walk along a footpath through bushes to the temple complex. Presently one enters the temple complex from the eastern side. There are traces of a compound wall, surrounding the temple complex, on the southern side.

The remnants of the compound wall

Immediately after entering the premises one can see a Siva temple called Nagarisvaram, an Amman shrine to its south-west and along the hill the Kadambar-koil. Near to the Kadambar-koil, on the rock surface exists a very large area is covered with inscriptions.

The Kadambar-koil

The Kadambar-koil

Assigned to the period of Raja raja Chozha I (985-1014 AD), this main shrine in the complex is called Tirumalaik-kadambur Isvaram (திருமலைக்கடம்பூர் ஈஸ்வரம்). It is situated at the north side of the temple complex. Apart from the name Malaik-kadambur Thevar referred to in the Raja raja inscription, the presiding deity is also called as Thirumalai-Kadambur-Udaya-Nayanar (திருமலைக் கடம்பூர் உடைய நாயனார்), Sri Kailasam Udaiya Nayanar (ஸ்ரீ கைலாசம் உடைய நாயனார்), Kooththadum-thevar (கூத்தடும் தேவர், Nataraja) and Thiru-anaikka-udyaiya-nayanar (திருவானைக்கா உடைய நாயனார்) in various other inscriptions.

Most of the inscriptions found in Narttamalai are on the mandapam walls of the Kadambar temple and on the rock-face adjoining to it. Eleven of these are of the Chozha-s and ten of the Pandya-s. These relate to gifts and conveyance of land by Nagarattar-s (நகரத்தார்), instituting of festivals and sandhi-s (சந்தி) (worships) and rewards for services to the temple.

The Architecture

The temple faces the west. It consists of a garbha-griham (கருவறை), an ardha-mandapam (அர்த்தமண்டபம்), a maha-mandapam (மகாமண்டபம்), and a prakaram (திருச்சுற்று மாளிகை). A part of the hill serves as the northern wall of the temple prakaram.

In front of the temple are a fine sculpture of nandi and some broken parts of bali-pitham and dhvaja-sthambham.

The nandi and broken parts of bali-pitham

Through a door, one enters to the western prakaram. Beyond this is the maha-mandapam. It is pillared structure with flat roof supported by eight pillars.

The entrance to the temple

Beyond this are the ardha-mandapam and the garbha-griham. It is an imposing structure of well-dressed stones, showing great artistic skill. It resembles in some aspects to those of the Balasubrahmanya temple (பாலசுப்பிமணியர் கோயில்) at Kannanur (கண்ணனூர்), in this district. It is, however, later in date.

The garbha-griham is a plain structure and has a moulded plinth. On the outer wall of the garbha-griham there are deva-koshtam-s (தேவகோஷ்டம்) surmounted by kudu-s (கூடு) with miniature shrines inside. The southern niche contains a sculpture of Dakshina-moorthi (தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி).

The Dakshina-moorthi in the southern niche

The pilasters are polygonal and have idal-s (இதழ்) and palagai-s (பலகை) at the top. Above the cornice (kodungai, கொடுங்கை) is a vyali (யாளி) frieze. The vimanam is of single tier. The grivam has niches (griva-koshtam, கிரீவகோஷ்டம்) on four sides and they are surmounted by simha-mukham-s (சிம்மமுகம்). The sikharam (சிகரம்) of the vimanam (விமானம்) is bell shaped. Further up over a base of lotus petals (பத்ம பட்டிகை, padma-pattikai), stand the stone stupi (ஸ்தூபி).

The Grivam and sikharam of the vimanam

In the recess between the garbha-griham and the ardha-mandapam are two pilasters carrying a pancharam (பஞ்சரம்) surmounted by a kudu.

The pillared prakaram

In the pillared-prakaram of this temple are kept the idols of the attended deities of this and idols brought from the adjoining temple. They include the Sapta-matrika group, a Vina-dhara Dakshina-moorthi (வீணாதார தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி) and Ganesa holding in his upper arms a piece of sugarcane and a sheaf of paddy.

At the north-east corner of the prakaram, on the rock surface is a relief sculpture of Chandikesvara.

The tank in front of the temple is called Mangala-theertham.

The Siva temple called Nagarisvaram

The Nagarisvaram-koil

To the south of Kadambar-koil is a Siva temple, called Nagarisvaram. According to an inscription (PSI 283) this temple was built in the 12th year of the reign of Mara-varman Sundara-pandya I (1228 AD).

This east-facing shrine consists of a square garbha-griham and an ardha-mandapam. It has a flat roof. The walls of the garbha-griham and the ardha-mandapam have pilasters and deva-koshtam-s. There are no sculptures in the niches.

The shrine is rather plain, and the usual dvara-palaka-s are absent. There is no lingam in the sanctum now.

The Amman Shrine

The Amman shrine

Towards south-west of the Siva shrine is a beautiful Amman shrine. The goddess is called Mangalambikai.

Two inscriptions (PSI 279 and 325) in the reign of Mara-varman Sundara-Pandya (1st half of 13th century) refer to the building of this shrine by one Periya-thevan (பெரியதேவன்) (called Marududaiyan Periya-devanudaiyan (மருதுடையான் பெரியதேவனுடையான்) in the first inscription and Paluvurudaiyan Periyan (பலுவுருடையான் பெரியன்) in the second).

The shrine consists of a garbha-griham, an ardha-mandapam and a small mandapam in front with two pillars. All these have a common moulded plinth. The approach into the front mandapam is from the sides by a flight of steps having rolled-balustrades.

There is a Devi idol inside the garbha-griham.

Beautiful pilasters and kumbha-pancharam

The walls of the garbha-griham and the ardha-mandapam are adorned with polygonal pilasters with idal-s and thin palagai and corbels (போதிகை, potikai). There are deva-koshtam-s on the walls. They are flanked by circular pilasters and surmounted by pancharam-s with wagon shaped tops (சாலை, sala). Presently there are no sculptures inside these niches, but traces of their existence can be seen.

On the west wall of the garbha-griham is a small relief sculpture depicting a cow performing the abhishekam on a lingam with its milk.

The shrine has a flat roof and no superstructure remains above the sanctum.

The Inscriptions on the living rock

To the east of the main shrine and north of the Nagarisvaram temple, on the surface of the living rock is a rectangular area which hosts inscriptions. A rectangular area of about 6 feet by 20 feet is carved in and then inscribed on the rock surface.

The large inscription on the hillock

It contains two inscriptions. The older one is an 11-line long Tamil inscription (PSI 91) is executed in the 28th year of Raja raja I (1012-1013 AD). This incomplete inscription records a grant of land by the people of Telungu-kulakala-puram (தெலுங்கு குலகாலபுரம்) in Annavayil-kurram (அன்னவாயில் கூற்றம்), a sub-division of Konadu in Keralantaka-valanadu (கேரளாந்தக வளநாடு) for uvachchu (உவச்சு) service in the temple.

The other is a 28-line Tamil inscription (PSI 170) belongs to the 37th year of Kulottunga Chozha III (1214-1215 AD). This registers a sale of land by the residents of Telungu-kulakala-puram in Irattapadi-konda-chozha-valanadu (இரட்டைப்படி கொண்ட சோழ வளநாடு), to two merchants of the same place.


for more details and facts:
http://vintage.pudukkottai.info/places/narttamalai/06narttamalai.html#THE KADAMBAR-KOIL




to be continued..................
 

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now, today the focus is on kudimiyanmalai in pudukkotai district.



Confluence of different styles

SUGANTHY KRISHNAMACHARI


The Kudumiyanmalai temple is rich in inscriptions and architecture.

Photos: R. Ashok and S. R. Raghunathan



TREASURE: A view of the gopuram
I gaze at the music treatise etched in stone, to the right of the Idampuri Vinayaka. “Watch out for the bees,” warns the employee of the Archaeological Survey of India, pointing to the huge bee hives on the rock. The seventh century Kudumiyanmalai inscriptions on music were discovered in 1904 by H. Krishna Sastri, a mathematician, who also knew Sanskrit, and who took up employment as an epigraphist.

The inscriptions are arranged in seven sections. Prof. Sambamurthy describes these inscriptions as the “first record to mention the solfa names of the seven notes... where the srutis are designated by resorting to the vowel changes in the name of the note and reduced to a mnemonic system of absolute notation.” There is also an inscription, which says that King Maheswara, disciple of Rudracharya, is the author of the music inscriptions, which he intended to benefit students. However, it is not clear who this king is.



Inscriptions of musical notes
The music inscriptions are to the south of an east-facing rock cut temple also of seventh century origin. This cave temple is called Melakkoil or Tirumerrali. Archaeologist Dr. Kudavayil Balasubramaniam says that in the case of Pandya rock cut temples, the linga was hewn out of the same rock, as the temple took shape, resulting in one big monolith of temple and deity. The Kudumiyanmalai temple is one such monolith, and therefore a Pandya structure, he says. According to Dr. Raja Mohammed, former curator of the Pudukottai Museum, the temple is Pandya, because the linga rests on a square peetam.

Outside the sanctum sanctorum are two dwarapalakas smiling smugly, with none of the sternness one would expect of security guards. The two earliest inscriptions in the cave temple are those of the Pandyas.

The temple is rich in inscriptions, one of which, made in the 36th year of the reign of Kulottunga Chola I (1070-1118) records commercial transactions that ensured supplies to the temple. It says two people were given the right to levy brokerage on all betel leaf imported into the district. In return they had to supply the temple annually with areca nuts and betel leaves.


The panel of Siva-Parvathi with the Nayanmars
Above the Melakkoil is a rare bas-relief of Siva and Parvati on rishaba vahanam, flanked by the 63 Nayanmars.

When the temple property was auctioned in the 13th century, Thiru-k-kaariyaan Magal Umaiyal Nachiar, a temple dancer, bought it and transferred ownership back to the temple. She later built the Soundaravalli Amman temple, near the cave temple. King Sadayavarman Veerapandian II gave the Goddess the name Thirukkaama Kottathu Aruvudai Malai Mangai Nachiar.

Built by the Cholas
The Kuduminatha temple came a few centuries after the cave temple, sometime in the 10th century. Built by the Cholas, it was renovated by the Pandyas in the 13th century and by the Vijayanagar Kings in the 15th. There is what is called a 1,000-pillared mandapam at the entrance, which, however, has only 645 pillars. The sculptures here are of Vijayanagar style. Here one finds figures of Hanuman, Sugreeva and Vali. Completely smeared with butter and vermilion, it is not possible to take in the beauty of the sculpture.

In the Vasantha mandapam, the sculpture of Nrisimha tearing out the entrails of Hiranayakasipu, captures attention with its expression. The agony of a terrified Hiranyakasipu, whose hands and legs are held in vice like grip by the ferocious man-animal. The Rati and Manmadha figures are noteworthy for their attention to detail. The Siva in Urdhva tandava pose is a masterpiece. There are also two sculptures of soldiers on horseback, trampling down their enemies.



The gorgeous vasantha mandapam



Now for the name of the deity. Why Kuduminatha? The story goes that the priest garlanded his sweet heart with the garland intended for Siva. The king noticed a long hair on the garland, and demanded an explanation. To save the priest from the king’s wrath, the Siva lingam put out a tuft of hair (kudumi). Sikainathan is another name.

Another explanation
But Tamil scholar Ra.Pi. Sethupillai has a different explanation. According to him, kudumi, a Tamil, word, also meant crest of a hill. Since this temple was near a hill, it was called Sikainatha temple. He pointed to the fact that in Kannappar Puranam, the Siva in the Kalahasti temple was referred to as Kudumi Devar, because that temple too was near a hill.

Outside the Akhilandeswari shrine is a mandapam, of Nayak origin, where the ceiling is a single hexagonal slab of granite, and the floor too is a hexagonal slab of matching dimensions. Pudukottai Thondaman kings used to have their coronation ceremonies here, it is said. Now, local people now celebrate weddings here. That set the writer wondering. The temple is a great monument and will not the smoke from the homam fire damage the walls and the ceilings?


Kudumiyanmalai is on the Pudukottai-Manapparai route.

Kudumiyanmalai is on the Pudukottai-Manapparai route.

The cave temple is called Melakkoil or Tirumerrali

It is a combination of Chola, Pandya and Vijayanagar styles.

source link : http://www.hindu.com/fr/2009/04/10/stories/2009041050960300.htm




2) more about kudimiyanmalai


Kudumiyanmalai – The Lord with Pony-tail

POSTED IN: BETWEEN 501 TO 1000 CE, PALLAVAS, TAMILNADU


Introduction – Kudumiyamalai is located about 20 km from Puddukkotai town. The village is centered around a small hillock, where a cave temple has been carved on its foot. This cave temple, locally known as Melaikkovil, has been extended continuously during later times which suggests that this place held quite an importance in the past. We found many inscriptions in and around this temple which go till the advent of British which suggests that this region would have enjoyed the continuous patronage from various dynasties which ruled over this region. However once bustling with social and cultural activities, at present this is a small idle village.




Kudumiyanmalai Temple Complex
History – River Vellar, flowing north of Puddukkotai town, was the boundary line between the Cholas and Pandya empire. During the time of Mahendravarman I (CE 600-630) this region might be under Pallavas through their vassals, northern part of Puddukkotai, however they were not able to retain it for long and Pandyas won back this from them. Mahendravarman I would have got this region from his father, Simhavishnu, in heritance. Simhavishnu in turn would have won this from the hands of the Cholas. The Cholas were in hibernate mode till their resurgence in ninth century. Till that time, this region oscillated between the Pallavas and the Pandyas. Hence Puddukkotai became the important town witnessing various clashes between these two dynasties. Muthariyars and Irukkuvelirs were the vassal chief of the Pallavas and the Pandyas, which acted as the proxies in the wars between these two kingdoms. There are very few reference of the Pallavas found in inscriptions of this region, one such reference is the defeat of Nandivarman Pallavamalla (CE 730-796) in the hands of Maravarman Rajasimha (CE 730-760) at Kodambalur in Velvikudi and Sinnamanur plates of Pandyas. The presence of musical inscription, written in seventh century Grantha script, suggests that this cave temple would have been in existence at or before that time. There are other early Pandya inscriptions as well which are dated to seventh and eighth century. From the time of Cholas, we have many inscriptions telling us the continuous extensions of the temple. As the early inscriptions are found in the cave temple and in its boundary wall, hence the main structural temple seems to be remodeled in later times. This remodeling would have done in the time of Maravarman Sundara Pandya I. The Cholas won over vast region of Tamilnadu in ninth century and kept it with them till thirteenth century. Pandyas re-surged in thirteenth century and got back the region from the hands of the Cholas. After them, this region came under the Vijayanagara rulers. The temple got patronage under Vijayanagara rulers as we see mention of prince Vira-Kampana-Udaiyar and viceroy Gopa-timma in inscriptions. After the fall of Vijayanagara, Madurai Nayakas ruled over this tract of land. Later this went into the hands of Marungapuri chiefs and after them to Pallava Rayars. Sivendezhunta Pallava-rayar did many extensions to the temple in form of gopuram, mandapa, flower gardens and temple car. Rock-cut cave temple was extended in the reign of Raghunatha Raya Tondaiman (1686-1730) who built a mandapa in front of the cave with his minister Kurundha Pillai. In 1730 Pacchai Tondaiman opposed the succession of Vijaya Raghunatha Raya and took shelter in this temple. However he was defeated and forced to surrender to Vijaya Raghunatha Raya. Vijaya Raghunatha Raya (1730-1769) was crowned in this temple in 1730. Later he built the steps to the mandapa, built earlier by Raghunataha Raya. In 1865, Raja Ramachandra Tondaiman celebrated a kumbhabhishekam in this temple.




Outside of Cave Temple
This town would have been known as Tirunalakkundram in 8th century as suggested by one inscription of Kochadayan Ranadheeran or Sadayan Maran (CE 700-730) of early Pandyan dynasty. Later in 14th century, this has been referred as Siganallur (Shikhanallur), with the main deity as Siganaatha (Shikhanatha) in the temple. Later in 17th century we see a reference to Kudumiayanmalai, with the main deity as Kudumiyaar. There is an interesting story behind this name, Kudumiyaar. As per the story, from sthala-puranam, a king, Sundara Pandiyan, used to visit the temple daily in the evening to perform his prayers. The priest used to give the prasadam to the king after his evening prayers. One day the priest was waiting for the king and the king did not turn up. Since it was getting late so the priest gave prasadam to a temple dancer. Just when the dancer was leaving the king entered into the temple. The priest got scared as prasadam was finished, so he borrowed the flowers from the dancer which were already worn by her. The priest offered those flowers to the king as prasadam. The king noticed as strand of hair in those flowers hence asked for explanations for the presence of the hair from the priest. The priest was very scared so he lied that the hair is of the lord, Shiva’s head. The king was astonished and locked the priest inside the temple telling him that he will come tomorrow to see if the deity really has hair or not. The priest prayed the whole night to lord Shiva to save him. The next day the king arrived and he found a tuft (kudumi) on Shiva lingam. When he tried to pull it, the blood came out of lingam. This is how the deity in this shrine is known as Kudumiyaar and the place as Kudumiyamalai. Another version of the story replaced the temple dancer with the lover of the priest. There is another interesting fact that kudumi not only meant tuff of hair but also the top of hill. In that case Kudumiyaar seems to the god on top of the hill. It seems, this story may have been invented in 17th-18th century. Let’s go to the monuments now.




Cave Temple
Cave Temple – Excavated on the eastern slope of low rising hillock, this cave temple would have been excavated in early seventh century. Originally this cave temple was attributed to Pallavas, however now it has been seen as an early Pandya shrine. As per K R Srinivasan, Pallavas were never in this region hence it is hard to assign this to them. However though Pallavas were not directly ruling this area, but it was with Muthariyars who were vassals of the Pallavas. The original cave temple is 12 feet by 13 feet hall. The ardha-mandapa inside, measuring 23 feet by 8 feet. In front of the cave, is a maha-mandapa, which was built in the reign of Kulottunga Chola I (1070-1120). The mandapa in front is built during the reign of Raghunatha Raya Tondaiman (1686-1730) and his minister Kurundha Pillai. Later Vijaya Raghunatha Raya Tondaiman (1730-1769) built the steps to this mandapa. The pillars of the ardha-mandapa are very different from Pallava pillar style as they resemble more to Chalukyan style of Badami. Inside the main sanctum is a Shiva linga, carved out in situ from the original rock of the cave. Above the sanctum door lintel are four dwarf figures. Two figures are in opposite direction just above the sanctum door, while two figures are shown moving away are placed at the corners of the door lintel. All the four are shown in flying profile. There is a Ganesha, valamburi (referred if the trunk is curled to right), figure carved on the inner wall of this temple. He is shown with two hands, left hand is holding a rosary while the left hand is holding some unidentifiable object. He is wearing a karanda-makuta on his head and a yajnopavita across his waist. There are two free standing images inside this cave, one is of Chandikesvara and another is of Somaskanda.

On south of the mandapa of this cave, on prepared wall of the rock, is carved the celebrated musical inscription. There is a five feet high Ganesha, this time idampuri (if the trunk is turned to left), image carved in relief to the right of this inscription. This musical inscription is a topic of controversy. Inscribed in Pallava Grantha script in Sanskrit language. Now, we know that Pallava Grantha script was started during Pallavas. This Grantha script evolved in style during its usage in later times. In the evolution of this script, we find four stages, archaic & ornamental, transitional, medieval and modern. The initial archaic and ornamental Grantha script is known as Pallava Grantha script. Being archaic and ornamental, this script was perhaps only used to inscribe inscriptions but not in regular daily usage. Transitional Grantha script is seen in later Pallava times and Pandyan times. As stated earlier this musical inscription is written in Pallava Grantha, hence the common understanding would be that it was done by some Pallava king. Among Mahendravarman I, Mamalla and Rajasimha, this Pallava Grantha script is also used by Mutharaiyar chiefs. Many scholars, like of K R Srinivasan, are in opinion that this region was not under Pallava reign so this inscription could not be related to that dynasty. We will talk about it in details while dealing with the inscriptions of this monument. Out of the cave, on little north of the cave, on the hill above are carved figures of sixty-three nayanars with Shiva with Parvati and Nandi standing in the middle.




Temple Corridor
Shikanatha Temple – This is the main structural temple of the complex. The current temple is the result of continuous growth and extensions with time. This temple consists a garbha-griha (sanctum sanctorum), ardha-mandapa, maha-mandapa, sabha-mandapa, anivetti-kal-mandapa and ayirakkal mandapa. The original sanctum and ardha-mandapa would have been built during tenth century during the Chola reign, however the current sanctum and ardha-mandapa are recent structure, even later than of other four mandapas. When you enter into the temple, you first pass through ayirakkal mandpa (thousand pillars mandapa) supported on 645 pillars. The pillars have sculptures of Vishnu incarnations and various scenes and figures from epic Ramayana. From the style and architecture, this would have been executed during Vijayanagara period. We also see similar thousand pillar mandapa at other locations, which were also executed during Vijayanagara period. From this mandapa, you will pass through anivetti-kal mandapa (vasanta mandapa). This hall has life size sculptures of various gods, including Kama (Manmatha), Rati, Ganesha, Ravana, Narasimha, Shiva as urdhva-tandava-murti, Rama, Vishnu, Subramanya, Mohini. There are two figures of Nayaka rulers as well in this mandapa. At the end of this hall, entrance into sabha-mandapa, are two dvarpalas in portrait sculptures. They are shown with four hands holding a massive club which is entwined with a serpent. One feet of the dvarpala is resting above the hood of the serpent. Passing through these dvarpalas, you enter into sabha-mandapa. This mandapa is built in Pandya style and has exquisite bronze collection. There is a stone image of Nataraja which is about 6 feet high. In the bronze collection, you will find Chandkeshvara and Somaskanda. Next you enter into maha-mandapa where more bronze statues are enshrined. You will find Ganesha, Subramanya, Subramanya as Shashta, Sapta-matrikas, Shiva as Bhikshatanamurti. There are two nayanars, Sambandar and Manikka-vachakar as well among the bronzes. After this you pass through ardha-mandapam which is remodeled recently. Though it is remodeled, it preserves the old sculptures, in which you will find a Ganesha sculptures and dvarpalas of ninth century. There is a covered pradakshina-path around the main shrine. On the inner walls of this path you will see Lingodbhavar, Sapta-matrikas, Jyestha, Subramanya, Gaja-Lakshmi and Saiva saints (nayanars). These images are from various periods. The niche of the main shrine house Dakshinamurti on south, Vishnu on west and Brahma on north. The arrangement of deities in niche are as per shilpa-sastra and this arrangement is very common in the temples of Chola period.




Sub Shrine
Subsidiary Shrines – In this temple complex, two more shrines are constructed, Akhilandesvari Shrine and Soundara-nayaki Amman shrine. The first one is located in the pradakshina-path of the maha-mandapa of main temple. There is a rashi-mandapa in front of this shrine, where on the roof are carved twelve zodiac signs. Soundara-nayaki Amman shrine is located south of the cave temple and was built by danseuse of Kudumiyamalai. As per an inscription, a deva-dasi Umaiyalvi-Nachchi, referred to as the daughter of Durgai-aandar, bought some of the temple’s lands for 73,300 gold coins. She also built Amman shrine dedicated to the goddess Malaiya-mangai or Soundara-Nayaki. This shrine is consisted of garbha-griha, ardha-mandapa and mukha-mandapa. Above the hill is located a Murugan shrine which seems to be Pandya construction of thirteenth century.

Inscriptions of the Cave Temple – There are about 120 inscriptions found in the cave temple and in the temple. Most of the inscriptions are of the nature of some grant or endowment towards the temple in various periods. These inscriptions have helped a lot to trace the history of the town and the temple. However the most important inscription of the cave temple is the musical inscription carved on the living rock on south of the cave temple. This inscription is carved on 13 by 14 feet wall and is in good state of preservation. This inscription is written in Pallava Grantha script and is in Sanskrit language. The Pallava Grantha script used in this inscription is of archaic and ornamental style which was in use during seventh century among the various Pallava inscriptions. This inscription was discovered in 1904 by Rao Saheb H Krishna Sastri and was edited by Rao Bahadur P R Bhandarkar in Epigraphia Indica volume XII. He states that the characters of the inscription resemble closely to early Chalukyan period and belong to seventh century. He edited the inscription with relation to the musical notes but not on the epigraphy comparisons. The earliest music treatise of India is Natyasastra of Bharata Muni. However the chapters of this work are handled and re-handled and all parts of it are not from same period. This text can be assigned to fourth century. The next treatise on music is Samgita-ratnakara by Sarngadeva, which is written between CE 1210 and 1247. Hence the discovery of a music inscription, dated in between these two works, is of great importance. It is divided into seven sections corresponding to the seven classical ragas of the time. These seven sections are 1) Madhyamagrama, 2) Sadjagramah, 3) Shadava, 4) Sadharita, 5) Panchama, 6) Kaishikimadhyama, and 7) Kaishika. Each section consists of a collection of groups of four notes, arranged in sub-sections of sixteen, each sub-section taking up one line of the inscription. The music in the inscription appears to be intended for the vina, since it has been given the title chatushprahaarasvaragamah or authoritative texts of notes produced by four striking (of the string). It is clear that the seven ragas of the inscription do not appear in the Natyasastra of Bharata, but they appear in Samgita-ratnakar. Hence this inscription is the earliest record of these seven ragas however when they came into existence is not very clear. Let’s have a look at the inscription first.





source link: http://puratattva.in/2010/10/09/kudumiyanmalai-the-lord-with-pony-tail-35.html

for more pictures and photo images about kudimiyanmalai , please click the following link.
https://picasaweb.google.com/117127572797528205206/Kudumiyamalai
 

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Discussion Starter · #13 ·
திருச்சி - மானாமதுரை வேகம் அதிகரிக்க ஆய்வு

காரைக்குடி: மானாமதுரை - திருச்சி ரயில் வேகம் அதிகரிக்க, ஆய்வு நடத்தப்பட்டு வருகிறது. திருச்சியிலிருந்து - புதுக்கோட்டை வரை, ரயிலின் வேகம் மணிக்கு 60 கி.மீ.,-ஆகவும், புதுக்கோட்டையிலிருந்து -மானாமதுரைக்கு 70 கி.மீ.,-ஆகவும் வேகம் உள்ளது. மானாமதுரையிலிருந்து - மண்டபம் வரை ரயிலின் வேகம் 90 கி.மீ.,ஏற்கனவே அதிகரிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. ஆனால் மானாமதுரையிலிருந்து - திருச்சி வரை பழைய வேகத்திலேயே ரயில்கள் ஓடிக் கொண்டிருக்கின்றன.எனவே வேகத்தை அதிகரிக்க ரயில்வே துறையினர் ஆய்வு நடத்தினர். தற்போது, மானாமதுரையிலிருந்து, திருச்சிக்கு எக்ஸ்பிரஸ் ரயில்கள் செல்ல 2.45 மணி நேரமும், பாசஞ்சரில் 3.30 மணி நேரமும் ஆகிறது. வேகத்தை அதிகப்படுத்தினால், எக்ஸ்பிரஸ் 2.15 மணி நேரமும், பாசஞ்சர் 2.45 மணி நேரத்திலும் சென்றடையலாம். ரயில்வே அதிகாரி ஒருவர் கூறியதாவது: மானாமதுரை - திருச்சிக்கு இடையே, ரயில் ஓட்டத்தை மணிக்கு 90 கி.மீ.,-ஆக அதிகப்படுத்தும் வகையில், கடந்த மாதம், பாட்னாவை தலைமையிடமாக கொண்டு இயங்கும் "ஆர்.டி.எஸ்.ஓ.,' அலுவலக அதிகாரிகள் சோதனை ரயில் ஓட்டத்தை நடத்தி முடித்து சென்றுள்ளனர். இதற்கான பூர்வாங்க பணிகளை விரைவில் தொடங்க உள்ளனர், என்றார்.

Cross posting from Trichy Thread - Thanks Deepu..
 

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Discussion Starter · #18 ·
Above namechange, Only Kannan Sir can help to this regard

By the way Venkyinblr, does sivaganga falls under chola or pandyas? my bro says it falls under chola
Thanks staravindan..

Sivaganga falls under the Pandya Nadu..May be ur bro is referring it was ruled by Cholas , when cholas annexed the Pandyan Empire..Lastly it was ruled by the Sethupathis Dynasty of Ramnad (Queen Velu Nachiar)
 
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