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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
I thought it would be fun to learn some more about the lesser known classical orders - that is to say those other than the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite. Throughout history several so called Nonce orders have been invented for particular occations, and from what I can tell there were also a number of ancient orders that never developed into full maturity. I guess this thread could also include just unusual columns and capitals in general, for example from the Middle Ages.

I'll start with the British Order, invented by James Adam (brother of Robert Adam) in 1762. The capital features a heraldic lion and unicorn, taken from the royal coat of arms. As far as I know it was never used in any building.



 

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Discussion Starter · #2 · (Edited)
Here's another interresting example from Britain. The pictures are from a book called "Ancient Architecture, Restored, and Improved" published in 1742, and later reissued as "Gothic Architecture, improved by Rules and Proportions" in 1747. In it, it's author, Batty Langley tries to create a home-grown English style (as opposed to the then so popular imported Palladian architecture) by improving Gothic forms, giving them classical proportions, and inventing a number of orders for Gothic architecture.

You can take a look at the book for yourself here.

















 

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Discussion Starter · #6 ·
In the early years of the United States, architect Benjamin Latrobe designed a series of American orders. They substituted the Corinthian acanthus leaves with corncobs, tobacco leaves, and magnolia flowers.

Here's an example of the tobacco order, sent to the much interrested Thomas Jefferson:



And here is a hybrid with both acanthus and tocabbo leaves in the U.S. Capitol:





The corn version used in a vestibule of the Supreme Court:



And finally the magnolia version, drawn in 1808:

 

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Great thread! Really interesting. I'll leave an special order they used for the columns in a building in Paseo Cayalá, in Guatemala, again using corncobs, since maize is the most important grain in Guatemala:



From the distance:

 

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Discussion Starter · #8 ·
Following the conquests of Alexander the Great several Greek states were actually established in what is now Pakistan and northwestern India. The Hellenes brought with them their culture and art, and before you know it, the Indo-Corinthian capital starts appearing in early Buddhist temples and stupas:













 

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There's the so-called proto-Eolic capitals, related to Ionic, which become widely known as the order Phoenicians used in their buildings. Here's one found in their old Iberian colony of Gadir (Cádiz):



https://twitter.com/historiadecadiz/status/508539620314087425

Also there's the openwork leaffy decoration of classical capitals in post-antiquity, which we begin to see in Byzantine architecture. Capital in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna.



http://bauldechitiya.blogspot.com/2016/11/los-capiteles.html

But it was also adopted in the Muslim world, and here's a so-called "honeycomb" capital from the palatine complex of Madinat Al-Zahra in Córdoba.



http://aracelirldeloleoalcincel.blogspot.com/2016/11/medina-azaharael-salon-rico.html
 

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This one is incredible, it looks almost Art-Deco



Some examples from Islamic architecture




Here's a new capital from the Gaillard Center in Charleston, SC:








It incorporates palmetto and jasmine motifs.
 
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