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Source : http://www.building.com.hk/photoessay/route3c/r3cfront.html



Ting Kau Bridge, at the northern end of the Rambler Strait, is one of the major sections linking Route 3 from the north-western New Territories to Kowloon. This photo was taken in July 1997, when the first section of the bridge deck in the middle tower could barely be seen.



A detailed look at the top of the bridge tower. A steel gantry with two pairs of strand-jacks was erected on top of each tower to lift the 190-tonne steel tower heads on which the cable anchors are housed. The 4.5 m x 31 m slot on the top of the tower is for the placement of the tower heads.



The steel tower head rests on the 29 m radius cofferdam on the Tsing Yi side. It will be lifted to the top of the tower after final inspection. The lifting bracket on the right side has already had the strands tightened to the strand-jack on top of the tower.



December 1997: the bridge as seen from the Tsing Yi side looking towards Ting Kau. The 1,177-metre cable-stayed bridge is supported by three towers, with the 200 m middle tower being the tallest. Erection of the steel/concrete composite deck started from the tower on Ting Kau towards the Tsing Yi side, with a lapse of about a month between each tower. At the peak of construction, six frontages were provided at the ends of the deck sections, making the progress of work extremely fast.



Typical set-up for deck erection as seen from the Ting Kau bridge tower. The deck on the trunk of the tower was initially erected by forming a working base with standard struts and girders. Four derrick cranes are lifted by strand-jack to the base for onward extension of the bridge deck on both sides. In order to stabilise the partially completed deck from wind, the deck was temporarily anchored with tie cables.



As the bridge is a single-tower design with decks on both sides, a separating slot connected by cross girders, is formed between the two decks. This slot provides an aerodynamic effect and helps stabilise the bridge structure under strong wind. The steel anchor heads for the stay cable and transverse cable can be seen here.



The connection of the deck to the Tsing Yi Abutment, as viewed from the top of the tower. The layout of the precast concrete panels which form the composite deck structure is clearly shown.



The bridge deck as seen from the underside. The cross struts that rest on the waist of the tower, the main and cross girders, and the underside-mounted sliding work platform, can be seen in the photo.



The slip road at Au Tau takes the form of a viaduct passing over wetlands. It is constructed by a segment launching machine using precast box section girder units.







Detail of the bridge abutment on the Tsing Yi side. This abutment is designed to house the bridge expansion joint. Rows of nozzle-link tubes are the dead anchors for the stay cable (those on the tower head are known as stressing anchors).



Looking up to the approach viaduct. The viaduct, which was constructed using a balanced cantilever method, spans Castle Peak Road 60 metres below.



The formwork gantry used to construct the box section viaduct. The construction spread outward, section by section, from the central pier. When a four-metre section is completed and the concrete is cured, the gantry on top of the deck slides a section forward, suspending the form below to repeat the construction of the next section.



The layout arrangement of the approach viaduct on Ting Kau as seen from the top of the bridge tower. Castle Peak Road, Tuen Mun Highway, and the entrance to Tai Lam Tunnel are barely visible.



The slip road from Tuen Mun Highway to Tai Lam Tunnel was constructed using two different methods. The section near the approach viaduct utilised a balanced cantilever method due to its larger span. The farther section, as seen in the photo here, is constructed of precast beams with in situ reinforced concrete deck. To overcome the problem of access, a temporary mini-rail was erected on the deck of the slip road.



Close-up of the mini-rail transporter and the launching machine used to install the precast beams for the slip road deck.



A 700 m x 150m x 90 m section links the approach viaduct at Ting Kau and the Tai Lam Tunnel. The road was cut from hard and highly abrasive granite, and the photo shows rows of 100 mm bore holes, drilled to a 12 m depth in staggered layers to facilitate the blasting process.
 

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Discussion Starter · #5 ·
Route 3 traverses both water and hills. The first photo shows the 1.2-km cable-stayed Ting Kau Bridge, which traverses an ocean channel frequented by container ships.

More information and maps : http://www.arch.hku.hk/~kpcheung/new2001/tsingma/
 

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From the Mei Foo to Rambler Channel Bridge section, Route 3 is an elevated expressway, 3 km in length. The construction of this section makes use of precast U-section beams with an average span of 34 m, which are lifted to the top of the portal by the beam launcher. In the early stage of construction, a portal frame constructed of in-situ concrete is used to support the precast beams and the bridge deck on top. The supporting rail of the launcher is then erected on the top of the portal frame. By using this launcher, the precast concrete beams are lifted and placed on the frame to support the bridge deck. The red steel beam seen in the photo is the supporting rail of the launcher. The Airport Railway Viaduct can also be seen below the portal frame.



Since the segment launcher is used to lift the precast beam vertically, traditional corbel projected from the portal cannot be used to support the precast beam. A steel clip is applied to support and fix the precast beam temporarily in this case. Tensioned steel tendons are applied to tie the precast beams both front and back. Finally, reinforced concrete are placed on top in order to stiffen the beams, as well as to form the surface of deck. The red rows in the photo are the temporary steel clips.



After passing through the Rambler Channel Bridge from the Tsing Yi side, Route 3 runs into Kwai Tai Road and joins the Airport Railway again. This section, as a result, becomes a 25 m-high, double-deck elevated expressway. The segment launcher and the supporting rail can also be seen in the photo.



The full view of the segment launcher. This launcher system starts from the Mei Foo section, and lifts the precast beams onto the portal frame to become the bridge deck. When finishing one section, the system slides on top of the frame to the next section and repeats the work. By using this method, the segment launcher occupies fewer ground spaces. The launcher slides from Mei Foo to the interchange before the Rambler Channel Bridge to complete this dual four-lane viaduct. When the project is near completion, the launcher will be dismantled at the interchange.



The most magnificent section of Route 3. Essentially, the whole construction process can be seen here. In the upper right corner, the segment launcher has lifted the precast beams on the portal frame to form the bridge deck. The precast beams in the centre of the photo have been tightened on the frame by the use of tensioning, and thus, the temporary steel clips have been removed. The bridge deck on the left has had the reinforcement fixed. On the far left side, concrete placing to the bridge deck can be seen.



Smaller precast box section beam that was lifted by a girder-type segment launcher is used to build the viaduct of the Airport Railway. The overall view of the segment launcher can be seen in this photo. This method allows for occupation of fewer ground spaces and the road can remain basically unobstructed during construction.



Close-up look at part of the pedestral-type segment launcher. One of the large pedestrals, the cable winch car on the girder and the control cabin can also be seen here.



Interior view of the box-section beam member. The two iron rods on the underside are used to straighten and tighten the beam members, before the tensioning work can be effectively applied.



Work platform suspended on the segment launcher and the hydraulic jack for tensioning work that is placed on the platform.



The end section of the bridge deck viewed from the bottom of the launcher.



The launcher uses its cable winch car to transport a beam member to the deck fro erection.



There are two precast yards on the site for the Route 3 (Kwai Chung Section) projects. One is located between Mei Foo and Container Terminal 6; another is located at the former Kwai Chung Park. Shown in this photo is the precast yard near Mei Foo. Some precast U-section beam members can also be seen, which will later be transported to the required position for erection.



The steel mould that is used to cast the U-section beam. The precast beam member, steel tendons for pre-tensioning and the hydraulic stressing device can also be seen.
 
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