In this thread I wanted to bring all international pipelines, sea lines, silk road or other geopolitical routes developments and international organizations(NATO,OECD, UNICEF, EU, WHO etc.) together. The only criteria is that the news and contents you share here MUST
include Turkey's interest. You can enrich the contents with your contributions. Enjoy it! :cheers:
I introduce the thread with some existing developments or projects for now.
Nabucco Oil Pipeline Project
Brief Description of the Project :
The Nabucco Natural Gas Pipeline Project covers high-pressurized pipeline and associated structures for transmission of natural gas 31 billion m³/y, scheduled for supply from the Middle East and Caspian countries for 50 years, to Austria via Turkey-Bulgaria-Romania-Hungary.
The pipeline length is approximately 4,000 km, starting at the Georgian/Turkish and/or Iraqi/Turkish border respectively, leading to Baumgarten in Austria.
Nabucco Pipeline Turkish Section including the Feeder lines is totally app. 2,500 km.
The main figures of the Ankara (Ahiboz) – Turkish/Bulgarian border (Kırklareli) of the Nabucco Pipeline are as follows:
Section : Ankara (Ahiboz) to the Turkish/Bulgarian border (Kırklareli)
Section length : 760 km
Pipeline Diameter : 56” (DN 1.400),
MAOP : 100 barg
Compressor Station: 4 Nos.
Block Valve Stations: 22 Nos block valve stations
Isolation Valve Stations: 2 nos, one on each side of the Marmara Sea Crossing.
Take off Station near Bursa: includes metering and pressure reduction facilities.
Metering Station at the Bulgarian Border.
Pigging launcher and receiver facilities: 5 Nos., including Pig Stations in Compressor Stations CS 4, CS5 and CS7 to be constructed in future, in Metering Station on the Bulgarian Border and individual Pig Station on the European side of the Marmara Sea crossing.
Scope of Services:
Detailed route surveys (in the light of basic criteria, e.g. ecological, sociological, topographical, economical criteria and ease of construction), and determining the final pipeline axis,
As a part of geodesic and photogrammetric studies along the full length of pipeline route, stripwise map production on the basis of ortho-photo and LIDAR procedures, and preparation of plane-charts for special structure and river crossings and on sites of above-ground installation (AGIs) (e.g. compressor stations, pipeline valves, metering stations, pigging stations etc.),
Bathymetric, oceanographic, geotechnic and environmental studies along the sea crossing section,
For the whole route, including sites of AGIs, implementation of a comprehensive geotechnical investigation programme and preparation of engineering geology reports,
Carrying out specific hydrological studies on river crossing along the full length of pipeline,
Engineering design and preparation of construction technical specifications and BoQs for the pipeline (onshore + offshore), structures / techniques of intersections with other facilities as well as for the AGIs (e.g. compressor stations, pipeline valves, metering stations, pigging stations etc.),
For the complete pipeline, cathodic protection (against corrosion) design, and providing support to SCADA operation system design,
Preparation of land acquisition plans and drawings comprising the complete pipeline route, further to carrying out land ownership valuation studies,
EIA Studies as per the local legislation of each country and obtaining EIA “No Objection” decision; furthermore, preparation of the national section of the “Consolidated Project Environmental and Social Impact Report” to be submitted to international financing institutions,
Contacts with associated public institutions and agencies, and obtaining legal permissions, along the pipeline route, and
Data acquisition for recording in the GIS developed for 5 transit countries, and recording the data in the Project Data Platform.
Bakü Tbilisi Ceyhan Oil Pipeline
Baku-Tbilisi Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline carries oil from the Azeri-Chirag-Deepwater Gunashli (ACG) field and condensate from Shah Deniz across Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey. It links Sangachal terminal on the shores of the Caspian Sea to Ceyhan marine terminal on the Turkish Mediterranean coast. In addition, crude oil from Turkmenistan continues to be transported via the pipeline. Starting in October 2013, we have also resumed transportation of some volumes of Tengiz crude oil from Kazakhstan through the BTC pipeline.
The pipeline that became operational in June 2006 was built by the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline company (BTC Co) operated by BP.
The pipeline buried along its entire length is 1768km in total length: 443km in Azerbaijan, 249km in Georgia, and 1,076km in Turkey The Azerbaijan and Georgia sections of the pipeline are operated by BP on behalf of its shareholders in BTC Co. while the Turkish section is operated by BOTAS International Limited (BIL).
The diameter of the pipeline is 42 inches throughout most of Azerbaijan and Turkey. In Georgia the pipeline diameter is 46 inches. The pipeline diameter reduces to 34-inches for the last downhill section to the Ceyhan Marine Terminal in Turkey.
Throughput capacity – one million barrels per day from March 2006 to March 2009. Since March 2009 it has been expanded to 1.2 million barrels per day by using drag reducing agents (DRAs).
On 11 August 2014, BTC celebrated the loading of the 2 billionth barrel of oil at the Ceyhan terminal in Turkey.
The BTC pipeline passes through 13 districts in Azerbaijan: Garadagh, Absheron, Hajigabul, Agsu, Kurdamir, Ujar, Agdash, Yevlakh, Goranboy, Samukh, Shemkir, Tovuz, Agstafa; 7 in Georgia and 9 in Turkey.
In the first half of 2017, BTC spent approximately $64 million in operating expenditure and more than $10 million in capital expenditure.
Since the 1,768km BTC pipeline became operational in June 2006 till the end of June 2017 it carried a total of about 2.74 billion barrels (more than 365 million tonnes) of crude oil loaded on 3,584 tankers and sent to world markets.
In the first half of 2017, BTC exported around 125 million barrels (about 17 million tonnes) of crude oil loaded on 159 tankers at Ceyhan.
The BTC pipeline currently carries mainly ACG crude oil and Shah Deniz condensate from Azerbaijan. In addition, other volumes of crude oil and condensate continue to be transported via BTC, including volumes from Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan.
Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline Project
The aim of the TANAP Project is to bring natural gas produced from Azerbaijan’s Shah Deniz-2 gas field, and other areas of the Caspian Sea, primarily to Turkey, but also on to Europe. The TANAP Project, along with the South Caucasus Pipeline (SCP) and the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) form the elements of the Southern Gas Corridor.
TANAP will run from the Turkish border with Georgia, beginning in the Turkish village of Türkgözü in the Posof district of Ardahan, will run through 20 provinces including Kars, Erzurum, Erzincan, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Giresun, Sivas, Yozgat, Kırşehir, Kırıkkale, Ankara, Eskişehir, Bilecik, Kütahya, Bursa, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, Tekirdağ and Edirne until it ends at the Greek border in the İpsala district of Edirne. From this point, the TAP Pipeline will connect to convey natural gas to European nations. Two off-take stations are located within Turkey for national natural gas transmission, one located in Eskişehir and the other in Thrace. With 19km running under the Sea of Marmara, the main pipeline within Turkey reach a total of 1850km, along with off-take stations and aboveground installations, with their numbers and properties detailed below:
7 compressor stations,
4 measuring stations,
11 pigging stations,
49 block valve stations and
2 off-take stations to supply Turkey’s national natural gas network
In addition to the aboveground installations, temporary camps to accommodate workers, pipe storage areas and access roads necessary during the construction phase will also be built.
Kirkuk- Ceyhan Oil Pipeline
The pipeline consists two pipes with diameters of 46 inches (1,170 mm) and 40 inches (1,020 mm) and designed capacity of 1,100 thousand and 500 thousand barrels per day (~5.5×107 and ~2.5×107 t/a) respectively. Usable capacity of the line is believed to be only 300 thousand barrels per day (~1.5×107 t/a), with significant repairs still required.
Incidents of sabotage
The line's Iraqi part has been a principal sabotage target since 2003. On 26 October 2009, the blast near Mosul halted oil supplies through the pipeline. On 16 August 2013, at around 0100 GMT near the al-Shura area 60 km to the south of the city of Mosul a bomb attack damaged the pipeline. On 3 September 2013, at around 0200 GMT near Ein al-Jahash area, a bomb attack damaged the pipeline.
Samsun-Ceyhan Oil Pipeline
The Samsun–Ceyhan pipeline (SCP), previously called Trans-Anatolian Pipeline, is a planned crude oil pipeline traversing Turkey from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean oil terminal in Ceyhan. The aim of this project is to provide an alternative route for Russian and Kazakhstani oil and to ease the traffic burden in the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles.
The Samsun–Ceyhan pipeline was planned as a Bosphorus bypass. At the beginning of the 2000s, Tun Oil filed for construction of a pipeline from Samsun through Sivas to Ceyhan. In 2003, the Italian energy company Eni studied possible oil transport routes from the North Caspian area. In 2004, based on the pre-feasibility study, the Samsun–Ceyhan route was selected. Another partner in the project, Turkish company Çalık Enerji, carried out technical and commercial studies, and filed for the construction licence on 31 March 2004. One of the route alternatives involved connecting the Kirikkale refinery; however, this option was rejected.
On 26 September 2005, Eni and Çalık Enerji signed a Memorandum of Understanding for their joint cooperation in the project. A pipeline feasibility study was completed in March 2006. The construction licence was granted in June 2006. The Front End Engineering Design Phase was completed at the beginning of 2007, and the ground-breaking ceremony, attended by the Italian Minister for Economic Development Pierluigi Bersani and the Turkish Minister for Energy and Natural Resources Hilmi Güler, was held in Ceyhan on 24 April 2007. In 2008, it was decided to move the starting point from Terme in Samsun Province to Ünye in Ordu Province.
On 19 October 2009, at a ceremony held in Milan Italy, Russia and Turkey signed an intergovernmental agreement guaranteeing a stable regulatory framework and agreeing to the participation of Russian oil companies in the pipeline project. At the same ceremony, Eni and Çalık Enerji signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Transneft and Rosneft to include Russian companies in the development of the project.
On 27 March 2013, Turkish energy minister Taner Yildiz announced that Eni would not be allowed to go forward with the project due to company's plans for the natural gas exploration off Cyprus, and that the pipeline's project may be suspended if Çalık continues their partnership with Eni.
Turkish Stream Oil Pipeline Project (Turkey-Russia)
The proposed TurkStream route (image source: Gazprom)
Russian President Vladimir Putin last week said that the Turkish Stream gas pipeline would be built eventually.
Just a few days later, on Thursday, Russian energy giant Gazprom said it received through diplomatic channels the first permits for the TurkStream project from the authorities of the Turkish Republic.
To remind, the project was stopped last year after Turkey shot down Russian warplane for violating its airspace. The plane had been on its way to a mission in Syria.
Worth noting, Alexey Miller, Gazprom Chairman, and Berat Albayrak, Minister of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey, last week at a meeting in Istanbul reached the agreement to shortly complete all the required preparatory procedures for launching the TurkStream project.
“The issuance of first permits is good news for Gazprom. This move of the Turkish side reflects the interest of Turkey’s government in the TurkStream project and marks the transition to its practical implementation,” said Alexey Miller.
Once constructed, the pipeline will run 660 kilometers along the old route of South Stream and cover 250 kilometers of a new route toward the European part of Turkey. It is planned that the first gas pipeline string will be used exclusively for gas supplies to the Turkish market.
Share this article