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Trade Protectionism Against China.

10511 Views 62 Replies 11 Participants Last post by  Norge78
Solar trade war between US and China looming

Friday 18 May 2012

In 2011, several US-based solar firms such as Solyndra, SepctraWatt, Evergreen Solar, and Energy Conversion Devices filed for bankruptcies. While the fundamental problem may be due to higher production costs, the US solar industry has been suspecting dumping of solar products from China as the main cause. Led by Germany-based SolarWorld's US unit, the US government began an anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigation against China-based solar firms.

Some US-based solar firms believe it is precisely the heavy subsidies provided by the China government that allows China-based solar firms to make low quotes on solar products. Some quotes were said to be lower than production costs. These solar products were then sold in the US market, and domestic firms continued to have a hard time competing.

According to Coalition of Affordable Solar Energy (CASE), nearly half of the solar PV systems installed in the US in 2011 were made up of China-made solar panels.

However, the true impact of China's solar products on the US solar market is still debatable. The US Department of Commerce has made a preliminary decision to impose heavy punitive tariffs on China-made solar products. But according to US media, the department will not issue the final decision until October while International Trade Commission determines if China-made solar products imported to the US are truly harming the domestic industry.

Supporters of levying tariffs on China-made solar products pointed out that such significant tariff rates are a win for the US-based solar manufacturers. Supporters also claim that this will help the US solar economy to return to normalcy and boost solar jobs in the US. Solar module prices dropped 50% in 2011 and the drop has been on-going due to expanding production capacities by China-based solar firms which resulted in oversupply, added supporters. This oversupply caused the US market to be flooded with cheap China-based imports, said supporters.

Opponents noted that imposing such tariffs will increase the cost of solar PV systems. If system firms purchase solar modules from solar firms of other countries, the total cost of solar PV systems is likely to go up. Also, if China-based solar module makers switch production or issue OEM orders to other countries, the total cost of solar PV systems in the US will likely increase. Canadian Solar, a China-based solar firm, indicated possible plans to begin production in Canada to avoid being taxed by the anti-dumping duty. Furthermore, according to New York Times, a report from Solar Foundation pointed out that 100,000 workers joined the US solar industry last year but more than half of the people worked on installations. Only one quarter of the new workers were in manufacturing, added report. A rising cost of solar PV systems will likely to imperil jobs of the employees in the installation sector, said opponents.

One other aspect, the solar industry has been striving for grid parity as the ultimate goal. However, grid parity is more likely to be achieved when total costs of solar PV systems are low or the costs of generating power of these systems are comparable to electricity price of traditional energy sources. An increase in total cost of solar PV systems while the government halts tax credits for solar PV system buyers may cause a set back to the growth of the clean energy market in the US. Nevertheless, the tariff rates may weed out firms that lack competitive advantages and push the market back to stable prices.

But a trade war may begin. China-based solar firms have been complaining to the government over polysilicon dumping by US- and South Korea-based firms. This harsh tariff levied by the US government may cause China to retaliate by starting similar investigations. A trade war between the two giants can cause negative impacts around the world.

Interestingly, for China-based large-size solar firms such as Suntech and Trina, the tariff rates are around 31%. Other China-based solar firms were told to pay tariffs up by 249.96%. This may drive small- and medium-size solar firms from China to exit the market completely. In addition, the duties are retroactive to 90 days before official publication of the decision, meaning unless the firms were prepared, it is likely that they will be taxed.

The preliminary result of the anti-subsidy investigation was to levy a tariff rate around 4% on China-based solar firms. Combining with the anti-dumping duties that range from 31-250%, the astonishing tariff rate on China-based solar firms may lead to a trade war between the two countries.

US levies heavy anti-dumping tariffs on China-made solar cells

US Department of Commerce announced on May 17 the preliminary decision on anti-dumping investigations. The range of punitive tariffs to be imposed on China-based solar firms is from 31-250%, depending on the firm.

The Department of Commerce ruled that tariffs will be imposed on China-based solar firms that sold solar cells below production costs in the US. This move is seen to protect US domestic solar firms.

Large-size tier-one solar firms in China such as Suntech, Yingli Solar, and Trina Solar have been told to pay duties around 31%, while some other China-based solar firms will have to pay an astonishing rate of 249.96%, according to US media.

Speculation has been spreading among China's solar players that their government is also looking to counteract with an anti-dumping probe against US and South Korea solar polysilicon firms.

Many US solar firms collapsed last year, which has been heaping pressure on the US government to step up protection of the local industry.
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Yingli Green Energy responds to US decision on anti-dumping tariffs

Friday 18 May 2012

Yingli Green Energy Holding, a China-based solar energy company which markets its products under the brand "Yingli Solar", has commented on the preliminary anti-dumping tariff decision by the Department of Commerce regarding the import of China-based solar cells and solar modules to the US. According to the decision, Yingli will be part of the separate rates group, subject to a preliminary anti-dumping tariff of 31.18%. This is following the March 20 preliminary decision on anti-subsidy tariffs, where Yingli was given a negligible amount of 3.61%.

"We felt validated after the Department of Commerce's preliminary CVD decision in March, which determined that we are not being substantially subsidized as the petitioners claim. Today's preliminary anti-dumping tariff recommendation was not unexpected given the historical tariff levels in these types of cases. We will continue to aggressively defend ourselves and remain optimistic that we will persevere in the final determination," said Robert Petrina, managing director of Yingli Green Energy Americas, the firm's operating subsidiary in the US. "The overwhelming majority of the US solar industry supports access to affordable solar energy and fair market trade. We are grateful to the tens of thousands of US solar installers, developers, manufacturers, and suppliers who stand behind us today."

The Department of Commerce's recent rulings are preliminary findings. No final tariff decisions will be made until both the Department of Commerce and the International Trade Commission complete their investigations, which are scheduled to occur before the end of 2012.

"As we've stated before, tariffs are disruptive and destructive for the entire solar industry," said Liangsheng Miao, chairman and CEO of Yingli Green Energy. "We remain fully committed to serving the US market irrespective of the outcome of these proceedings, and we will continue to strive for a global, competitive marketplace."

Trina Solar makes statement on US anti-dumping duties

Trina Solar has issued a statement regarding the preliminary determination of anti-dumping duties by the US Department of Commerce (DOC).

"Trina Solar's innovation and globalization has helped to create great value for our stakeholders," said Jifan Gao, chairman and CEO of Trina Solar. "Current market conditions illustrate precisely why we have been conservative in the past, and why we place a priority on building a strong balance sheet. We believe that the quality of our panels and the strength of our team will ensure that we continue to serve the US market for the long term."

"We remain committed to the very close relationships we have developed in the US solar industry and will continue to deliver industry leading solutions together with these customers," added Mark Kingsley, CCO of Trina Solar. "Our primary objective remains to sustainably drive down total installed per watt cost through the use of our proprietary high-efficiency module know-how in combination with industry best practices on balance of system cost optimization. This is simply what is required to unlock the next level of fossil fuel replacement in the United States. Any duties are short-sighted impediments to this worthy goal."

Kingsley concluded, "We intend to strongly defend with data our position that these duties are unwarranted and serve as an impediment to the broader adoption of solar energy in a time of rising fuel costs. As a forward-thinking global company, we will continue to assess our options to most effectively serve all of our markets, including our growing business in the US."

Suntech responds to preliminary decision on tariffs in US anti-dumping investigation of solar cells from China

Suntech Power Holdings, a China-based producer of solar panels, has issued a statement regarding the US Department of Commerce's preliminary decision to impose anti-dumping duties of 31.22% on Suntech's crystalline silicon solar cells imported from China.

"These duties do not reflect the reality of a highly-competitive global solar industry. Suntech has consistently maintained a positive gross margin as revenues are higher than our cost of production. We will work closely with the Department of Commerce prior to their final decision to demonstrate why these duties are not justified by fact," said Andrew Beebe, Suntech's CCO.

"As a global company with global supply chains and manufacturing facilities in three countries, including the United States, we are providing our US customers with hundreds of megawatts of quality solar products that are not subject to these tariffs," continued Beebe.

"Despite these harmful trade barriers, we hope that the US, China and all countries will engage in constructive dialogue to avert a deepening solar trade war. Suntech opposes trade barriers at any point in the global solar supply chain. All leading companies in the global solar industry want to see a trade war averted. We need more competition and innovation, not litigation," continued Beebe.
China anti-dumping investigation against US, South Korea polysilicon suppliers would hurt local downstream players
Friday 25 May 2012

Mainly due to the imposition of anti-dumping tariffs by the US on China-made solar cells, China-based polysilicon makers have urged the China government to launch anti-dumping investigations on imported polysilicon supplied from US- and South Korea-based makers.

If the investigation leads to duties on importing polysilicon from other countries, the price of polysilicon in China will increase which will benefit China-based material providers. However, downstream firms are likely to struggle with higher production costs.

According to industry sources, China has been importing large amounts of polysilicon from the US and South Korea. Since the US government announced preliminary anti-dumping duties against China-based solar firms, China is likely to retaliate against US- and South Korea-based polysilicon firms for dumping. Industry sources added that if Europe takes up similar investigations, China will also respond with an investigation on Europe-based solar firms.

China's imports of polysilicon have been increasing annually despite the low demand in the solar market since 2011. Lack of competitiveness has caused many polysilicon firms in China to shut down production and file for bankruptcy.

Evidence of polysilicon dumping by US- and South Korea-based firms easily obtainable, say industry sources
Friday 25 May 2012

If the China government begins an anti-dumping investigations against US- and South Korea-based firms, the process will take much less time to determine a result, according to industry sources.

The high anti-dumping duties announced by the US Department of Commerce shocked China-based solar firms. Before the announcement, China-based polysilicon firms had been demanding the government start an investigation on dumping polysilicon by US- and South Korea-based solar firms.

China-based solar firms claim that polysilicon firms from the two countries quote prices lower than production costs.

The argument being that downstream solar firms signed long-term supply contracts with international polysilicon firms during shortages. Typical contracts are quoted around US$200/kg with a minimum procurement of 50kg of polysilicon every quarter.

From 2009, the spot price of polysilicon has dropped from US$500 to US$100. Where contracts are still on-going, polysilicon firms have offered an additional 55.55kg of polysilicon priced at US$10/kg. This pulls down the average price of polysilicon close to US$100/kg, the same level as the spot price. The price of the additional polysilicon is always lower than the spot price and production costs of most firms, which can be considered as evidence of dumping, according to industry sources.

In addition, the government can find records of polysilicon imports from customs to use a evidence, added industry sources.
LDK Solar responds to US preliminary decision on anti-dumping tariffs
Friday 25 May 2012

China-based LDK Solar (LDK) has issued a statement regarding the preliminary anti-dumping duty decision by the US Department of Commerce (DOC).

On May 17, 2012, the DOC announced a preliminary determination regarding the importation of crystalline silicon solar cells and modules produced in China. According to the decision, China-based producers/exporters selling solar cells and modules in the United States will be assessed dumping margins ranging from 31.14-249.96%. LDK Solar will be part of the separate rates group, subject to a preliminary anti-dumping tariff rate of 31.18%.

"This decision will not change LDK's strategy in developing markets worldwide. LDK Solar reaffirms its commitment to be one of the industry's top tier companies in the US and global markets now and in the future by creating consistent value for the customers," stated Xiaofeng Peng, chairman and CEO of LDK Solar.

SolarWorld welcomes decision on anti-dumping duties on solar products from China

SolarWorld AG, a Germany-based solar firm that has branch offices in the US, welcomes the preliminary decision of the US Department of Commerce to impose anti-dumping duties on solar products imported from China as another important step in the direction of re-establishing fair competition. Depending on the brand, the anti-dumping duties range between 31.14-249.96%. In March, the department imposed anti-subsidy duties of between 2.9-4.7% on China-based solar products. These two types of duties are additive.

With these decisions, the Department of Commerce gives preliminary approval of petition by the US subsidiary of the German solar group SolarWorld AG against China-based export subsidies and dumping prices. The duties apply to crystalline silicon cells and panels from China. The final judgment on the anti-subsidy and anti-dumping duties is expected to be handed down on October 1, 2012. Until then, the Department of Commerce will more deeply examine questionable subsidies and dumping prices.

"The decision by the US Department of Commerce encourages the firm to believe that the market can return to fair competition. It is also a signal for Europe, where comparable measures need to take effect. The illegal China-based trade practices destroy the solar market and jeopardize many jobs," explained Frank Asbeck, CEO of SolarWorld AG.
Just unfair competition from established names in the PV industry. They just don't want to let the lesser-known ones to give consumers a choice. :bash:
^ I sometimes feel the fair market is non-existent whatsoever.
^ I sometimes feel the fair market is non-existent whatsoever.

Me too. :bash:
This is actually good for 'China' (and other countries that want to take advantage of the situation) and pretty good timing too with the HVDC projects coming along :lol:.

US Anti-Dumping Duties on Chinese Solar Cells: A Costly Step
by Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Martin Vieiro | May 25th, 2012 | 10:44 am

On May 17, 2012, the Commerce Department announced that imports of Chinese photovoltaic cells (solar cells) will be subject to preliminary anti-dumping duties (ADDs) of 31 percent. This penalty tariff will be applied, along with new countervailing duties (CVDs) ranging from 2.9 to 4.7 percent, to all imports of Chinese crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, even when assembled into panels outside the People’s Republic. While the announcement of ADDs comes as no surprise, the size of the penalty is alarming and may spark more trade friction between the two largest economies in the world.

Equally important, ADDs of 31 percent and more highlight the tension between two worthy public policy objectives. On the one hand, trade remedy policies in the form of certain duties on imports are designed to shield US firms from unfair foreign competition. On the other, environmental policies designed to encourage renewable energy and limit the emission of greenhouse gases are hurt when alternatives to fossil fuels are made more expensive. The solar cell case also underlies the lopsided ADD process, which gives no legal standing to downstream industries—in this case installers of solar cells—that will lose jobs when they have to pay penalty duties on imported components.


CVD and ADD investigations were launched on October 19, 2011 when the Coalition for American Solar Manufacturing (CASM) filed official complaints, both with the US Department of Commerce (DOC) and the US International Trade Commission (ITC), charging unfair and injurious trade practices by China in the crystalline silicon solar industry. CASM is led by SolarWord—a German company with considerable US operations—and six other unnamed companies that manufacture solar panels in the United States.

In December 2011, the ITC (which determines the extent of “injury” in anti-dumping, or AD, cases) found that
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This is actually good for 'China' (and other countries that want to take advantage of the situation) and pretty good timing too with the HVDC projects coming along :lol:.
Guess: Boosting domestic consumption and improving brand quality?
Solar firms in China may decrease investments in US
Monday 28 May 2012

The ripple effects of the anti-dumping duties announced by the US government against China-based solar firms continue to expand. Industry sources in China noted that some solar firms plan to decrease investments in the US solar market. If China-based solar firms do not need as many solar cells from Taiwan, the anticipated price increase from the latter party is likely to fall through.

The market believes China-based solar firms are likely to expand procurement of solar cells from Taiwan-based peers. Other forms of cooperation between cross-strait firms have also been predicted. Some Taiwan-based solar firms increased quotes immediately after the announcement of the duties by the US Department of Commerce.

Nevertheless, the price increase initiated by Taiwan-based solar cell makers has not been successful because some China-based peers have been considering the possibility of decreasing investments in the US market, meaning demand for solar cells from Taiwan is likely to fall because there will be fewer solar modules exported to the US.

China-based solar firms have been investing into system developing businesses in the US solar market.

However, lowering investments in the US does not mean giving up on the US solar market, said industry sources. In the long-run, the US solar market has a lot of potential. In addition, the industry will need to wait until the decision from the International Trade Commission on whether the duties will extend to solar modules.

Industry sources in Taiwan noted that price negotiations have been on-going.

Europe-based polysilicon supplier seeking cooperation with China-based makers
Tuesday 29 May 2012

A Europe-based maker of polysilicon is seeking cooperation with China-based fellow makers mainly because spot market prices for polysilicon have dropped to US$20-25/kg which are lower than production costs, according to industry sources.

The Europe-based polysilicon firm has been pressuring downstream customers to oblige to contracts while trying to find alliances in China, said industry sources.

Industry sources in China speculate the possible cooperation will adopt the more cost competitive fluidized bed reactor (FBR) technology to lower total production costs.

The falling price of polysilicon has induced many polysilicon firms to halt plans for capacity expansion in 2012.
Guess: Boosting domestic consumption and improving brand quality?
The American tariff in effect put a downward pressure on prices for the non-American markets.

Although the EU countries will likely pick up the slack ( everybody likes a good bargain right?), I think Chinese power companies (lower prices) and the Chinese government (say "job creation") will start building massive solar plants ... possibly with the 'help' of EU, Japanese and Korean companies.

China has a lot of catching up to do in terms of harnessing solar power (see Solar power in the People's Republic of China ).
U.S. to slap punitive duties on steel cylinders from China
(Shanghai Daily/Xinhua, May 31)

WASHINGTON, May 30 (Xinhua) -- The U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) Wednesday cleared the way for the U.S. government to levy antidumping and countervailing duties against imports of high-pressure steel cylinders from China.

The USITC made a final determination that U.S. industry is materially injured by imports of China's high-pressure steel cylinders. Earlier this month, the U.S. Commerce Department had determined those products were subsidized and sold in the U.S. market at less than fair value.

As a result of USITC's affirmative determinations, the Commerce Department will impose antidumping duties of 6.62 to 31.21 percent and countervailing duties of 15.81 percent on imports of this product from China.

Last year, U.S. manufacturer Norris Cylinder Company, the last remaining producer of high-pressure steel cylinders in the nation, asked for anti-dumping duties of up to 176.25 percent and additional countervailing duties on these products from China.

In 2011, U.S. imports of steel cylinders from China were valued at an estimated 81.7 million U.S. dollars.

This is the latest U.S. trade protection move against China this year. As the U.S. economy is undergoing a slow recovery, protectionism practices by the world's largest economy are on the rise.

The Chinese Ministry of Commerce has repeatedly urged Washington to abide by its commitment against protectionism and help maintain a free, open and just international trade environment.
U.S. may levy countervailing duties on wind towers from China
(Shanghai Daily/Xinhua, May 31)

WASHINGTON, May 30 (Xinhua) -- The U.S. Commerce Department Wednesday announced its affirmative preliminary determination in the countervailing duty (CVD) investigation of imports of utility scale wind towers from China, signaling that it may impose punitive duties on these products.

The Commerce Department preliminarily determined that Chinese producers/exporters of utility scale wind towers have received countervailable subsidies of 13.74 percent to 26.00 percent.

In 2011, imports of utility scale wind towers from China were valued at an estimated 222 million U.S. dollars. The department is scheduled to make its final determination in August 2012.

The department would issue CVD orders after both it and the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) make affirmative final rulings. The USITC is expected to make a final decision over the issue in September, 2012.

The merchandise covered by this investigation is steel towers that support the engine and rotor blades for use in wind turbines with electrical power generation capacities in excess of 100 kilowatts.

Earlier this year, the U.S. Commerce Department also launched antidumping investigations on utility scale wind towers from China, claiming those products had a dumping margin at 213.54 percent. The department is scheduled to make preliminary antidumping decision on around June 6, 2012.

The U.S. move came at a time when protectionism is making a comeback in America amid sluggish economic recovery. It was widely believed that such actions would only hurt U.S.-China trade relations that are increasingly critical to global recovery.

The Chinese Ministry of Commerce has repeatedly urged the United States to abide by its commitment against protectionism and work together with China and other members of the international community to maintain a free, open and just international trade environment.
Restraint 'necessary' in telecom dispute
(China Daily Europe, June 2)

China, EU 'must communicate with each other' for a win-win solution

Beijing urged Brussels to show restraint amid reports that the European Union is poised to probe Chinese telecom companies in Europe.

Visiting Chinese Minister of Commerce Chen Deming delivered the message at the EU's headquarters on Friday morning after a meeting with his EU counterpart Karel De Gucht.

Chen implied that if Brussels uses punitive measures to protect its market, Beijing is also ready to do so. "European telecom companies have also invested in the Chinese market for years ... we are not willing to see the win-win situation destroyed or weakened," said Chen.

"China and the European Union should communicate with each other properly, refraining from using protectionist measures; otherwise, both will become losers," Chen added.

He made the remarks after a report in the Financial Times said the EU is ready to launch trade complaints and investigations against Chinese makers of mobile network equipment, including Huawei and ZTE, as soon as next month.

The report said the European Commission, the EU body charged with investigating trade complaints, has got "very solid evidence," showing that the companies benefited from illegal government subsidies and had sold products in the EU below cost.

Brussels promised again during the meeting on Thursday chaired by Chen and De Gucht that the EU will not use such measures.
Chen urged the Western media to take a "positive" approach to China's investment in Europe.

Shortly after the Financial Times report, official sources told China Daily that Beijing will retaliate if Brussels takes such actions.

The EU's planned investigation has already triggered concerns in Europe.
Swedish Trade Minister Ewa Bjorling warned that a planned probe by the European Commission into "illegal subsidies" received by Chinese wireless network vendors risks backfiring on the European wireless network industry.

"While Chinese companies' share of the EU's wireless equipment market is 30 percent, one has to remember that the EU's share of China's wireless equipment market is 45 percent. So if China were to hit us back with similar measures, it would hurt us more than what it would hurt them," she told the media.

At the meeting, both sides agreed to launch negotiations on an investment treaty, although no timetable was set.

De Gucht said the meeting with Chen was an extremely important opportunity for both sides to engage with each other on key trade issues.

"We discussed trying to push forward our talks on investment," said De Gucht, adding that it is right time for both sides to step up efforts to launch the negotiations on investment as soon as possible.

"I believe such negotiations are very important not only economically but also to show to the world in trade issues China and Europe can do business."

Duncan Freeman, research fellow at the Brussels Institute of Contemporary China Studies, said De Gucht's emphasis on the investment treaty reflects the importance the EU attaches to this issue. "In the current European crisis this is not surprising, as the EU sees an investment treaty as a way of improving access to the growing Chinese market," he said.

Tan Xuan contributed to the story.

Contact the writer at [email protected]
Answer to the China-US solar trade war?

China firms plan to acquire Europe-based solar peers
Tuesday 5 June 2012

As solar firms in Europe suffer financial losses due to lack of competitiveness against China-based solar firms, according to a June 3 article by The Financial Times, China-based energy group, Hanergy, has made plans to acquire a part of Germany-based solar cell firm Q-Cells.

The acquisition is for Hanergy to buy Solibro, a Q-Cells subsidiary which specializes in producing thin-film solar panels. According to the report, this will put Hanergy in direct competition with industry leading US-based First Solar.

Despite the fact that China is the leading country in producing solar products, the solar industry in China lacks sufficient technology to produce thin-film solar products.

This acquisition is likely to open up a new market for China-based solar firms.

LDK, a China-based large-size vertically integrated solar firm, announced plans to acquire Germany-based panel maker Sunways earlier this year, according to the report.

It is possible that more and more of this type of acquisition will happen. Solar firms around the world have been trying to secure stable distribution channels. However, the economic problems in Europe have been causing a shortage of funds for the renewable energy sector. Searching for financial capital has become a top priority.

Even China-based solar firms have been drowning in debt. According to LDK's fourth-quarter 2011 financial report, the debt ratio shot up to 87.68%. Another tier-one solar firm in China, Suntech, currently has a debt ratio of 65.34% according to its first-quarter 2012 financial report.

Hence despite the fact that there seems to be a trend of China-based firms taking over Europe-based peers, the firms in China have been experiencing financial problems of their own.
IMMSMC, Norway-based Elkem Solar has been sold to China National Bluestar.
Answer to the China-US solar trade war?
No. It's the "win-win" way.
GENEVA, June 8 (Xinhua) -- A World Trade Organization (WTO) panel ruled on Friday certain anti-dumping measures taken by the United States on warm water shrimp and diamond saw blades from China have violated relevant WTO rules.

In a report circulated to WTO members, the panel said it upheld China's claim concerning the use of zeroing by the United States in the calculation of dumping margins for individually-examined exporters/producers.

The "zeroing" methodology in calculating the margins of dumping used by the United States in the investigations at issue was inconsistent with the Anti-Dumping Agreement, according to the ruling.

The panel concluded that the United States had acted inconsistently with its obligations under this provision.

On Feb. 28, 2011, China requested consultations with the United States regarding the latter's anti-dumping measures on certain frozen warm water shrimp from China, complaining against the U.S. Department of Commerce's (USDOC) use of zeroing in the original investigation and several administrative reviews to calculate dumping margins for the subject imports.

On July 22, 2011, China requested complementary consultations with regard to the zeroing practice on diamond saw blades. China on Oct. 13 requested the establishment of panel, which was then established on Oct. 25.
China solar firms shift business strategies
12 June 2012

China-based solar firms are changing business strategies to face the upcoming troubles such as the anti-dumping duties from the US and the possible anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigations taken up by governments in Europe and India. China-based solar firms are halting capacity expansions and moving businesses towards system developments.

In order to secure stable distribution channels, China-based solar firms have plans to create a "money pool" to combine funds from different institutions. The purpose of the money pool is to ensure abundant and available funds for project financing. As the global economy has been struggling due to shortage of funds, the solar firms believe the money pool will help the industry's growth.
BEIJING, June 15 (Xinhua) -- The Ministry of Commerce said Friday that it has started reviewing anti-dumping measures on sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), an antibiotic imported from India.

The review will evaluate the possibilities for dumping and damages if the tariffs are lifted, the ministry said in a statement on its website.

The review started Friday at the request of applications submitted by domestic industry players on March 30, 2012, and will be finished within 12 months, according to the statement.

The ministry slapped five-year anti-dumping duties ranging from 10.1 percent to 37.7 percent on SMZ imports from India on June 15, 2007, after finding that the imports hurt the interests of domestic producers.

During the review period, China will continue to impose anti-dumping duties on SMZ imports from India, according to the statement.
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