Robert von Oliva
ראבערט פון אָליוואַ
Na miejscu Szkotów bym się tak nie rozpędzał, po co robić sobie problem z implementacją IV Pakietu Kolejowego w przyszłości, po ponownym wejściu do UE
Francuzi, którzy uregionalnili zarządzanie koleją regionalną (niedawno, ale jednak), Niemcy, którzy chyba najsumienniej realizują postanowienia IV Pakietu (zwróć uwagę ilu tam przewoźników i ile z przetargów idzie połączeń oraz na połączenia dalekobieżne, które są praktycznie wszystkie komercyjne, nie tylko te od prywatnych przewoźników) czy Włosi z pełną regionalizacją połączeń regionalnych i bardzo konkurencyjnym rynkiem połączeń dalekobieżnych? Już się mogłeś prędzej na Irlandię powołać, która faktycznie zawodzi z implementacją IV PakietuBeda sie o tym martwic po tym jak swoje podejscie do kolei zmienia Francuzi, Niemcy czy Wlosi
No i tak pewnie bedzie, zarowno Walijczycy jak i Szkoci beda miec panstwowa spolke kolejowa (jak wiekszosc panstw europejskich). Tylko Anglicy ida w zaparte ze absolutnie sa takiemu rozwiazaniu przeciwni.Francuzi, którzy uregionalnili zarządzanie koleją regionalną (niedawno, ale jednak), Niemcy, którzy chyba najsumienniej realizują postanowienia IV Pakietu (zwróć uwagę ilu tam przewoźników i ile z przetargów idzie połączeń oraz na połączenia dalekobieżne, które są praktycznie wszystkie komercyjne, nie tylko te od prywatnych przewoźników) czy Włosi z pełną regionalizacją połączeń regionalnych i bardzo konkurencyjnym rynkiem połączeń dalekobieżnych? Już się mogłeś prędzej na Irlandię powołać, która faktycznie zawodzi z implementacją IV Pakietu
Ja nie mówię, że Szkocja nie może mieć kolejowej spółki należącej do rządu zgodnie z prawem europejskim (tak samo jak mogą istnieć np. spółki marszałkowskie), ale jednak będąc w UE będa mogli sobie co najwyżej marzyć o jednych Szkockich Kolejach Państowych
Irlandia to jest po prostu przykład odkładania realizacji IV Pakietu Kolejowego, ale w końcu i na nich trafi. W Niemczech po prostu trochę szybciej się za to zabrali (ale i tak KE ma wątpliwości np. czy spółka zarządzająca infrą jest rozdzielona od przewoźników odpowiednio).Irlandia to ciekawy przyklad, jakos nie widac tam liberalizacji rynku kolejowego. Calkiem mozliwe ze takie izolowane geograficznie male kraje beda musialy miec jakies wyjatki od ogolnych zasad "kontynentalnej" Europy.
Do jakiej stacji wracałeś, jaki był czas przejazdu, ile kosztuje bilet w porównaniu do autobusów i czy jest w tych składach miejsce na rower 🚲 ?W piatek wracalem ze Stansted do Londynu i mialem okazje pierwszy raz skorzystac z nowych skladow Stadlera, klasa 745/1 .....
Stansted Express jezdzi ze Stansted Airport do London Liverpool Street Station.Do jakiej stacji wracałeś, jaki był czas przejazdu, ile kosztuje bilet w porównaniu do autobusów i czy jest w tych składach miejsce na rower 🚲 ?
Z góry dziękuję za odpowiedź.
Jest juz na mojej liscie do zakupuI began this book waiting for a diesel train to Derby, under the windy, boxy, flat-roofed bit which one of Sir Norman Foster’s team added to the back end of St Pancras station. At around 7 p.m. on a weekday only a dozen or so people were travelling. In the arcade below — built by the proud Midland Railway, as Christian Wolmar reminds us, to the dimensions of the Burton beer barrels the space was designed to store — shops are being boarded up. No one buys a new wheelie case or jewellery before catching a Eurostar to Paris anymore.
Among the many entertaining facts he has assembled, Wolmar calculates that London has 598 railway stations. There are mornings now when it feels as though that is greater than the number of peak-hour passengers across the city. These are bad days for our railways, and the shock is all the greater because they come after some of the best.
Just before coronavirus, the city’s stations were busier than ever, cleaner than ever and from London Bridge to St Pancras via Liverpool Street and King’s Cross, more beautiful and pleasant to spend time in than ever. I remember when the only diversion St Pancras had to offer was British Rail’s Shires Bar, all 1970s beige and brown with a stained carpet. Now the pub has become the glossy Sir John Betjeman, with an outdoor terrace where you can still (as I write) meet friends without breaking the law and look up at St Pancras’s wonderful clock tower and its rival ticking above King’s Cross.
Wolmar is one of the crotchety sort of railway lovers for whom nothing is quite as good as it used to be and the system is now run by idiots; but even he has to admit that the past had its problems. London’s stations were never really cathedrals of steam — his title is a misleading way to describe the shabby, confusing, soot-ridden structures from which most people had to travel — but they made the city what it is through the accident of chaotic competition.
State planning elsewhere in Europe often drew things together with a single central station — the finest of all is that monument to Prussian imperial power, Leipzig Hauptbahnhof. Even Paris, which almost matches London for termini, thought about what it was doing and linked them together with the Petite Ceinture, along which British passengers on sleeping cars from Calais were hauled to join the Train Bleu down to Nice.
In London, by contrast, companies fought to build what they could. That’s why the city ended up with so many stations —why the Great Western Railway, which almost touches the West Coast route from the north and should have gone to Euston, built Paddington where it is; why Victoria still has a wall down the middle between two rival routes; why Cannon Street exists at all; why some people had to spend their lives commuting to horrible little rat-traps such as Holborn Viaduct (a station whose end not even Wolmar can mourn).
To Wolmar all this competition is an affront to the sort of ordered, socialist society he would like us to live in. He makes a fair point about the massive destruction the building of so many lines caused. Tens of thousands of people lost their homes. ‘The first shock of a great earthquake had... rent the whose neighbourhood to its centre,’ Charles Dickens wrote in Dombey and Son, describing the construction of the line to Euston — a shock now being matched by the building of HS2 next to it.
But without this chaos and profit-seeking London would not be what it is today: dinky Fenchurch Street, hidden away; Charing Cross, where for some reason black cabs still gather like nowhere else. Cheap fares on the nasty, smoky Great Eastern brought workers from cramped housing in the east and north-east to the city. Today the fares are higher and the smoke has gone, but Liverpool Street still — in normal times — paces to the march of commuters. The glamorous Great Western into Paddington was the last place in London to be served by a dining car. Lunch on the way to Plymouth has been another Covid casualty.
Almost all these random lines turned out to be useful, which is why so few of them have closed. Wolmar, a natural nostalgist, is good on one that didn’t last: Broad Street, the origin of the dirty old electric trains which once took me to school. British Rail was right to knock it down and sell the land. But it is hard, even in the present crisis, to imagine any more of London’s stations being lost. Commuting may change. Crossrail will eventually open. Moaning northern mayors complain that London is over-indulged with infrastructure. But our capital will still be made by its stations.
Installation of a replacement railway bridge on the outskirts of Bristol has stalled after heavy lift transporters became mired in boggy ground.
Contractor Alun Griffiths was edging the 4,260t replacement bridge into place when the two Osprey self-propelled transporters sank into the mud 30m short of their final position.
The contractor is now racing against time to solve the problem so it can reinstate rail journeys from Bristol to Wales which were disrupted when the original Gipsy Patch Lane rail bridge was demolished to make way for the weekend bridge replacement.
Two dozers were drafted in to try to shunt the transporters forward but these are understood to have failed to budge it.
Network Rail had said prior to the weekend it was due to reopen next Saturday, but the disruption is now expected to continue for longer than originally anticipated.
A South Gloucestershire Council spokesman said: “Despite detailed planning and preparation, our contractor, Network Rail, has encountered a significant issue moving the new 4,260-tonne Gipsy Patch Lane bridge into place.
“The bridge, which is already built, is being moved into position on a number of independent hydraulic transporters.
“Having successfully moved two-thirds of the way into place the bridge transporters are now stuck.
“Our focus, alongside Network Rail, is on resolving the issue so that the bridge can be moved into position. This is likely to take a number of days and will delay the reopening of the mainline.”
HS2 today unveiled the use of an innovative onboard robot that will improve safety and efficiency on the high speed rail project’s first two giant tunnelling machines, set to launch early next year.
Pioneered by HS2’s main works contractor, Align, the Krokodyl robot is the first of its kind anywhere in the world and will be installed in the two tunnel boring machines (TBMs) that will be used to bore the 10 mile (16km) long Chiltern tunnels.
The Krokodyl robot, working in a similar manner to the robotic arms used in a car factory production line, will carry out simple repetitive tasks – removing wooden spacers between tunnel segments and inserting connection dowels – that people would normally do.
Each of the segments weighs up to eight tonnes and are delivered to the TBM with wooden spacers between them which are generally removed by hand. By fully automating this process, the Krokodyl removes the need for people to work in this potentially hazardous area and helps with the installation of the 112,000 tunnel segments.
The tunnel segments are erected – as the TBM moves forward – in order to form a structural water tight ring designed to support the ground loads.
A second feature of the robot, known as the Dobydo, then places the dowels into position ready for the segment to be slotted into place. Again, by automating this process, the robot reduces risk to people and improve safety and efficiency.
The Align joint venture – a team made up of Bouygues Travaux Publics, Sir Robert McAlpine, and VolkerFitzpatrick – built on their experience of delivering major tunnelling project across the world to develop the Krokodyl.
Contractor Alun Griffiths has finally freed a 4,260t bridge that had sunk into the mud during what was billed as the UK heaviest bridge move.
Five fully-laden quarry wagons and a dozer managed to drag the bridge carried on six transporters onto firmer ground yesterday.
The concrete bridge got stuck when its was being moved into position following the demolition of original Gipsy Patch Lane rail bridge to the North Bristol.
The Network Rail replacement project was due to be completed this weekend but is now set to overrun by several days disrupting rail services.
Podzial kontraktow:Early railway track carried trains running at 50km/h (30mph) with three-tonne axle loads. Over almost 200 years, ballasted track has been developed to the point where it can carry heavy freight trains, with axle loads of 25 tonnes or more, or high-speed passenger trains at over 300km/h (186mph). Ballasted track is relatively cheap and allows track adjustments as required. However, this advantage becomes a weakness for high-speed operation, which has demanding tolerances and high dynamic loads. In such an environment, ballasted track is at its technical and economic limits.
After the introduction of the world’s first dedicated high-speed line in Japan in 1964, it became apparent that significant effort was required to maintain track geometry. In 1972, Japanese National Railways installed a trial 12-kilometre length of ballastless track on its Shinkansen network, to consider alternatives. Since then, high-speed lines in Japan have generally used slab track, although European high-speed railways were not to take this decision until much later.
1972 also saw a trial 700-metre section of slab track, formed of sleepers cast into a concrete base, laid on an embankment in Germany. This was the first use of the now widely used Rheda system, which is named after the station where it was first installed. Prior to that, slab track was generally used in tunnels, due to concerns about settlement on embankments, deformation under load and thermal expansion on bridges.
The development of pre-cast slab systems, which offered construction benefits and reduced transmission of vibrations, started in the late 1970s when the Bögl system was first tested in Germany. Shortly afterwards, the ÖBB/Porr system was developed, in association with Austrian railways. The 1990s saw the introduction of these systems and significant development work on other ballastless trackforms.
In 1994, after maintenance issues with ballasted track on its early high-speed lines, Deutsche Bahn decided that slab track had to be considered for new high-speed and upgraded lines in Germany. This drove slab track development and, perhaps, paved the way for China’s high-speed rail boom. After opening its first high speed line in 2008, by 2018 China had a built a 29,000-kilometre high-speed rail network with over 19,000 kilometres of slab track.
A big decision
Despite its increasing use and proven benefits, ballastless track is significantly more expensive to install than conventional track. The 2014 EU research publication “Design requirements and improved guidelines for track” (available online) indicates that the construction cost of slab track can be over twice that of ballasted track.
When taking the decision about its track, or indeed any railway system, HS2 has had the opportunity to consider the extensive worldwide experience of high-speed railways throughout the world. For example, Chinese railways have many thousands of kilometres of high-speed slab track, although they do not have the long-term operational experience of ballastless track that countries such as Germany have.
A review of trackforms around the world studied the use of ballasted track on high-speed lines, which include HS1 and the Paris to Strasbourg line, phase 2 of which opened in 2017. These lines carry 14 and 11 million gross tonnes per annum (MGTPA) respectively. When HS2 phase 2 is operational, its London to Birmingham section will have up to 18 trains an hour, running at a predominant normal operating speed of 330km/h (205mph), and will carry over 60 MGTPA. This will make it one of the world’s most heavily loaded high-speed lines. Any late-running trains will run at HS2’s maximum speed of 360km/h (225mph) to recover the timetable.
HS2’s assessment of the feasibility of maintaining ballasted track, when used by trains running at this speed, concluded that cumulative tonnage was the key factor in the deterioration of the track system and therefore determined the amount of tamping required. As the life span of the ballast is a function of the number of tamps, higher tonnages require more renewals.
As a result, for HS2’s operating conditions, ballast life is likely to be around 20 years. The requirement to renew all of HS2’s track at this rate would be extremely costly, cause significant disruption and require temporary speed restrictions. Even with improved dynamic track stabilisation, hand back at over 300km/h (186 mph) is not considered feasible.
The track is part of a complex system with multiple interactions, particularly in respect of earthworks and structures.
HS2’s earthworks and ground improvement measures have to provide a stable base for whatever trackform is chosen. Their design needs to take account of geology, inherent properties of existing ground and geodynamics that might cause Rayleigh waves as well as earthworks to bridge transitions. From an overall system design perspective, slab track offers the benefits of shallow construction depth and reduced dead load. A further advantage is that hardspots are less of an issue, due to the inherently stiffer structure of slab track. With ballasted track, the transition between earthworks and structures can be problematic.
A potential issue is that slab track can be more prone to ground-bourne sounds and vibrations (GBSV) than ballasted track. Extensive research has been undertaken on this issue to derive track specifications that ensure GBSV is within acceptable limits – slab track systems have specific features that address this issue. However, GBSV can be a particular problem in tunnels, especially for buildings above them. For this reason, HS2’s urban track installation contract, which includes all tunnels in urban areas, specifies in-situ cast track designed to minimise GBSV.
A further, not-so-obvious benefit of slab track is that its use significantly reduces the area needed for the infrastructure maintenance depot at Calvert, which then doesn’t need to accommodate ballast and tamping machines. Instead of these expensive assets, which have high maintenance costs, the machinery required for slab track maintenance is, typically, relatively simple gantries and concrete pumping machines.
Another benefit of slab track is that it eliminates the problem of flying ballast on high-speed railways, caused by a combination of air turbulence and ground bourne vibration, which can be a safety hazard and cause damage. In addition, there are workforce health and safety benefits from reduced exposure to dust, almost eliminating hand-arm-vibration, less working in proximity to machinery and a reduced chance of slips, trips and falls.
For the above reasons, HS2 concluded that, although ballasted track would be less expensive to install, slab tracks will have a lower whole-life cost, a lower whole-life carbon footprint and will avoid the need for the unacceptable disruptive maintenance and renewals associated with ballasted track. HS2 must take a long-term view and so, rightly, chose slab track.
Pre-cast or in-situ
Having decided not to use ballasted track, the next decision was what type of slab track should be used. HS2 decided that it would use a pre-cast system, as this offers quicker installation with programme flexibility. Furthermore, unlike in-situ cast track, it enables track defects to be repaired within HS2’s five-hour overnight maintenance window (eight hours at weekends). The need for such quick repairs was demonstrated in October 2018, when a train caught fire on the Cologne to Frankfurt high-speed line, near Dierdorf, closing the line for eight days. The intense heat of the fire caused significant damage to the slab track which had to be repaired before the line could be reopened.
For these reasons, HS2 ruled out widespread use of cast-in-situ slab track, such as the Rheda system, in which sleepers and steel reinforcement are cast into a concrete slab, as this requires rails to position the sleepers.
The alternative system of pre-cast panels only requires equipment that is easily transportable. This offers the opportunity to lay the track slab simultaneously at multiple worksites. Another aspect that makes this possible is that this method of installation does not require the final rails to be in place, so they can be delivered later along the formation from a railhead.
Although great care must be taken with the surveying, the lifting gantries and grouting equipment needed to install pre-cast panels is relatively simple. Also, with hundreds of structures between Birmingham and London, it is almost inevitable that there will be some programme misalignment. Hence, it is important that track laying can leap-frog over any gaps in the formation.
Pre-cast panels are designed to be easily replaced within the available five-hour maintenance window. This requires removal of the rails, breaking the panel away from its base grouting layer, replacing the panel, grout it in position and leave it to set for three hours, re-rail and open the line at line speed the next morning. This system also allows for minor settlement as, within limits, the fastening systems can be adjusted. For more significant movements, panels can be removed, jacked up and re-grouted.
Before they can bid for the track installation contracts, prospective contractors need to know which pre-cast slab system is to be used. Hence, the £200 million contract for the design, manufacture and supply of pre-cast slab track panels must be let several months in advance of the procurement of the track installation contracts, which will be let in 2022.
For this reason, the track systems contract needs to be let early in the programme. Hence, in May, HS2 announced that it had invited tenders for a track systems supplier that will design and install around 280 route-kilometres of pre-cast track slabs, or around 80,000 panels, to be laid in a 20-month track construction window. The required pre-cast system must be able to carry traffic at designated loads and speeds; meet the specified reliability, availability and maintenance requirements; have comparatively low whole life costs; allow slab renewals within engineering access windows; accommodate earthworks settlement within specified limits and facilitate high-quality production-line methods of construction.
The track systems contractor will be responsible for ensuring that its design ensures product approval and meets TSI requirements. It must also produce construction documentation to ensure that the track installation contractor installs the system to the required standards. The intention is that the track systems supplier will become a sub-contractor of the track installation contractor during the manufacture and supply of the pre-cast slabs.
There will be four track installation contracts that will lay track as shown in the table. The track systems contractor is responsible for the design and supply of pre-cast slab track. The installation contractor for the Lot 1 (urban area) contract is responsible for laying cast in-situ track in tunnels. This will require the mitigation required to minimise GBSV in accordance with HS2’s specifications. The ballasted track to be laid by the Lot 3 (open route) contractor is for connection to Network Rail’s existing infrastructure.
On the open route, except for on bridges, the track will be laid on an impermeable protection layer of high-quality granular material to protect earthworks from frost and water ingress by directing water to the drainage system. This protection layer, and the primary drainage, will be installed by the main works civils contractor.
The track installation contractors will then use paving machines to lay a concrete layer on top of this protection layer. As described later, the pre-cast panels are installed on top of this layer.
HS2’s website shows that the ITT shortlist for the track systems contract comprises two partnerships, each of which is between a pre-cast slab system pioneer and a UK construction material supplier. These are the joint venture between Tarmac and Max Bögl, formed in 2016, and a partnership between Aggregate Industries UK and Porr Bau.
The pre-cast slab system offered by Max Bögl is known as the FFB Bögl system. This is a development of a 460-metre trial prefabricated design that was laid in Karlsfeld Germany in 1977.
Porr Bau’s system is also known as Slab Track Austria, as it was jointly developed with Austrian Railways. Its oldest section has been in use since 1989.
The original trial tracks laid by both companies are still in use and have been maintenance-free since their installation. Superficially, both systems look quite similar. The Porr slab is 160 mm thick and 5.2 metres long and has eight pairs of rail fastenings. The longer 6.45 metre FFB Bögl slab is 200mm thick has ten pairs of fastenings. Both systems are laid on a concrete base that is, typically, 300mm thick.
The visual differences between the two systems are that the Porr slab has two rectangular grout holes while the FFB Bögl slab has breaking points between each pair of rail fastenings, to prevent uncontrolled crack development.
The Porr slab has two 920mm x 640mm tapered grout holes through which the self-compacting concrete is poured to fill the 40mm gap between the elastomeric layer on the bottom of the slab and the concrete base. Before the pour, the slab is accurately positioned using five jacking screws (one at each corner and one in the centre) and reinforcement is placed in the tapered grout hole. When hardened, this tapered joint helps anchor the slab vertically and horizontally.
The FFB Bögl slab also incorporate spindles for the final adjustment of the slab, which is first positioned by Bögl’s slab positioning system. The 50mm gap between the slab and base layer is filled with a specially developed cement-bound non-shrinking grout that has good flowing and compaction qualities. The slabs are joined by turnbuckles, whereas there is no connection between the Porr slabs, which have the tapered grout holes for anchoring.
Over the past 30 years, much track has been laid used using both the FFB Bögl and Porr systems. Of the two, the FFB Bögl system has had more worldwide use due to a technology transfer agreement with China, which resulted in its use for high-speeds lines such as Beijing to Tianjin (116 km) and Beijing to Shanghai (1,318 km). However, whilst there are thousands of kilometres of FFB Bögl track in China, in Europe there are only around a couple of hundred kilometres, mainly parts of German high-speed lines such as a 35-kilometre section of the Nuremburg to Ingolstad line.
Although there are no Bögl slabs installed on the UK network, the Tarmac/Bögl JV set up a 52-metre-long section of its FFB track at Tarmac’s Alrewas Quarry in 2018, for students from the National College for High-Speed Rail.
As of 2018, Porr Bau’s slab track system has been used to lay 782 kilometres of track worldwide. Apart from 165 kilometres in Doha, this has all been in Europe, with Porr slabs used for 281 kilometres of track in Austria and 320 kilometres of track in Germany. In the UK, the company’s pre-cast slabs have been used to achieve electrification clearance in Winchburgh tunnel (issue 130, August 2015) and on two track sections and a tunnel for the Gospel Oak to Barking project (issue 143, September 2016). The Porr system was also used in Glasgow Queen Street tunnel to replace a deteriorating slab track that was almost 50 years old (issue 142, August 2016).
Both pre-cast slab track systems have a good track record. Yet, when assessing the experience of the prospective suppliers, HS2 will also have to consider the capabilities of the UK collaborators in these partnerships. These will have to supply huge quantities of construction materials, using around 700,000 tonnes of concrete for the manufacture of the pre-cast slabs, which will consume about a tenth of the UK’s total annual cement production.
In evaluating these bids, HS2 has much to consider in what could be a close contest. Whatever the result, it is clear that HS2’s trackform decision will be thoroughly evaluated and informed by the worldwide experience of installing and maintaining thousands of kilometres of high-speed track over the past decades.
At least, Britain’s late membership of the high-speed rail club has had some advantages!
A partnership which includes PORR UK Ltd and Aggregate Industries UK has won a major contract to design and manufacture the modular track system for HS2.
The deal will see the slab track segments manufactured at a new factory near Shepton Mallet in Somerset, helping to create up to 500 jobs over the life of the contract. Worth £260 million, the contract will see the PORR consortium manufacture all of the track (excluding tunnels and some specialist structures) between London and Crewe, where HS2 joins the existing west coast mainline.
Była opcja węzła ale wypadła ze względu na koszty. Była też opcja Crossraila 2 ale też wypadła jako część 1.5 mld deficytu w TFL. Sadiq Khan nie miał wyboru i wziął super deala, inaczej transport w Londynie by popłynął całkowicie.Chyba nawet w oficjalnych dokumentach jak dobrze pamiętam pisali o wieeelkim węźle przesiadkowym Euston–St.Pancras/King's Cross, a i Crossrail 2 ma przewidzianą wspólną stację dla tych trzech dworców
Na razie tak, ale to nie jest AFAIK chyba tak, że całkowicie zarzucono budowę, tylko ewentualnie wybuduje się kiedyś, a to, że kiedyś może być tak jak stacje metra Plac Konstytucji i Muranów w Warszawie to inna sprawa.Więc będzie Tylko Old Oak Common Crossrail1/HS2 i Circle lub faktycznie spacer.
Deficyt jest teraz, a Crossrail 2… cóż, w planach pozostaje, tylko, że na dalszą przyszłość raczejByła opcja węzła ale wypadła ze względu na koszty. Była też opcja Crossraila 2 ale też wypadła jako część 1.5 mld deficytu w TFL. Sadiq Khan nie miał wyboru i wziął super deala, inaczej transport w Londynie by popłynął całkowicie.